Casuarina equisetifolia, or Australian pine tree or Whistling Pine Tree, is a she-oak species of the genus Casuarina. The native range extends throughout Northern Australia and the Pacific Islands. Populations are found in Madagascar, but it is doubtful if this is within the native range of the species; the species has been introduced to the Southern United States and West Africa. It is an invasive species in Florida, South Africa and Brazil Casuarina equisetifolia was described by Linnaeus in 1759 as Casuarina equisefolia. A type was designated by New South Wales botanist Lawrie Johnson in 1989; the specific name equisetifolia is derived from the Latin equisetum, meaning "horse hair". Common names include coast sheoak, beach casuarina, beach oak, beach sheoak, beach pine, whistling tree, horsetail she oak, horsetail beefwood, horsetail tree, Australian pine, whistling pine, Filao tree, agoho. There are two subspecies: Casuarina equisetifolia subsp. Equisetifolia. Large tree to 35 m tall. Southeast Asia, northern Australia.
Casuarina equisetifolia subsp. Incana L. A. S. Johnson. Small tree to 12 m tall. Eastern Australia, New Caledonia, southern Vanuatu. Casuarina is an evergreen tree growing to 6–35 m tall; the foliage consists of slender, much-branched green to grey-green twigs 0.5–1 mm diameter, bearing minute scale-leaves in whorls of 6–8. The flowers are produced in small catkin-like inflorescences. Unlike most other species of Casuarina it is monoecious, with male and female flowers produced on the same tree; the fruit is an oval woody structure 10–24 mm long and 9–13 mm in diameter, superficially resembling a conifer cone made up of numerous carpels each containing a single seed with a small wing 6–8 mm long. Like some other species of the genus Casuarina, C. equisetifolia is an actinorhizal plant able to fix atmospheric nitrogen. In contrast to species of the plant family Fabaceae, Casuarina harbours a symbiosis with a Frankia actinomycete. Casuarina is found from Burma and Vietnam throughout Malesia east to French Polynesia, New Caledonia, Vanuatu, south into Australia (the northern parts of Northern Territory and east Queensland, northeastern New South Wales, where it extends as far south as Laurieton.
Casuarina is used as a bonsai subject in South-east Asia and parts of the Caribbean. Indonesian specimens and those cultivated in Taiwan are regarded among the best in the bonsai world; the wood of this tree is used for shingles, is said to make excellent hot-burning firewood. Among the islands of Hawaii, Casuarina are grown for erosion prevention, in general as wind breaking elements; the legendary miraculous spear Kaumaile came with the hero Tefolaha on the South Pacific island Nanumea. He fought with it on the islands of Tonga; as Tefolaha died, "Kaumaile" went to his heirs to their heirs, on and on - 23 generations. It is about 1.80 meters long and about 880 years old and the tree was cut on Samoa. The Casuarina leaves are used for ornamental purposes in the urban region. Other than ornamental purposes, the Casuarina was explored in for its potential in remediation of textile dye wastewater. Casuarina leaves were found to be useful as adsorbent material for the removal of textile dyes such as reactive orange,16 Rhodamine B, methylene blue, malachite green and methyl violet 2b.
The Casuarina dried cone was reported to be able to remove Rhodamine B, methyl violet 2b. The Casuarina bark was reported to able to remove methylene blue; the Casuarina seed was found to be useful in dye removal of neutral red and malachite green. The carbon derived from the cones of Casuarina was found to be good adsorbent for the landfill leachate, while another laboratory reported good adsorbent for copper ions from aqueous solution. Pinus kesiya, the Khasi or Benguet pine NT Flora: Casuarina equisetifolia. Northern Territory Government
Onawa Lynn Lacy is a beauty queen from Gamerco, New Mexico who has competed in the Miss USA pageant. Lacy won the Miss New Mexico USA 2006 title in a state pageant held in Las Cruces, New Mexico in October 2005, it was Lacy's first attempt at the title. She became the first titleholder to hail from Gallup, New Mexico and the first of Native American origin. Lacy is Navajo. Lacy competed for the title of Miss USA in Baltimore, MD on April 21, 2006. Onawa appeared on NBC's hit game show Deal or No Deal as briefcase model #15. Onawa has appeared in an issue of Trump Magazine. Onawa is no stranger to pageantry, having held the titles of Miss Indian New Mexico 2001-2002 and Miss Indian World 2003-2004. Lacy grew up in Gallup with her parents Rodney and Rena Lacy and has one older brother and one younger sister. Onawa wed Zachary Haynes, on March 7, 2015 in Hau'ula, Hawai'i on O'ahu's North Shore; the couple share one son. Lacy graduated from Gallup High School in 2000 and has since received her Bachelor of Arts degrees in English and Native American Studies from the University of New Mexico in 2006.
Onawa worked in Washington, D. C. as a Legislative Associate for Johnston & Associates, LLC lobbying for American Indian issues. She lobbied on Capitol Hill alongside Navajo Code Talkers on behalf of the Esther Martinez Save Native Languages Act, signed into law by President George W. Bush on December 12, 2006, she studied Liberal Studies with an emphasis in International Government at Georgetown University in Washington, DC. She is the first college graduate from her family. Onawa received her Juris Doctorate from the University of New Mexico School of Law in May 2012 and practices as a criminal defense attorney. Lacy is a member of the Order of Omega Honor Society and has received a number of academic awards, including placement on the National Dean's List, Clauve Outstanding Senior Award and American Indian Student Services Outstanding Senior Award, she is a founding member of the Delta chapter of Alpha Pi Omega sorority at the University of New Mexico. In February 2007, Onawa was recognized by the New Mexico State legislators for her outstanding academic and community service work
Diotima's Ladder of Love known as Plato’s ladder of love or Plato’s ladder of Eros is a philosophy of different types of love that originated in Plato's Symposium. Socrates had a speech contest of praising the goddess of love. In the end, they summarized the ideas based on the teachings of Diotima. There are six types of love, each kind is put on a rung of a ladder; the ladder represents the ascent of love from pure physical attraction to more psychological one. The ladder of love was mentioned only in the Symposium, a philosophical text by Plato that depicts a series of speech contests from notable men in Ancient Greece. There are on-going debates on. Furthermore, Diotima's ladder of love has a religious connection, is taken up in the Christian mystical tradition, most notably in Dante's Commedia; this was interpreted by hidden messages used in the writing by Plato. Based on the Symposium, in Ancient Greece around 416 BC, Agathon hosted an all-male dinner party. During the event, the guests decided to hold a speech contest, in which each of them delivered a lecture in praise of Eros, the god of Love.
Phaedrus compared love to a deity. Love discourages them through shame from the disgraceful deed and inspires them through the pride of honorable success. Pausanias hypothesized. 1) Pandemian or Common Love god who presides the normal relationship, including temporary physical attraction, connection or interest to both living and non-living things. 2) Uranian or Heavenly Love god who concerned with the higher level of love, the love, beyond just physical features and the love of senes. Eryximachus made a speech upon the love for various topics: medicine, gymnastics and religion. According to the Greek ideal, “moderation in everything”, he suggested that it is all right to have only the lower or Pandemian love as long as an individual is satisfied with it. Aristophanes told a tale of how human were double of what we are now, 2 heads, 2 arms, 2 legs and so on, but when our ancestors tried to overpower the gods, they split them in two as a punishment. Since all of us have been yearning with a desire for wholeness.
He believed that men and women who are lovers marry and have children — not because they want to, but from the duty to complete themselves as they lost the other half. Therefore, Aristophanes believes the focused on the concept of “sexual orientation” Agathon stated “Love divests us of all alienation from each other” and “gathers us together in social meetings, dances and feasts.” “Love is the spirit of this church.” Socrates summarized all the speeches and recalled Diotima's teaching, “the science of things relating to Love”. Diotima began with saying that if a man is normal, he will fall in love with one particular beautiful body, he must consider the similarities of the beauty in different bodies. If he understands that all bodies are beautiful he will become a lover of all bodies, not just one. Next, he must realize that the physical beauty is impermanent, unlike souls. Whenever he encounters with other individuals that have beauty within their spirits and if the bodies aren't attractive, he will fall in love to the immaterial part.
From this, he will learn to contemplate and appreciate what those people with beautiful souls create, institutions. His attention should ascend from institutions to science, so now he will accept the beauty of every aspect of knowledge, and lastly, once he sees the beauty in a wide horizon, his vision of the beauty will not be anything, of the flesh. It will be neither words, nor knowledge, nor a something that exists in something else, it will be the beauty of beauty itself that he loves. Plato mentioned the steps of love by putting it under the teaching of Diotima to Socrates; the higher the steps, the more intellectual it is. To be able to climb the ladder, one must understand the prior ladder thoroughly. First: Love for a particular body Love is a desire for physical features. An individual tends to get attracted to. Different particular bodies trigger different individual. Second: Love for all bodies When an individual recognizes the physical features that he is attracted to and understand that many bodies can have the beauty.
Love is express towards all beautiful bodies in the lover's view, not just a particular body. He sees beauty in all body and learns to love the differences. Third: Love for souls The stage in which physical features are put aside and spiritual and moral beauty trigger love. One will fall in love with beautiful minds in this step. Fourth: Love for laws and institutions Love for the practice, custom or foundation that derived from people with beautiful souls. Fifth: Love for knowledge When an individual turns his attention to all kinds of knowledge and love that there is knowledge to acquire everywhere. Sixth: Love for love itself An individual sees the beauty in its form and loves the beauty of love as it is; every particular beautiful thing is beautiful because of its connection to this Form. The lover who has ascended the ladder apprehends the Form of Beauty in a kind of vision not through words or in the way that other sorts of more ordinary knowledge are known. One of the common debates is on what happens to the lower rungs of the ladder when one climbs to the higher steps.
Some scholars view higher steps of the ladder of love as more important than the lower ones. As someone ascent the ladder, he abandons the love for lower subjects. For instance, if one learns to love the body of soul, he will no longer enjoy sensual pleasure of the body and might loathe it as temptation. If on
Costache or Kostake Aristia was a Wallachian-born poet and translator noted for his activities as a soldier and philanthropist. A member of the Greek colony, his adolescence and early youth coincided with the peak of Hellenization in both Danubian Principalities, he first appeared on stage at Cișmeaua Roșie in Bucharest, became a protege of Lady Rallou. She sponsored his voyage to France. Upon his return, Aristia took up the cause of Greek nationalism, joining the Filiki Eteria and flying the "flag of liberty" for the Sacred Band, he fought on the Wallachian front during the Greek War of Independence, was present for the defeat at Drăgășani. He escaped the country and moved between various European countries, earning protection from the Earl of Guilford, before returning to Bucharest as a private tutor for the Ghica family. Aristia used this opportunity to teach drama and direct plays, thus became one of the earliest contributors to Romanian theater. A trendsetter in art and fashion, he preserved his reputation as Wallachians came to reject Greek domination.
He adapted himself to their cultural Francization, publishing textbooks for learning French, teaching both French and Demotic Greek at Saint Sava College. Under the Regulamentul Organic regime, Aristia blended Romanian nationalism, he became a follower of Ion Heliade Rădulescu, helped set up the Philharmonic Society, which produced a new generation of Wallachian actors—including Costache Caragiale and Ioan Curie. He contributed to the effort of modernizing the language, though his own proposals in this field were criticized and rejected. Aristia was made popular by his translation of Vittorio Alfieri's Saul, which doubled as a nationalist manifesto, earned accolades for his rendition of the Iliad, he contributed to cultural life in the Kingdom of Greece, where, in 1840, he published his only work of drama. Aristia participated in the Wallachian Revolution of 1848, when, as leader of the National Guard, he arrested rival conservatives. During the backlash, he was himself a prisoner of the Ottoman Empire, was expelled from Wallachia.
He returned in 1851, having reconciled with the conservative regime of Barbu Dimitrie Știrbei, remained a citizen of the United Principalities. He kept out of politics for the remainder of his life, concentrating on his work at Saint Sava, at the University of Bucharest, on producing another version of the Iliad. Among his last published works are Bible translations, published under contract with the British and Foreign Bible Society. Aristia was born in Bucharest, the Wallachian capital, in 1800; the date was pushed back to 1797 in some sources, but Aristia's relatives denied that this was accurate. At the time and Moldavia were autonomous entities of the Ottoman Empire. Aristia's own father was Greek, Costache himself entered Bucharest's Greek School during the reign of Prince John Caradja, a Phanariote, his teachers there included philologist Constantin Vardalah. Immersed in Greek culture, he had no understanding of written Romanian until 1828. Before graduating, Aristia debuted as an actor at Cișmeaua Roșie.
According to memoirist and researcher Dimitrie Papazoglu, this pioneering theater was managed by "director Aristias". At that stage, acting in Wallachia was an all-male enterprise, Aristia appeared as a female lead, in drag; the Cișmeaua troupe was sponsored by Lady Rallou. She was impressed by Aristia's talent, she sent him abroad, to the Kingdom of France, where Aristia studied under François-Joseph Talma. Researcher Ioan Massoff nonetheless notes that Aristia was never a member of Talma's acting class, but only a regular spectator to his shows, after that his imitator; the Aristias rallied to the cause of Greek nationalism shortly before the Greek uprising of 1821. Costache joined Alexander Ypsilantis's secret society, the Filiki Eteria, which engineered the nationalist expedition in Moldavia and Wallachia. Aristia awaited the Eterists in Bucharest, occupied by troops loyal to Tudor Vladimirescu, who led a parallel uprising of Romanians. In mid March, Greeks in Bucharest, led by Giorgakis Olympios, pledged to support Ypsilantis rather than Vladimirescu.
The event was marked by a large display of Greek nationalism in downtown Bucharest, the details of which were committed to writing by Constantin D. Aricescu from his interview with Aristia; the actor carried the "flag of liberty", an Eterist symbol showing Constantine the Great and Helena, alongside a cross and the slogan "In this, conquer". The ceremony ended with the banner being planted on the Bellu gate, announced to the crowds as prefiguring the future reconquest of Byzantium. "the flag, carried by Mr. Aristia" was also adopted by Sava Fochianos, who deserted to Ypsilantis' Sacred Band alongside the Bucharest garrison. In April -- August, Ypsilantis' forces were crushed by the Ottoman Army. According to one account, Aristia fought alongside the Sacred Band of Wallachia in their final stand at Drăgășani, before receiving sanctuary in the Austrian Empire, he settled in the Papal States, where he continued his education and
The Ocean Steam Navigation Company was a shipping company founded in 1847 in New York City by Edward Mills. It was the first company to be awarded a contract by the US government for the oceanic transportation of mail. In addition to the US contract, the company was subsidized by the Prussian government with the intention of increasing trade with the US out of the port of Bremen, hence the name Bremen Line; the line began operations in June 1847 with the steamship Washington, which completed her first eastbound voyage on June 15 and was joined by a sister ship, Hermann. Both vessels were slower than those operated by the Cunard Line, the government revoked its contract with Oceanic by the end of 1847. Washington and Hermann both suffered mechanical difficulties, Mills parted ways acrimoniously with the company—after giving control to investors but staying on as a manager, he tried to begin a competing line and was fired from Oceanic. Both the company's vessels rebuilt with improved propulsion systems in the early 1850s, but they remained slower than the competition.
After a brief upturn in business in 1855 when Cunard ships were chartered by the British government to serve in the Crimean War, competition returned to the North Atlantic the following year, as Cunard resumed service and German companies Hamburg America Line and Norddeutscher Lloyd began transatlantic crossings from German ports. In July 1857, after losing its remaining US mail contract for traffic to Germany, Oceanic ceased operations
Mont di is a collective term for Burmese cuisine dishes made with thin rice noodles. The vermicelli is used fresh, as it ferments in Myanmar's tropical climate. There are a number of mont di dishes, the Rakhine mont di of the Arakanese from western Myanmar is the most popular. Mandalay mont di is another well-known dish. All the variants of "mont di" are accompanied by Burmese fritters, of one's choice. Rakhine mont di is the most popular dish in association with the Rakhine people, it is a semi staple dish of the Rakhine State. It comes in two forms: soup; the soup is the more common version, in which rice vermicelli is mixed with a thin soup made of daggertooth pike conger,called thinbaw htoe in Arakanese, nga shwe in Burmese), Rakhine ngapi and lemongrass. Dry roasted pike conger eel flakes, fried onion and garlic, fresh coriander and green chili paste are added, it is called arpu sharpu which means'hot throat, hot tongue', due to the green chili paste. Some add pork rind. In the dry salad form, the same ingredients are mixed into a colourful combination.
The green chili paste gives the white rice vermicelli a slight greenish in colour. Mandalay mont di is quite different from Rakhine mont di, it uses meat instead of marine fish. The meat added to the noodles like a salad. Many authentic shops uses a variation of daal flour and its different flavoured oils to bring about its unique Mandalay flavours. Most mont di shops will prepare the dish based on the customers' preferences for specific tastes and offers the option of "mixing" it for the customer. Another difference is. During the 1700s, the influx of Ayutthayans following the Burmese–Siamese wars to Mandalay created an infusion Central Thai-inspired dishes, one of, known as Yodaya mont di; the rice noodle dish uses fish as the main protein instead of chicken, is prepared using slivers of curled rice vermicelli strands tossed in a turmeric-infused oil, served with fried onions and raw green beans. A unique rendition of Yodaya mont di, served with bean flour, dried shrimps, a thicker gravy, can be found in Mandalay's Minthazu ward.
Yangon mont di is similar to the Rakhine mont di. The only difference is that oil is added to the salad, reflecting the Burmese preference to oiliness. Rakhine-inspired Burmese dishes A thoke Ohn no khao swe Meeshay