Saint-Estève XIII Mavericks
Saint-Estève XIII Mavericks are a French Rugby league side based in Saint-Estève near Perpignan in the département of Pyrénées-Orientales. Known as AS Saint-Estève, they was founded in 1965. The club compete in the National Division 2 Languedoc-Rousillon league. Home games are played at the Stade Municipal; the club was founded in 1965 as Association Sportive Saint-Estève XIII better known as AS Saint-Estève. For a club of its size the success they had was remarkable their best spell was between 1986 and 2000 when they contested 17 finals winning 8 of them, their best season was 1992-93 when they completed only league and cup double. In 2000 Bernard Guasch brought Saint Esteve and XIII Catalan together to form Union Treiziste Catalane, better known in the English speaking world by their Super League identity of Catalans Dragons; the aim was to get the new club into the Super League which they did in 2006. A presence in the French Elite One Championship was maintained by firstly the retaining of the name Union Treiziste Catalane and after a rebranding Saint-Esteve XIII Catalan.
Meanwhile, the youth teams, set up in 1968 were maintained under a new name Saint-Estève XIII nicknamed the Mavericks. It was decided that the Elite One club needed a feeder team so the Mavericks introduced a senior side to go along with their junior sides, thus a new club was born out of an old club while retaining its own identity Saint-Estève play at the Stade Municipal, a stadium used for rugby. It has a main stand with 2,000 seats. In 2015 it hosted; the stadium is used by Saint-Estève XIII Catalan in the French Elite One Championship. Jean-Marc Garcia Jerome Guisset As AS Saint-Estève French Championship: 1970-71, 1988–89, 1989–90, 1992–93, 1996–97, 1997–98 Lord Derby Cup: 1972, 1993, 1994, 1995 French Championship Lord Derby Cup France National Rugby League Team
Super League is the top-level professional rugby league club competition in the Northern Hemisphere. The league has one from France. Super League began in 1996, replacing the Rugby Football League Championship and switching from a winter to a summer season; each team plays 29 games between February and September: 11 home games, 11 away games, Magic Weekend and an additional 6'loop fixtures' decided by league positions. The top five enter the play-off series leading to the Grand Final which determines the champions; the bottom team is relegated to the Championship. The Super League champions play the National Rugby League champions from Australasia in the World Club Challenge at the start of the season. A "super league" competition was first mooted during the Australian Super League war as a way for Rupert Murdoch to gain the upper hand during the battle for broadcasting supremacy with the Australian Rugby League. Murdoch approached the British clubs to form Super League. A large sum of money aided the decision, the competition got under way in 1996.
Part of the deal saw rugby league switch from a winter to a summer season. The 12 founding teams of Super League were: Bradford Bulls Castleford Tigers Halifax Leeds Rhinos London Broncos Oldham Bears Paris Saint-Germain Sheffield Eagles St. Helens Warrington Wolves Wigan Warriors Workington TownInitially, several mergers between existing clubs were proposed: Castleford, Wakefield Trinity and Featherstone Rovers would form Calder Hull F. C. and Hull Kingston Rovers would form Hull Salford and Oldham were to form Manchester Sheffield Eagles and Doncaster were to form South Yorkshire Warrington and Widnes were to form Cheshire Whitehaven, Workington Town and Carlisle would form CumbriaThey were to be included with the following stand-alone clubs: Bradford Northern, Leeds, London Broncos, Paris Saint-Germain, St. Helens and Wigan; however this proved so unpopular. The clubs finishing below 10th in the existing top flight were excluded, which meant Featherstone Rovers, Wakefield Trinity and Widnes were left out, as were pioneering club Keighley who had just won the Second Division Championship.
London Broncos, who had come fourth in the Second Division, were "fast-tracked" in on commercial grounds. A new team, Paris Saint-Germain, was created to give a French dimension. Between 1998 and 2000 there was no relegation from Super League. After two years Paris were dropped from the competition. Promotion and relegation between Super League and the Rugby League National Leagues was re-introduced, in 2002 the Super League Europe governing body re-integrated into the Rugby Football League. In 2006, French side Catalans Dragons from Perpignan joined the league, becoming the second non-English team to compete. To facilitate this move, two clubs were relegated from Super League at the end of the 2005 season: Leigh who finished bottom of the league were replaced by the one club coming up from the National Leagues and Widnes who finished 11th were dropped for Les Catalans, thus the number of clubs in Super League remained at 12. Super League licences were announced in May 2005 by the RFL as the new determinant of the Super League competition's participants from 2009 in place of promotion and relegation.
The licences were awarded after consideration of more factors than just the on-the-field performance of a club. After 2007 automatic promotion and relegation was suspended for Super League with new teams to be admitted on a licence basis with the term of the licence to start in 2009; the RFL stated that clubs applying to compete in Super League would be assessed by criteria in four areas with the final evaluations and decisions being taken by the RFL board of directors. Successful applicants were licensed for three years of Super League competition and three-yearly reviews of Super League membership took place to ensure ambitious clubs lower down the leagues can still be successful. Points attained by each club's application are translated into licence grades A, B or C. Clubs who achieved an A or B Licence would be automatically awarded a place in Super League, while those who achieved a C Licence underwent further scrutiny before the RFL decided who made the final cut. First licensing period In June 2008, the RFL confirmed that Super League would be expanded from 12 teams to 14 in 2009, on 22 July 2008 the RFL confirmed the teams awarded licences.
The teams announced were the 12 existing Super League teams along with National League 1 teams, Celtic Crusaders and Salford. Celtic Crusaders becoming the first Welsh team to play in Super League and the only team to be awarded a licence who had never played in the Super League previously. Featherstone Rovers, Halifax and Widnes all failed to attain a licence. Leigh and Widnes were disappointed with their exclusions with Leigh's chairman being critical of the RFL. Second licensing period For the 2012–14 seasons Championship sides Batley, Featherstone Rovers and Widnes all met the on-field criteria needed to submit an application, but despite this only Barrow and Widnes decided to submit an application. On 31 March 2011 Widnes were awarded a Super League licence; the Rugby Football League's final decision was announced on 26 July 2011, Widnes would be joi
The Leeds Rhinos are a professional rugby league club in Leeds, West Yorkshire, England. Founded in 1870, they compete in the Super League, the top-level rugby league club competition for an English club, have won the competition a record eight times since its inception in 1996, they play their home matches at Headingley Rugby Stadium, are the 2017 Super League champions. The club was known as Leeds until the end of the 1996 season, they are historically known as the Loiners, referring to the demonym for a native of Leeds. In 1895, Leeds was one of twenty-two rugby clubs which broke away from the Rugby Football Union and formed what is now the Rugby Football League; the club is owned by the same company that owns Yorkshire Carnegie rugby union team, who play their home matches at Headingley. Leeds have won thirteen Challenge Cups, eleven League championships and three World Club Challenge titles. In 1864, H. I. Jenkinson placed an advert in the Leeds Mercury inviting players to meet up at Woodhouse Moor a few days a week from 7 a.m. to 8 a.m.
That advert attracted more than 500 members. From this interest several clubs were formed, including Leeds St John's. Leeds St John's was formed in 1870 and was known as the "Old Blue and Ambers"; the club played at the Militia Barracks from 1870 to 1888 before moving to Cardigan Fields, near Headingley, Leeds. Membership was confined to the church classes but was soon expanded. By 1887 St John's had reached the Yorkshire Cup losing to Wakefield Trinity; the city of Leeds had an abundance of rugby football clubs and although members of the Yorkshire RFU, it was decided to form a ‘more local’ association. It was for this reason that the Leeds & District organisation was formalised when a meeting took place at the Green Dragon Hotel, Leeds on 27 September 1888; the foundation clubs were Bramley, Hunslet, Leeds Parish Church, Leeds St John’s and Wortley. In 1888 the Cardigan Estate was sold at auction and Lot 17a was purchased by a group of Leeds citizens, who intended to form the city's leading sports club.
Lot 17a became. Leeds St John's played its final season under that name in 1889–90, before becoming the football section of Leeds Cricket and Athletic Co Ltd the following season. With Headingley still being completed, Leeds' first game was staged at Cardigan Fields, the home side defeating Otley; the first game at Headingley was played on 20 September 1890, when Manningham were beaten by one try and one dropped goal to nil. In 1892, 27,654 spectators, a record in British rugby, attended the third round showdown between Leeds and Halifax at Headingley. A special general meeting was held in 1895 which voted decisively to support the breakaway Northern Union as a founder member, resulting in two resignations from the club. Leeds' début in the Northern Union was a 6–3 success at Leigh on 7 September 1895, the inaugural day of the new competition. In 1901, the Leeds Parish Church team put all of its players at Leeds' disposal; that same year saw the formation of the Northern Rugby League, with a number of leading clubs leaving the Yorkshire League and the Lancashire League and joining the new competition.
Leeds was not admitted until the following year when it was placed in the newly formed second division and gained promotion as runners-up to Keighley. Leeds City FC joined soccer's Second Division in 1905–06, finished sixth out of 20 clubs in the club's first season. Rugby's monopoly with the locals seemed to have been broken, with Leeds Rugby League's average gate numbers falling by nearly 50% in that first league season. In 1910, Leeds came of age with the team finishing in sixth place in the league, but, just a warm-up for the Challenge Cup campaign. Leeds beat Hull Kingston Rovers, Rochdale Hornets and scraped through 11–10 against Warrington in the semi-final before meeting Hull F. C. in the final. Rain on the morning of the game meant; the scores were level at 7–7 with fifteen minutes left. However, neither team could break the deadlock, the final went to a replay two days again at Fartown, Huddersfield. Leeds made no mistake this time and ran out convincing 26–12 winners having led 16–0 at half-time.
The club lost many players to the First World War. The usual league programme was interrupted during 1914–18. During this period, Leeds played a number of "guest players" in the Emergency League competition; the Headingley club reached the Championship final for the first time in 1915, but lost 35–2 to Huddersfield a record score. The Emergency League was suspended. Leeds reverted to rugby union during the First World War to play a one-off challenge game against the Royal Navy Depot from Plymouth in 1917; this was a precursor to the following Christmas when two Challenge games were organised between the two sides but this time with one of each code. The Navy won the union game 9–3 on Christmas Eve but proved adept at league recording a 24–3 win on 28 December. In 1921, Harold Buck became the game's first £ 1,000 transfer. On Saturday 27 October 1934, Leeds and Wakefield Trinity met in the final of the Yorkshire Cup at Crown Flatt, Dewsbury; the match was played in front of a crowd of 22,598 and ended in a 5–5 draw.
Four days the two clubs drew again, with Leeds lifting the trophy after a second replay, the only occasion it took three attempts to settle a Yorkshire Cup Final. A total of 52,402 spectators watched the three games. Leeds forward Joe Thompson was the top point scorer for both 1927 -- 28 seasons. In 1937
Barcelona is a city in Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within city limits, its urban area extends to numerous neighbouring municipalities within the Province of Barcelona and is home to around 4.8 million people, making it the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union after Paris, Madrid, the Ruhr area and Milan. It is one of the largest metropolises on the Mediterranean Sea, located on the coast between the mouths of the rivers Llobregat and Besòs, bounded to the west by the Serra de Collserola mountain range, the tallest peak of, 512 metres high. Founded as a Roman city, in the Middle Ages Barcelona became the capital of the County of Barcelona. After merging with the Kingdom of Aragon, Barcelona continued to be an important city in the Crown of Aragon as an economic and administrative centre of this Crown and the capital of the Principality of Catalonia.
Barcelona has a rich cultural heritage and is today an important cultural centre and a major tourist destination. Renowned are the architectural works of Antoni Gaudí and Lluís Domènech i Montaner, which have been designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites; the headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean are located in Barcelona. The city is known for hosting the 1992 Summer Olympics as well as world-class conferences and expositions and many international sport tournaments. Barcelona is one of the world's leading tourist, trade fair and cultural centres, its influence in commerce, entertainment, fashion and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities, it is a major cultural and economic centre in southwestern Europe, 24th in the world and a financial centre. In 2008 it was the fourth most economically powerful city by GDP in the European Union and 35th in the world with GDP amounting to €177 billion. In 2012 Barcelona had a GDP of $170 billion. In 2009 the city was ranked one of the world's most successful as a city brand.
In the same year the city was ranked Europe's fourth best city for business and fastest improving European city, with growth improved by 17% per year, the city has been experiencing strong and renewed growth for the past three years. Since 2011 Barcelona has been a leading smart city in Europe. Barcelona is a transport hub, with the Port of Barcelona being one of Europe's principal seaports and busiest European passenger port, an international airport, Barcelona–El Prat Airport, which handles over 50 million passengers per year, an extensive motorway network, a high-speed rail line with a link to France and the rest of Europe; the name Barcelona comes from the ancient Iberian Barkeno, attested in an ancient coin inscription found on the right side of the coin in Iberian script as, in ancient Greek sources as Βαρκινών, Barkinṓn. Some older sources suggest that the city may have been named after the Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca, supposed to have founded the city in the 3rd century BC, but there is no evidence that Barcelona was a Carthaginian settlement, or that its name in antiquity, had any connection with the Barcid family of Hamilcar.
During the Middle Ages, the city was variously known as Barchinona, Barçalona and Barchenona. Internationally, Barcelona's name is wrongly abbreviated to'Barça'. However, this name refers only to the football club; the common abbreviated form used by locals is Barna. Another common abbreviation is'BCN', the IATA airport code of the Barcelona-El Prat Airport; the city is referred to as the Ciutat Comtal in Catalan, Ciudad Condal in Spanish, owing to its past as the seat of the Count of Barcelona. The origin of the earliest settlement at the site of present-day Barcelona is unclear; the ruins of an early settlement have been found, including different tombs and dwellings dating to earlier than 5000 BC. The founding of Barcelona is the subject of two different legends; the first attributes the founding of the city to the mythological Hercules. The second legend attributes the foundation of the city directly to the historical Carthaginian general, Hamilcar Barca, father of Hannibal, who named the city Barcino after his family in the 3rd century BC, but there is no historical or linguistic evidence that this is true.
In about 15 BC, the Romans redrew the town as a castrum centred on the "Mons Taber", a little hill near the contemporary city hall. Under the Romans, it was a colony with the surname of Faventia, or, in full, Colonia Faventia Julia Augusta Pia Barcino or Colonia Julia Augusta Faventia Paterna Barcino. Pomponius Mela mentions it among the small towns of the district as it was eclipsed by its neighbour Tarraco, but it may be gathered from writers that it grew in wealth and consequence, favoured as it was with a beautiful situation and an excellent harbour, it enjoyed immunity from imperial burdens. The city minted its own coins. Important Roman vestiges are displayed in Plaça del Rei underground, as a part of the Barcelona City History Museum; some remaining fragments of the Roman walls have been incorporated into the cathedral. The cathedral known as the Basilica La Seu, is said to have been founded in 343; the city
Headingley Stadium in Headingley, West Yorkshire, England, is the home of Yorkshire County Cricket Club and Leeds Rhinos rugby league and Yorkshire Carnegie rugby union clubs. There are two separate grounds, Headingley Cricket Ground and Headingley Rugby Stadium, with a two-sided stand housing common facilities. Owned by the Leeds Cricket and Athletic Company, the ground is now managed jointly by Yorkshire C. C. C. and Leeds Rugby. From 2006 until 2017, the stadium was known as the Headingley Carnegie Stadium as a result of sponsorship from Leeds Metropolitan University, whose sports faculty is known as the Carnegie School of Sport Exercise and Physical Education. Since 1 November 2017, the stadium is known as the Emerald Headingley Stadium due to the purchase of the naming rights by Emerald Group Publishing. In December 2005, Yorkshire County Cricket Club obtained a loan of £9 million from Leeds City Council towards the cost of purchasing the cricket ground for £12 million. Shortly afterwards, 98.37% of members who participated in a vote backed the deal.
On 11 January 2006, the club announced plans to rebuild the stand next to the rugby ground with 3,000 extra seats, taking capacity to 20,000. The club announced plans to redevelop the Winter Shed stand on 25 August 2006 providing a £12.5 million pavilion complex. The cricket ground sits to the Northern side of the complex, it opened in 1891 and has been used for Test matches since 1899. It is the main home ground of Yorkshire County Cricket Club and Yorkshire Vikings Twenty20 cricket team; the ground last held The Ashes in 2009. Since 2015 the cricket ground has been floodlit; the ground has a seated capacity of 17,500, executive facilities and a new media centre opened in 2010. All but the stand at the football ground end have been rebuilt since 2000, it is proposed to replace this stand in conjunction with redeveloping its other side facing the rugby ground; the rugby ground sits to the Southern side of the complex. A rugby league ground it now hosts both codes, it is home to Yorkshire Carnegie rugby union club.
The ground consists of three stands and an open terrace at one end, one stand is seated, two mixed. It has a capacity of 21,000. Yorkshire County Cricket Club have shown keen interest in redeveloping the northern side of the ground; this is a major inconvenience to Leeds Rugby Limited as they wish to redevelop their North Stand, which backs onto the Cricket Ground, any redevelopment of this stand cannot go ahead until Yorkshire Cricket are willing to redevelop their side of the cricket pitch. If Headingley is to retain Test Ground Status it is that further improvements will need to be made to the ground. On 5 June 2014 Yorkshire CCC announced the "Headingley Masterplan"; the phased redevelopment costing around £50 million will take place over the next 20 years. Phase One Erection of four permanent floodlight pylons; the floodlights, which have light arrays in the shape of the Yorkshire Rose, were installed in 2015. The first full game to be played under them was the T20 match against Derbyshire Falcons on Friday 15 May 2015, but they were called upon for the County Championship game against Warwickshire a few weeks earlier.
Phase Two The rebuild of the Football Ground End, in conjunction with Leeds Rugby, to incorporate a three-tiered seating area, which will accommodate 5,060 seats, enhanced corporate facilities and new permanent concession units. Phase Three To incorporate an additional 915 seats to the upper tier of the North East Stand with the possibility of a cantilever roof from the side of the Carnegie Pavilion to the existing scoreboard. Phase Four The development of a new Pavilion located in the North West area of the stadium complex. Built on five levels, the Pavilion will be adjacent to the existing Carnegie Pavilion. To include state-of-the-art corporate facilities, new dressing rooms for the players and coaching staff, Members’ Long Room and seating and the creation of a main entrance to the stadium on Kirkstall Lane. Phase Five The erection of a translucent cantilever roof to cover the White Rose Stand on the western side of the ground. Phase Six Landscaping on the White Rose Stand and North East stand concourses.
Yorkshire County Cricket Club and Leeds Metropolitan University have collaborated in building the Headingley Carnegie Pavilion, which replaced'The Shed' to the northern side of the Cricket Ground. The new pavilion replaces'The Winter Shed' and'The Media Centre' at the Kirkstall Lane end of the ground, which had become obsolete, according to Yorkshire County Cricket Club, no longer meeting the requirements of modern broadcasting; the changing facilities are replaced by'state of the art' changing facilities, designed for cricket, while the new executive boxes will provide the expected level of service. Yorkshire County Cricket Clubs offices will be relocated into the pavilion, which boasts environmentally friendly features such as a ground source heat pump and solar hot water heating; the rugby ground has been rebuilt since 2006, when the Carnegie Stand at the east end was opened containing both standing and seated areas, private boxes and catering. In 2017 both the North and South Stands were torn down following Leeds' last home game of the season: the new South Stand will be a two-tier structure similar to the Carnegie Stand with an expanded terrace, while the North Stand's replacement will feature additional executive boxes and state-of-the-art facilities for players and media, as well as thousands of new seats for the cricket ground.
List of cricket grounds in England and Wales List of Test cricket grounds List of international cricket centuries
Warrington Wolves are a professional rugby league club in Warrington, that competes in the Super League. They play at the Halliwell Jones Stadium, having moved there from Wilderspool in 2004. Founded as Warrington Zingari Football Club in 1876, they are one of the original twenty-two clubs that formed the Northern Rugby Football Union in 1895 and the only one that has played every season in the top flight, they are nicknamed "The Wire" in reference to the wire-drawing industry in the town. Warrington have local rivalries with St. Helens and Wigan, they have won three League Championships and are the fourth most successful team in the Challenge Cup with eight victories, behind Wigan, St. Helens and Leeds, their most successful season came in 1953–54 when they completed a Championship and Challenge Cup'Double', beating Halifax twice in the space of four days to first win the Challenge Cup 8–4 in a replay at Odsal clinch the Championship 8–7 at Maine Road. 1955 was the last time. Warrington are the 11th most successful rugby league club in England behind Wigan Warriors, St Helens, Bradford Bulls, Hull FC, Leeds Rhinos, Salford Red Devils, Widnes Vikings, Hull Kingston Rovers and Swinton Lions.
The official foundation date for the club is given as 1876, but rugby football was played in the town before that date and there was an earlier club bearing the name of Warrington Football Club. Under the heading'Outdoor Sports – Football' the Widnes Guardian of 25 January 1873 reports on a recent game between Warrington and Wigan at the unnamed ground of the former. On 6 December 1873 that same newspaper carried details of a match involving Warrington and Zingari and in subsequent weeks there were matches with Sale and Free Wanderers; this club folded. Warrington Zingari Football Club was formed in 1876 by seven young local men; when the earlier club folded, they decided to take the vacant Warrington Football Club name for the start of the 1877/8 season. Another local club, Padgate Excelsior amalgamated with Warrington in 1881–82, Warrington Wanderers joined in 1884 to form a representative town side. In 1886, the club won the West Lancashire and Border Towns Trophy. On 28 August 1895, the Committee decided to join with 21 other clubs throughout Lancashire and Yorkshire to form a new'Northern Union' and resigned from the RFU.
In 1900 -- 01, Warrington reached the final of the Challenge Cup. A crowd of 29,000 turned out at Leeds to see Warrington battle hard but be beaten by two tries to nil. Warrington appeared in the renamed South West Lancashire Cup against Leigh two days later; the strenuous game against Batley took its toll on the Warrington players and the match ended in a 0–0 draw, the replay never took place. In 1903–04, Warrington defeated Bradford Northern in a semi-final replay to earn a place in the final of the Challenge Cup. Warrington put up a fine performance against Halifax but lost 8–3. In 1904–05, Warrington beat Hull Kingston Rovers 6–0 to win the Challenge Cup final in front of a crowd of 19,638. In 1908, 14 November the first touring Australian rugby league team visit Warrington; the Kangaroos embarked upon a massive six months tour of Britain taking in 45 matches. Their timing was not good as the north of England was hit by strikes in the cotton mills, which badly affected attendances as fans could not afford to watch the pioneering Aussies.
On Saturday 14 November 1908 Warrington played the Kangaroos. Warrington won the match 10-3, with Jackie Fish the hero scoring one try and Ike Taylor the other and George Dickenson kicked a goal each. A crowd of 5,000 watched the match at Wilderspool; the Warrington team that day was Jimmy Tilley, Jack Fish, George Dickenson, Ike Taylor, Lewis Treharne, Ernest Brooks, John Jenkins, William Dowell, Alfred Boardman, Billy O'Neill, George Thomas, Peter Boardman, John Willie Chester. The Australians came back to Wilderspool for "revenge" in the tour but tries from Jack Fish, John Jenkins earned the'Wirepullers' an 8-8 draw. Two members of the Kangaroo squad, Dan Frawley and Larry O'Malley signed for Warrington and played the next season at Wilderspool. Warrington have the best record of any club side against the touring Kangaroos with eight wins, one draw, seven defeats from sixteen matches. In 1913, 5th challenge cup final, Warrington reached their fifth Challenge Cup Final, with wins over Keighley, Hull Kingston Rovers and Dewsbury.
The Final was lost 9–5 to the mighty Huddersfield team of "All-Stars". Warrington scored first through a try by Bradshaw converted by Jolley and gave a wonderful display in what was considered to be the best Cup Final of the pre-war era. A disappointing league season had seen Warrington finish their lowest pre Great War. So the Challenge Cup performances were a tremendous achievement. Warrington closed for the 1915-16 season but recommenced playing in 1916 following the introduction of conscription which meant that would not be accused of keeping men from volunteering for the First World War. After a bad start to the 1921 -- 22 season, Warrington won; this included an 8–5 victory over the visiting Australasian team of the 1921–22 Kangaroo tour of Great Britain. Warrington beat Leigh to reach the final of the Lancashire County Cup. Wire beat Oldham 7–5, despite playing with only 12 men for most of the match after centre Collins sustained a broken collar bone. After a bad start to the 1927–28 current and a poor previous season Warrington notched up victories over Hull Kingston Rovers and Leeds in the semi-final of the Challenge Cup.
The final against Swinton was played at Central Park, with an estimated 1
Rugby league football is a full-contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular field. One of the two codes of rugby, it originated in Northern England in 1895 as a split from the Rugby Football Union over the issue of payments to players, its rules progressively changed with the aim of producing a faster, more entertaining game for spectators. In rugby league, points are scored by carrying the ball and touching it to the ground beyond the opposing team's goal line; the opposing team attempts to stop the attacking side scoring points by tackling the player carrying the ball. In addition to tries, points can be scored by kicking goals. After each try, the scoring team gains a free kick to try at goal with a conversion for further points. Kicks at goal may be awarded for penalties, field goals can be attempted at any time. Rugby league is the national sport of Papua New Guinea, is a popular sport in Northern England, the states of Queensland and New South Wales in Australia, South Auckland in New Zealand, southwest France and Lebanon.
The Super League and the National Rugby League are the premier club competitions. Rugby league is played internationally, predominantly by European and Pacific Island countries, is governed by the Rugby League International Federation; the first Rugby League World Cup was held in France in 1954. Rugby league football takes its name from the bodies that split to create a new form of rugby, distinct from that run by the Rugby Football Unions, in Britain and New Zealand between 1895 and 1908; the first of these, the Northern Rugby Football Union, was established in 1895 as a breakaway faction of England's Rugby Football Union. Both organisations played the game under the same rules at first, although the Northern Union began to modify rules immediately, thus creating a new faster, stronger paced form of rugby football. Similar breakaway factions split from RFU-affiliated unions in Australia and New Zealand in 1907 and 1908, renaming themselves "rugby football leagues" and introducing Northern Union rules.
In 1922, the Northern Union changed its name to the Rugby Football League and thus over time the sport itself became known as "rugby league" football. In 1895, a schism in Rugby football resulted in the formation of the Northern Rugby Football Union. Although many factors played a part in the split, including the success of working class northern teams, the main division was caused by the RFU decision to enforce the amateur principle of the sport, preventing "broken time payments" to players who had taken time off work to play rugby. Northern teams had more working class players who could not afford to play without this compensation, in contrast to affluent southern teams who had other sources of income to sustain the amateur principle. In 1895, a decree by the RFU banning the playing of rugby at grounds where entrance fees were charged led to twenty-two clubs meeting at the George Hotel, Huddersfield on 29 August 1895 and forming the "Northern Rugby Football Union". Within fifteen years of that first meeting in Huddersfield, more than 200 RFU clubs had left to join the rugby revolution.
In 1897, the line-out was in 1898 professionalism introduced. In 1906, the Northern Union changed its rules, reducing teams from 15 to 13 a side and replacing the ruck formed after every tackle with the play the ball. A similar schism to that which occurred in England took place in Australia. There, on 8 August 1907 the New South Wales Rugby Football League was founded at Bateman's Hotel in George Street. Rugby league went on to displace rugby union as the primary football code in New South Wales and Queensland. On 5 May 1954 over 100,000 spectators watched the 1953–54 Challenge Cup Final at Odsal Stadium, England, setting a new record for attendance at a rugby football match of either code. In 1954 the Rugby League World Cup, the first for either code of rugby, was formed at the instigation of the French. In 1966, the International Board introduced a rule that a team in possession was allowed three play-the-balls and on the fourth tackle a scrum was to be formed; this was increased to six tackles in 1972 and in 1983 the scrum was replaced by a handover.
1967 saw. The first sponsors, Joshua Tetley and John Player, entered the game for the 1971–72 Northern Rugby Football League season. Television would have an enormous impact on the sport of rugby league in the 1990s when Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation sought worldwide broadcasting rights and refused to take no for an answer; the media giant's "Super League" movement saw big changes for the traditional administrators of the game. In Europe, it resulted in a move from a winter sport to a summer one as the new Super League competition tried to expand its market. In Australasia, the Super League war resulted in long and costly legal battles and changing loyalties, causing significant damage to the code in an competitive sporting market. In 1997 two competitions were run alongside each other in Australia, after which a peace deal in the form of the National Rugby League was formed; the NRL has since become recognised as the sport's flagship competition and since that time has set record TV ratings and crowd figures.
The objective in rugby league is to score more points through tries and field goals than the opposition within the 80 minutes of play. If after two halves of play, each consisting of forty minutes, the two teams are drawing, a draw may be declar