The Douglas DC-3 is a fixed-wing propeller-driven airliner that revolutionized air transport in the 1930s and 1940s. Its lasting effect on the airline industry and World War II makes it one of the most significant transport aircraft produced, it has a cruise speed of 207 mph, capacity of 21 to 32 passengers or 6,000 lbs of cargo and a range of 1,500 mi. The DC-3 is a twin-engine metal monoplane with a tailwheel-type landing gear and was developed as a larger, improved 14-bed sleeper version of the Douglas DC-2, it had many exceptional qualities compared to previous aircraft. It had good range and could operate from short runways, it carried passengers in greater comfort. Before the war it pioneered many air travel routes, it made worldwide flights possible. It is considered the first airliner. Civil DC-3 production ended in 1942 at 607 aircraft. Military versions, including the C-47 Skytrain, Russian- and Japanese-built versions, brought total production to over 16,000. Following the war, the airliner market was flooded with surplus C-47s and other ex-military transport aircraft, Douglas' attempts to produce an upgraded DC-3 failed due to cost.
Post-war, the DC-3 was made obsolete on main routes by more advanced types such as the Douglas DC-6 and Lockheed Constellation, but the design proved exceptionally adaptable and useful. Large numbers continue to see service in a wide variety of niche roles well into the 21st century. In 2013 it was estimated that 2,000 DC-3s and military derivatives were still flying, a testament to the durability of the design. "DC" stands for "Douglas Commercial". The DC-3 was the culmination of a development effort that began after an inquiry from Transcontinental and Western Airlines to Donald Douglas. TWA's rival in transcontinental air service, United Airlines, was starting service with the Boeing 247 and Boeing refused to sell any 247s to other airlines until United's order for 60 aircraft had been filled. TWA asked Douglas to build an aircraft that would allow TWA to compete with United. Douglas' design, the 1933 DC-1, was promising, led to the DC-2 in 1934; the DC-2 was a success. The DC-3 resulted from a marathon telephone call from American Airlines CEO C. R. Smith to Donald Douglas, when Smith persuaded a reluctant Douglas to design a sleeper aircraft based on the DC-2 to replace American's Curtiss Condor II biplanes.
Douglas agreed to go ahead with development only after Smith informed him of American's intention to purchase twenty aircraft. The new aircraft was engineered by a team led by chief engineer Arthur E. Raymond over the next two years, the prototype DST first flew on December 17, 1935, its cabin was 92 in wide, a version with 21 seats instead of the 14–16 sleeping berths of the DST was given the designation DC-3. There was no prototype DC-3; the DC-3 and DST popularized air travel in the United States. Eastbound transcontinental flights could cross the U. S. in about 15 hours with three refueling stops. A few years earlier such a trip entailed short hops in slower and shorter-range aircraft during the day, coupled with train travel overnight. A variety of radial engines were available for the DC-3. Early-production civilian aircraft used Wright R-1820 Cyclone 9s, but aircraft used the Pratt & Whitney R-1830 Twin Wasp, which gave better high-altitude and single-engine performance. Five DC-3S Super DC-3s with Pratt & Whitney R-2000 Twin Wasps were built in the late 1940s, three of which entered airline service.
Total production of all variants was 16,079. More than 400 remained in commercial service in 1998. Production was as follows: 607 civil variants of the DC-3. Production of DSTs ended in mid-1941 and civil DC-3 production ended in early 1943, although dozens of DSTs and DC-3s ordered by airlines that were produced between 1941 and 1943 were impressed into the US military while still on the production line. Military versions were produced until the end of the war in 1945. A larger, more powerful Super DC-3 was launched in 1949 to positive reviews; the civilian market, was flooded with second-hand C-47s, many of which were converted to passenger and cargo versions. Only five Super DC-3s were built, three of them were delivered for commercial use; the prototype Super DC-3 served the U. S. Navy with the designation YC-129 alongside 100 R4Ds, upgraded to the Super DC-3 specification. From the early 1950s, some DC-3s were modified to use Rolls-Royce Dart engines, as in the Conroy Turbo Three. Other conversions featured Armstrong Siddeley Pratt & Whitney PT6A turbines.
The Greenwich Aircraft Corp DC-3-TP is a conversion with an extended fuselage and with Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-65AR or PT6A-67R engines fitted. The Basler BT-67 is a conversion of the DC-3/C-47. Basler refurbishes C-47s and DC-3s at Oshkosh, fitting them with Pratt & Whitney Ca
Philip K. Wrigley
Philip Knight Wrigley, sometimes called P. K. or Phil, was an American chewing gum manufacturer and executive in Major League Baseball, inheriting both those roles as the quiet son of his much more flamboyant father, William Wrigley, Jr.. Wrigley was born in Chicago, his father died in 1932 elevating Philip's role in the family business. He presided over the Wm. Wrigley Jr. Company, the family hobby, the Chicago Cubs, as owner until his death, he turned over the presidency of his chewing gum company to his son William Wrigley III in 1961, while retaining the presidency of the Cubs. While the gum industry prospered, the Cubs grew less competitive over the decades. After an appearance in the 1945 World Series, they only had seven winning seasons in the next 32 years, including 16 straight losing seasons from 1947 to 1962, they did have a brief flurry of success in early 1970s. Although resisting installing lights at Wrigley Field to donate to the Navy during wartime, he was innovative in other ways.
In 1961 he abolished the traditional field management/coaching structure and instead hired a "College of Coaches". This anticipated the specialization of coaches, taken for granted nowadays, his one mistake, was not having a manager. Instead, he opted to have the various coaches as a "head coach." Without firm and consistent leadership, the Cubs continued to languish in the standings, despite having Cubs greats Ernie Banks, Ron Santo, Billy Williams on the roster. Amid constant ridicule from the media and players, he dropped the head coach idea and hired Leo Durocher as the manager in 1966. During World War II, Wrigley founded the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League as a promotional sideline to maintain interest in baseball as the World War II military draft was depleting major-league rosters of first-line players; the AAGPBL was immortalized in A League of Their Own. Like his father, P. K. was a strong believer in maximizing media coverage. Starting in the 1920s, the Cubs' games were covered extensively on the radio, sometimes by competing stations at the same time, for minimal fees.
In the post-World War II era, when baseball was booming, Wrigley continued this practice, allowing WGN-TV to carry all the home games as well as a significant number of road games. Some owners were aghast at Wrigley's "giving away the product", but it paid manifold dividends in the long run, as the evolution of WGN-TV into a superstation developed a nationwide fan base for the Cubs, which has resulted in nearly constant sellout crowds at "Beautiful Wrigley Field", regardless of the fortunes of the team at a given time. P. K. was a visible presence with the Cubs in his younger years, but was witnessed attending games during his final few decades of ownership, making his presence known through memos and sometimes full-page newspaper ads. Early 70s utility player Pete LaCock was best known for being the son of TV personality Peter Marshall and for his unique sense of humor; the Sporting News once reported that he had made a trip to the Wrigley Building and asked for an audience with Mr. Wrigley.
P. K. asked him what he wanted, LaCock answered, "Nothing. I just wanted to see if you exist!" After P. K. and his wife died, their son William Wrigley III took over both enterprises. The Cubs were sold to the Tribune Company in 1981, ending over 60 years of Wrigley association with the team, save the name of the ballpark itself, which remains Wrigley Field. Continuing the environmental stewardship of his father, he established the Catalina Island Conservancy in 1972, donated his family's ownership of most of Santa Catalina Island, 26 miles off the coast of Los Angeles, to the Catalina Island Conservancy. Wrigley died on April 12, 1977. Baseball Hall of Fame candidate profile
United Airlines, Inc. referred to as just United, is a major American airline headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. United operates a large domestic and international route network, with an extensive presence in the Asia-Pacific region. United is a founding member of the Star Alliance, the world's largest airline alliance with a total of 28 member airlines. Regional service is operated by independent carriers under the brand name United Express. United was established by the amalgamation of several airlines in the late 1920s, the oldest of these being Varney Air Lines, founded in 1926. United has seven hubs, with Chicago–O'Hare being its largest in terms of passengers carried and the number of departures; the company employs over 86,000 people while maintaining its headquarters in Chicago's Willis Tower. Through the airline's parent company, United Continental Holdings, it is publicly traded under NYSE: UAL with a market capitalization of over US$21 billion as of January 2018. United traces its roots to Varney Air Lines, which Walter Varney founded in 1926 in Idaho.
Continental Airlines is the successor to Speed Lanes, which Varney had founded by 1932 and whose name changed to Varney Speed Lines in 1934. VAL flew the first contracted air mail flight in the U. S. on April 6, 1926. In 1927, William Boeing founded Boeing Air Transport to operate air mail routes under contract with the United States Post Office Department. In 1929, Boeing merged his company with Pratt & Whitney to form the United Aircraft and Transport Corporation which set about buying, in the space of just 28 months, Pacific Air Transport, Stout Air Services, VAL, National Air Transport, as well as numerous equipment manufacturers at the same time. On March 28, 1931, UATC formed United Air Lines, Inc. as a holding company for its airline subsidiaries. In late 2006, Continental Airlines and United had preliminary merger discussions. On April 16, 2010, those discussions resumed; the board of directors of Continental and UAL Corporation agreed on May 2, 2010, to combine operations, contingent upon shareholder and regulatory approval.
On October 1, 2010, the UAL Corporation changed its name to Inc.. The carriers planned to begin merging their operations in 2011; the merged airline began operating under a single air operator's certificate from the Federal Aviation Administration on November 30, 2011. On March 3, 2012, United and Continental merged their passenger service systems, frequent-flier programs, websites, which eliminated the Continental brand with the exception of its logo. United operates to 231 destinations and 125 international destinations in 48 countries across five continents. United operates seven hubs. Chicago–O'Hare – United's largest hub and its hub for the Midwest. United flies 36 million passengers through O'Hare every year, about 99,000 people per day, making it the busiest airline at the airport. United's corporate headquarters are in Chicago. Denver – United's hub for the central and western United States. In 2017, United flew 25.9 million passengers through DIA or about 71,000 people per day. As of December 2017, United has about 42% of the market share at DIA making it the airport's largest airline.
Houston–Intercontinental – United's hub for the Southern United States and primary gateway to Latin America. About 33.5 million passengers fly through Houston on United every year, or about 91,000 people per day. United has about 78% of the seat share at Bush, making it the airport's largest tenant. Los Angeles – United's secondary hub for the West Coast and gateway to Asia and Australia. About 10 million passengers fly through LAX on about 28,000 people per day. United has 15% of the market share at LAX, making it the third-biggest carrier at the airport. Newark – United's primary hub for the East Coast and a gateway to Europe, Latin America and Asia. About 28.5 million passengers fly on United through Newark every year, or about 78,000 people per day. United controls about 81% of the slots at Newark and carries about 68% of all passengers at the airport. United uses part of Terminal A for United Express Flights. San Francisco – United's primary hub for the West Coast and gateway to Asia and Australia.
About 22 million passengers pass through SFO every year on United, about 60,000 people per day. United has about 46% of the market share at San Francisco International, making it the biggest airline at the airport. Washington–Dulles – United's secondary hub for the East Coast and gateway to Europe. United has about 65% of the market share at Washington Dulles, making it the largest airline at the airport. About 14 million passengers fly through Dulles every year on United, about 38,465 people per day. United Airlines is a member of the Star Alliance and has codeshare agreements with the following airlines: In addition to the above codeshares, United has entered into joint ventures with the following airlines: Air Canada Air New Zealand All Nippon Airways Austrian Airlines Brussels Airlines Lufthansa Swiss International Air Lines As of March 2019, United Airlines operated a fleet of 778 aircraft. On July 20, 2011, American Airlines announced an order for 460 narrowbody jets, including 260 Airbus A320s.
The order broke Boeing's monopoly with the airline and forced Boeing into the re-engined 737 MAX. This sale included a Most-Favoured-Customer Clause, which requires Airbus to refund to American any difference between the price paid by American and a lower price paid by United or another airline; this perpetuates United's having a Boeing-skewed fleet. On September 22, 2012, United became the first American airline to take delivery of Boeing 787 aircraft. Un
Golden West Airlines
Golden West Airlines was a commuter airline that operated flights on a high volume schedule in California. It ceased operations in 1983; the original Golden West Airlines, headquartered at Van Nuys, was founded in 1968 and operated out of Terminal 4 at Los Angeles International Airport with a fleet of de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter STOL capable turboprops and at least one HFB 320 Hansa Jet aircraft, serving Pomona, Santa Ana, Ventura. This airline ceased operations on March 11, 1969. Aero Commuter, founded in December 1967 and based in Long Beach, operated flights between Long Beach, Los Angeles International Airport, Avalon and Fullerton. Aero Commuter operated de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter STOL capable aircraft, it acquired Catalina Air Lines. By 1968 service had expanded to include Apple Valley, Bakersfield, El Monte, Oceanside, Palm Springs, San Diego, Santa Ana. In 1969, it merged with Cable Commuter Airlines. Upon the demise of the original Golden West Airlines in early 1969, Aero Commuter acquired several assets from Golden West, including its name.
Golden West briefly operated jet service with the HFB 320 Hansa Jet, a West German manufactured business jet configured with ten passenger seats which the airline flew in scheduled service from Burbank Airport to Santa Barbara and Palm Springs in 1969. As Golden West Airlines it continued to expand aggressively through the 1970s, adding service to San Francisco, Bakersfield, Oxnard, Santa Rosa, Modesto, San Jose and other smaller airports—many of which no longer have commercial service—such as Van Nuys Airport, Fullerton Municipal Airport, the Airport in the Sky on Santa Catalina Island. In 1971 it attempted to acquire Los Angeles Airways, a local helicopter commuter airline, but the deal fell through. Golden West did acquire Catalina Air Lines, a seaplane operator that served Catalina Island off the coast of southern California with the Grumman G-21 Goose; these Grumman amphibious aircraft were operated as Catalina Golden West, a division of Golden West. Because of California's growth and tourist appeal, Golden West was able to become an interline partner with a number of domestic and international airlines.
According to the January 1, 1973 Golden West system timetable, these airlines included Aer Lingus, Aerolíneas Argentinas, Aeroméxico, Air Canada, Air France, Alaska Airlines, Allegheny Airlines, Aloha Airlines, Braniff International, Continental Airlines, Eastern, Frontier Airlines, Hawaiian Airlines, Hughes Airwest, Japan Airlines, National Airlines, Northeast Airlines, Ozark Air Lines, Pan American World Airways, Piedmont Airlines, Scandinavian Airline System, Southern Airways, Trans World Airlines, United Airlines, Western Airlines, Wien Air Alaska and other air carriers. By the early 1980s, Golden West was the largest commuter airline in California operating a high frequency shuttle schedule between LAX and Santa Barbara and San Diego. In 1981, Golden West was the only air carrier flying nonstop between Santa Barbara and LAX with up to fourteen round trip flights a day, its fleet had grown to include larger aircraft such as the Short 330 and de Havilland Canada DHC-7 Dash 7. The 50-passenger seat Dash 7 was the largest aircraft operated by the airline.
A huge debt service, among other factors, drove Golden West Airlines out of business in April 1983. In 2001, Pinnacle Air Charter, Inc. acquired the Air Carrier Certificate for Golden West Airlines. It operated again, under the DBA of Pinnacle Air Charter, Platinum Air Charter, Inc. conducting on-demand air charter and air ambulance operations under FAR Part 135. Its base of operations was located at Pomona's Bracket Field, conducted flight operations out of San Bernardino International Airport, it suspended operations and closed in 2005. The Golden West fleet consisted of the following aircraft models. Number of individual aircraft operated in parentheses. Beech C99 Airliner de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter de Havilland Canada DHC-7 Dash 7 Grumman G-21 Goose HFB 320 Hansa Jet Short 330 The July 1, 1982 Golden West timetable map includes: Bakersfield Fresno Lake Tahoe Los Angeles Monterey Ontario Orange County Oxnard San Diego San Francisco Santa Barbara Before 1982 Golden West served the following at various times: Avalon Harbor Seaplane Base, Catalina Island Catalina Airport Edwards Air Force Base Fullerton Airport Inyokern Long Beach Airport McClellan-Palomar Airport Merced Modesto Mojave Airport Oakland Palmdale Airport Palm Springs Pomona Redlands Airport Riv
Catalina Island Conservancy
The Catalina Island Conservancy is a nonprofit organization established to protect and restore Santa Catalina Island, California. The Conservancy was established in 1972 through the efforts of the Offield families; the Conservancy was created when both families deeded 42,135 acres of the island over to the organization—88% of the Island. Founded in 1972, the Conservancy is one of the oldest private land trusts in Southern California; the stated goal of the Conservancy is to "be a responsible steward of our lands through a balance of conservation and recreation." Established to protect and restore Catalina, the Conservancy seeks a balance between conservation and serving the public. Catalina's native plant community is central to the ecosystem of the Island, providing habitats that offer shelter and food to the Island's endemic and native animals like the Catalina Island fox, Catalina quail, bald eagles among many other species, but years of importing non-native plants to feed grazing animals and landscape homes has introduced to Catalina to more than 76 invasive plants.
Due to so many efforts in the past to capitalize on the island, many invasive flora and fauna were introduced. The Conservancy removes invasive plants to restore the Island; the Conservancy's Catalina Habitat Improvement and Restoration Program is designed to ensure long-term conservation of species richness and habitat integrity in one of the world's biodiversity hot spots. Three species of invasive plants have been nearly eradicated from the Island: tamarisk, pampas grass and fig. CHIRP has targeted 27 other species for eradication and another 36 to be managed to limit their presence on the Island. By eliminating and managing invasive plant species, the CHIRP program has encouraged native species to grow and flourish, it contributed to the discovery of new species and the rediscovery of species following years of fear that they were extinct. Among those rediscovered are Catalina grass and the Lyon's pygmy daisy, which had not been seen for 80 years; the James P. Ackerman Native Plant Nursery at Middle Ranch provides plant and seed material for re-vegetation of the Island.
The Conservancy operates the Stop the Spread program, a partnership between the Conservancy's naturalists, CHIRP staff and the many youth camps on the Island. The program is focused on invasive plant control around each camp, it is an opportunity for campers to learn about the value of native species, the problems posed by invasive species and how to help eradicate invasive species. The campers learn how to restore and improve native environments. Stop the Spread has given nearly 15,000 campers tens of thousands of hours of education from 2009-2013. Campers manage about 450 acres for 75 different invasive species, logging more than 7,000 hours of invasive plant removal a year; the Catalina Island fox is nowhere else in the world. An adult fox weighs just 4 to 6 pounds and is about 25% smaller than its mainland ancestor, the gray fox, its diet includes mice, birds, berries and cactus fruit. It is Catalina's largest terrestrial predator. In late 1999, an outbreak of distemper virus caused the fox population to plummet from about 1,300 to just 100 animals.
In 2000, the Catalina Island Conservancy and its partner, the Institute for Wildlife Studies, implemented the Catalina Island Fox Recovery Plan. The plan combined relocation, captive breeding and release, wild fox population monitoring. Due to this outbreak The US Fish and Wildlife Service declared the Catalina Island fox an endangered sub-species in 2004. After 15 years of work by wildlife biologists, the Conservancy announced that the Catalina Island adult fox population had rebounded to pre-crash numbers; the Conservancy's biologists counted 1,850 foxes on the Island, 350 more than the year before, in one of the fastest recoveries of an endangered species. The Conservancy is actively managing a herd of bison on the Island with a novel contraceptive program, attracting the attention of wild animal managers on the mainland; the bison were first brought to the Island in 1924 for a movie. Over the years, they became an iconic symbol of the Island's culture, but with no natural predators, the herd grew to as many as 500.
The Conservancy had conducted studies that found the Island could support only about 150 to 200 bison. To control the herd's size, the Conservancy had been periodically conducting roundups and shipping bison to the mainland. Shipping the bison to the mainland was costly, it raised concerns about the stress on the animals during shipment and the expansion of the herd beyond ecologically sustainable numbers between shipments. Beginning in 2009, the Conservancy's scientists injected the female bison with porcine zona pellucida, a contraceptive, used for fertility control in zoos, wild horses and white tail deer. In addition to reducing the number of new calves, the PZP had no apparent effect on pregnant females or their offspring. A peer-reviewed study published in 2013 reported that the contraceptive program was effective in controlling the herd. More than two-thirds of the cows delivered calves every year. After receiving the contraceptive, the calving rate dropped to 10.4% in the first year and 3.3% the following year.
The Conservancy's scientists, their collaborators at California State University, continue to study PZP to determine if the female bison can regain their fertility after a period of time without the contraceptive. They are evaluating the timing of ovulation in response to PZP application; the Conservancy has worked with the Institute for Wildlife Studies in a successful program that brought bald eagles back to
General Aviation represents the'private transport' and recreational flying component of aviation. General aviation is the name or term given to all civil aviation aircraft operations with the exception of commercial air transport or aerial work, they are flight activities not involving commercial air transportation of passengers, cargo or mail for remuneration or hire, or an aerial work operation such as agriculture, photography, surveying and patrol, search and rescue, aerial advertisement, etc. It covers certain commercial and private flights that can be carried out under both visual flight and instrument flight rules, such as light aircraft and private jets or helicopters. General aviation thus represents the'private transport' component of aviation; the International Civil Aviation Organization defines civil aviation aircraft operations in three categories: General Aviation, Aerial Work and Commercial Air Transport. The International Council of Aircraft Owner and Pilot Associations includes the following definitions for General Aviation aircraft activities: Corporate Aviation: Company own-use flight operations Fractional Ownership Operations: aircraft operated by a specialized company on behalf of two or more co-owners Business Aviation: self-flown for business purposes Personal/Private Travel: travel for personal reasons/personal transport Air Tourism: self-flown incoming/outgoing tourism Recreational Flying: powered/powerless leisure flying activities Air Sports: Aerobatics, Air Races, Rallies etc.
In 2003 the European Aviation Safety Agency was established as the central EU regulator, taking over responsibility for legislating airworthiness and environmental regulation from the national authorities. Of the 21,000 civil aircraft registered in the UK, 96 percent are engaged in GA operations, annually the GA fleet accounts for between 1.25 and 1.35 million hours flown. There are 28,000 Private Pilot Licence holders, 10,000 certified glider pilots; some of the 19,000 pilots who hold professional licences are engaged in GA activities. GA operates from more than 1,800 airports and landing sites or aerodromes, ranging in size from large regional airports to farm strips. GA is regulated by the Civil Aviation Authority, although regulatory powers are being transferred to the European Aviation Safety Agency; the main focus is on standards of airworthiness and pilot licensing, the objective is to promote high standards of safety. General aviation is popular in North America, with over 6,300 airports available for public use by pilots of general aviation aircraft.
In comparison, scheduled flights operate from around 560 airports in the U. S. According to the U. S. Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association, general aviation provides more than one percent of the United States' GDP, accounting for 1.3 million jobs in professional services and manufacturing. Most countries have authorities that oversee all civil aviation, including general aviation, adhering to the standardized codes of the International Civil Aviation Organization. Examples include the Federal Aviation Administration in the United States, the Civil Aviation Authority in the United Kingdom, Civil Aviation Authority of Zimbabwe in Zimbabwe, the Luftfahrt-Bundesamt in Germany, the Bundesamt für Zivilluftfahrt in Switzerland, Transport Canada in Canada, the Civil Aviation Safety Authority in Australia, the Directorate General of Civil Aviation in India and Iran Civil Aviation Organization in Iran. Aviation accident rate statistics are estimates. According to the U. S. National Transportation Safety Board, in 2005 general aviation in the United States suffered 1.31 fatal accidents for every 100,000 hours of flying in that country, compared to 0.016 for scheduled airline flights.
In Canada, recreational flying accounted for 0.7 fatal accidents for every 1000 aircraft, while air taxi accounted for 1.1 fatal accidents for every 100,000 hours. More experienced GA pilots appear safer, although the relations between flight hours, accident frequency, accident rates are complex and difficult to assess. Environmental impact of aviation List of current production certified light aircraftAssociationsAircraft Owners and Pilots Association Canadian Owners and Pilots Association Experimental Aircraft Association General Aviation Manufacturers Association National Business Aviation Association International Aircraft Owners and Pilots Associations European General Aviation Safety Team "No Plane No Gain" website about business aviation Save-GA.org website concerned with General Aviation in the United States "GA price index". Flight International. 13 Oct 1979