Cat on a Hot Tin Roof is a three-act play written by Tennessee Williams. One of Williams's more famous works and his personal favorite, the play won the Pulitzer Prize for Drama in 1955. Set in the "plantation home in the Mississippi Delta" of Big Daddy Pollitt, a wealthy cotton tycoon, the play examines the relationships among members of Big Daddy's family between his son Brick and Maggie the "Cat", Brick's wife. Cat on a Hot Tin Roof features motifs such as social mores, superficiality, decay, sexual desire and death. Dialogue throughout is rendered phonetically to represent accents of the Southern United States; the original production starred Burl Ives and Ben Gazzara. The play was adapted as a motion picture of the same name in 1958, starring Elizabeth Taylor and Paul Newman as Maggie and Brick, with Burl Ives and Madeleine Sherwood recreating their stage roles. Williams made substantial excisions and alterations to the play for a revival in 1974; this has been the version used for most subsequent revivals.
Cat on a Hot Tin Roof is the story of a Southern family in crisis the husband Brick and wife Margaret, their interaction with Brick's family over the course of one evening's gathering at the family estate in Mississippi. The party is to celebrate the birthday of patriarch Big Daddy Pollitt, "the Delta's biggest cotton-planter", his return from the Ochsner Clinic with what he has been told is a clean bill of health. All family members are aware of Big Daddy's true diagnosis: He is dying of cancer, his family has lied to Big Daddy and Big Mama to spare the aging couple from pain on the patriarch's birthday, but throughout the course of the play, it becomes clear that the Pollitt family has long constructed a web of deceit for itself. Maggie and beautiful, has escaped a childhood of poverty to marry into the wealthy Pollitts, but finds herself unfulfilled; the family is aware that Brick has not slept with Maggie for a long time, which has strained their marriage. Brick, an aging football hero, infuriates her by ignoring his brother Gooper's attempts to gain control of the family fortune.
Brick's indifference and his drinking have escalated with the suicide of his friend Skipper. Maggie fears that Brick's malaise will ensure that Gooper and his wife Mae inherit Big Daddy's estate. Through the evening, Big Daddy and Maggie—and the entire family—separately must face the issues which they have bottled up inside. Big Daddy attempts a reconciliation with the alcoholic Brick. Both Big Daddy and Maggie separately confront Brick about the true nature of his relationship with his pro football buddy Skipper, which appears to be the source of Brick's sorrow and the cause of his alcoholism. Brick explains to Big Daddy that Maggie was jealous of the close friendship between Brick and Skipper because she believed it had a romantic undercurrent, he states. Brick believes that when Skipper couldn't complete the act, his self-questioning about his sexuality and his friendship with Brick made him "snap". Brick reveals that, shortly before he committed suicide, Skipper confessed his feelings to Brick, but Brick rejected him.
Disgusted with the family's "mendacity", Brick tells Big Daddy that the report from the clinic about his condition was falsified for his sake. Big Daddy storms out of the room. Maggie, Mae and Doc Baugh decide to tell Big Mama the truth about his illness, she is devastated by the news. Gooper and Mae start to discuss the division of the Pollitt estate. Big Mama defends her husband from Mae's proposals. Big Daddy makes known his plans to die peacefully. Attempting to secure Brick's inheritance, Maggie tells him. Gooper and Mae know this is a lie, but Big Mama and Big Daddy believe that Maggie "has life." When they are alone again, Maggie locks away the liquor and promises Brick that she will "make the lie true." Mendacity is a recurring theme throughout the play. Brick uses the word to express his disgust with the "lies and liars" he sees around him, with complicated rules of social conduct in Southern society and culture. Big Daddy states that Brick's disgust with mendacity is disgust with himself for rejecting Skipper before his suicide.
With the exception of Brick, the entire family lies to Big Daddy and Big Mama about his terminal cancer. Furthermore, Big Daddy lies to his wife, Gooper and Mae exhibit avaricious motives in their attempt to secure Big Daddy's estate. In some cases, characters refuse to believe certain statements, leading them to believe they are lies. A recurring phrase is the line, "Wouldn't it be funny if, true?", said by both Big Daddy and Brick after Big Mama and Maggie claim their love. The characters' statements of feeling lies; this phrase is the last line of the play as written by Williams and again in the 1974 version. The ways in which humans deal with death are at the focus of this play, as are the futility and nihilism some encounter when confronted with imminent mortality. Similar ideas are found in Dylan Thomas's "Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night", which Williams excerpted and added as an epigraph to his 1974 version; these lines are appropriate. Additionally, in one of his many drafts, in a footnote on Big Daddy's action in
Stuart Town Gaol in Alice Springs, Northern Territory, was constructed in 1907 and held its first prisoner in 1909. It is one of the earliest permanent buildings constructed in the town and the first government building; the gaol was built, using local materials, by stonemason Jack Williams. Before the construction of this gaol, from 1863 to 1910, when the Northern Territory was under South Australian administration, prisoners were taken to Port Augusta, where they were tried and gaoled; the prisoners, the majority of whom were Aboriginal, were forced to walk in chains, the 1,200 kilometres distance. The harshness of this treatment of the prisoners seems to have been of little or no concern to the authorities; the new gaol consisted of a small prison cell and a large cell, with an uncovered exercise yard at the rear. In the larger cell there are iron rings; the first Keeper of the Gaol, John Dow, recalled in 1929: The jail filled all requirements at that time, was a credit to the Government. It was intended for a police lock-up, persons not summarily dealt with were sent either to Darwin or Port Augusta.
But the Commonwealth authorities evidently turned it into a jail for prisoners with sentences up to five years. It was not intended for this purpose by South Australia.... There was an exercise yard at the southern end of the jail, not covered, a dividing wall between the white and the black quarters. For many of the Aboriginal prisoners, their time in the gaol was their first contact with Europeans. Most were arrested for stealing cattle and other goods, gaol records show a direct correlation between periods of drought and spikes in these supposed crimes; the Stuart Town Gaol was used until 1938, by which time it was overcrowded, and, a more important consideration at the time, its position now in the centre of the town was no longer thought appropriate. In the 1970s the building was threatened with demolition but was saved by the National Trust of Australia, with a campaign led by Doreen Braitling
Prof. Dr. Kayhan Erciyeş is a Turkish computer engineer and author. Between 2009 and 2016, he was the rector of İzmir University. After receiving the Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Manchester, Kayhan Erciyeş completed the Master of Science degree in Electronic Engineering at the University of Salford and the Doctor of Philosophy degree in Computer Engineering at Ege University and at the University of Edinburgh, he was research assistant, assistant professor, associate professor and since 1999 professor at Ege University. He was visiting lecturer at Oregon State University, visiting professor at the University of California, Davis and at California State University San Marcos, he was the rector of İzmir University from 2009 until 2016, when the university was closed during the 2016–17 purges in Turkey. In 2016, he supported and helped to organise the distribution of basic survival provisions to some of the worst-off refugees in the area of İzmir. Kayhan Erciyeş is best known for his research in distributed systems and algorithms, computer networks, with application areas such as mobile networks, wireless sensor networks, grid computing, parallel computing, real-time and embedded systems, bioinformatics.
In 1983–1984, he was research & development engineer at Alcatel Turkey and in 1990–1991 at Alcatel Portugal. In 1999, he received the Great Technical Award from the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey for his work as consultant and head of the design team in Alcatel Turkey at the project'New Generation Card Phones and Their Network Management Systems'. In 1996–1999, he was consultant at Izmir Municipality Transportation System at the development of its Smart Card Application. In 2000, he received for the results of his work on this project the Best Smart Card application in the World 2000 Award by SESAME, Paris and the Karsiyaka Rotary Club Best Professional of the Year 2000 Award. In 2015, he published the book Distributed and Sequential Algorithms for Bioinformatics, where he presents a unified coverage of bioinformatics topics relating to both biological sequences and biological networks, combining DNA and protein sequence analysis and protein network analysis and offering about 15 new parallel algorithms.
A Communication Architecture for Mobile Ad hoc Networks: Cluster Based Protocols for Distributed Applications Topology Control for Mobile Ad hoc Networks: A Dominating Set Based Approach Distributed Graph Algorithms for Computer Networks Complex Networks: An Algorithmic Perspective Distributed and Sequential Algorithms for Bioinformatics