Catalonia is an autonomous community on the northeastern corner of Spain, self-designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy. Catalonia consists of four provinces: Barcelona, Girona and Tarragona; the capital and largest city is Barcelona, the second-most populated municipality in Spain and the core of the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union. It comprises most of the territory of the former Principality of Catalonia, it is bordered by France and Andorra to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the east, the Spanish autonomous communities of Aragon to the west and Valencia to the south. The official languages are Catalan and the Aranese dialect of Occitan. In the late 8th century, the counties of the March of Gothia and the Hispanic March were established by the Frankish kingdom as feudal vassals across and near the eastern Pyrenees as a defensive barrier against Muslim invasions; the eastern counties of these marches were united under the rule of the Frankish vassal, the count of Barcelona.

In the 10th century the County of Barcelona became independent de facto. In 1137, Barcelona and the Kingdom of Aragon were united by marriage under the Crown of Aragon; the de jure end of Frankish rule was ratified by French and Aragonese monarchs in the Treaty of Corbeil in 1258. The Principality of Catalonia developed its own institutional system, such as courts, constitutions, becoming the base for the Crown of Aragon's naval power and expansionism in the Mediterranean. In the Middle Ages, Catalan literature flourished. During the last Medieval centuries natural disasters, social turmoils and military conflicts affected the Principality. Between 1469 and 1516, the king of Aragon and the queen of Castile were married and ruled their realms together, retaining all of their distinct institutions and legislation. During the Franco-Spanish War, Catalonia revolted against a large and burdensome presence of the royal army in its territory, being proclaimed a republic under French protection. Within a brief period France took full control of Catalonia, until it was reconquered by the Spanish army.

Under the terms of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, the Spanish Crown ceded the northern parts of Catalonia the County of Roussillon, to France. During the War of the Spanish Succession, the Crown of Aragon sided against the Bourbon Philip V of Spain; this led to the eclipse of Catalan as a language of literature, replaced by Spanish. Throughout the 18th century, Catalonia experienced economic growth, reinforced in the late quarter of the century when the Castile's trade monopoly with American colonies ended. In the 19th century, Catalonia was affected by the Napoleonic and Carlist Wars. In the second third of the century, Catalonia experienced significant industrialisation; as wealth from the industrial expansion grew, Catalonia saw a cultural renaissance coupled with incipient nationalism while several workers movements appeared. In 1914, the four Catalan provinces formed a commonwealth, with the return of democracy during the Second Spanish Republic, the Generalitat of Catalonia was restored as an autonomous government.

After the Spanish Civil War, the Francoist dictatorship enacted repressive measures, abolishing Catalan self-government and banning the official use of the Catalan language again. After a first period of autarky, from the late 1950s through to the 1970s Catalonia saw rapid economic growth, drawing many workers from across Spain, making Barcelona one of Europe's largest industrial metropolitan areas and turning Catalonia into a major tourist destination. Since the Spanish transition to democracy, Catalonia has regained considerable autonomy in political, educational and cultural affairs and is now one of the most economically dynamic communities of Spain. In the 2010s there has been growing support for Catalan independence. On 27 October 2017, the Catalan Parliament declared independence from Spain following a disputed referendum; the Spanish Senate voted in favour of enforcing direct rule by removing the entire Catalan government and calling a snap regional election for 21 December. On 2 November of the same year, the Spanish Supreme Court imprisoned seven former ministers of the Catalan government on charges of rebellion and misuse of public funds, while several others—including then-President of Catalonia, Carles Puigdemont—fled to other European countries.

The name Catalonia—Catalunya in Catalan, spelled Cathalonia, or Cathalaunia in Medieval Latin—began to be used for the homeland of the Catalans in the late 11th century and was used before as a territorial reference to the group of counties that comprised part of the March of Gothia and March of Hispania under the control of the Count of Barcelona and his relatives. The origin of the name Catalunya is subject to diverse interpretations because of a lack of evidence. One theory suggests that Catalunya derives from the name Gothia Launia, since the origins of the Catalan counts and people were found in the March of Gothia, known as Gothia, whence Gothland > Gothlandia > Gothalania > Cathalaunia > Catalonia theoretically derived. During the Middle Ages, Byzantine chroniclers


Kalimath is a village in Rudraprayag District of the Indian state of Uttarakhand. It is regarded as a divine shakti peeth, it lies at an altitude of around 6,000 feet on the Saraswati river in the Himalayas, surrounded by the peaks of Kedarnath. Kalimath is situated close to Guptakashi, it is held in high religious esteem. The temple of Goddess Kali there is visited by devotees year round during the Navratras; this holy shrine is one of 108 Shakti Peethas in India as per Srimad Devi Bhagwat. The upper part of Kali is worshipped in Dhari Devi; the remaining part in Kalimath religious tradition is that Kalimath is where Kali killed the demon Raktavija and went under the earth. Kalimath is the only place where the goddess Kali is worshipped along with her sisters Laxmi and Saraswati. No idol is worshipped in the temple. Instead the Sri Yantra is the object of devotion. On one day each year the goddess is taken out and Puja is performed at midnight, with only the chief priest present. Near the temple are other ancient temples to Laxmi, Gauri Shankar and many antique Shivlings, idols of Nandi and Ganesh, etc.

An eternal holy flame always burns in the temple of Laxmi. Bhairava Mandir is located nearby. Barti Baba is credited for preserving the sanctity of this holy shrine. All the people who met him and the locals say; the guru and Member of Parliament, Satpal Maharaj, set up a small Dharamshala near the temple where pilgrims can stay. About 2 km east is Kunjethi village, hosting two temples of Mata Manana Devi and Mankameshwar Mahadev. 6 km from Kalimath at the top of a hill a Kalishila and another Kali Temple. Barkha Giri Baba and Sarawati Mai lived there in a hut for many years; the village is the birthplace of Kalidas, a Sanskrit poet

Happy Heart

"Happy Heart" is a song written by James Last and Jackie Rae. Versions of the song Petula Clark and Andy Williams charted in 1969 and had their best showings on Billboard magazine's Easy Listening chart, where Clark peaked at number 12 and Williams spent two weeks at number one; the first recording of "Happy Heart" to reach the charts in Billboard magazine was an instrumental version by record producer Nick DeCaro that debuted on the Easy Listening chart in the March 15, 1969, issue and got as high as number 22 over the course of seven weeks. DeCaro had produced the albums Born Free, Love and Honey for Williams, who recorded "Happy Heart" on March 8 of that year. Williams performed the song for Clark's NBC television special Portrait of Petula that would air on April 7. A full-page advertisement in the March 22 issue of Billboard with the headline The Latest Thing from Paris showed a pair of bare legs standing in cleated running shoes and described the rush that Clark and her record company were in to get a recording of the song out: Last Monday.

Petula races from Paris to Hollywood. She lives in Paris, she records in Hollywood. She races in with no suitcase. Just one song. A quick trip for just one short song? Not with the song Petula's holding. What Petula holds is the song of the year; that night, with arranger Ernie Freeman, Petula records "Happy Heart". By Tuesday morning Smith has "Happy Heart" shipping. We, are off to the races. "Happy Heart" is, the latest thing. Right now, the guys from Warners're racing with that latest thing. From Petula. Excited? Petula's "Happy Heart" beats at Warner Bros.. The differences between the arrangements of the two vocal versions stood out for critics. Billboard described both of them in one capsule review, which appeared in the March 22 issue. "Miss Clark's reading is soulful with a driving slow beat. Williams's, produced by Jerry Fuller, is a brighter tempo with much jukebox appeal as well."Clark's recording appeared on her Portrait of Petula album, in reviewing the LP for Allmusic, Joe Viglione wrote, "She does take the tempo of Andy Williams's'Happy Heart' down a bit."

Clark and Williams each debuted "Happy Heart" on Billboard's Easy Listening chart in the April 5 issue, but Clark reached only number 12 during her seven weeks there. Williams, on the other hand, enjoyed two weeks at number one during a 14-week stay. Both recordings made their first appearance on the magazine's Hot 100 in the April 12 issue, which began a five-week run for Clark that took the song as high as number 62. During his 11 weeks there, Williams went to number 22. In Canada both recordings debuted on RPM magazine's Adult Contemporary chart in the April 14 issue. Clark made it to number nine on that list, Williams peaked at number two. On their list of pop hits, the RPM 100, Clark repeated the number 62 showing that the song made on the US pop chart, Williams got to number 25. On May 13 the Williams version began 10 weeks on the UK Singles Chart, where it reached number 19. Director Danny Boyle chose the Williams version for the soundtrack of his 1994 British film Shallow Grave, in 2013 Rolling Stone revisited the scene in which it was used.

"As the twisty noir ends, Ewan McGregor, knife stuck through his chest, grins sublimely as his blood drips down onto the stacks of money stashed between the floorboards. He grins, knowing his double-cross worked." The Williams song begins during these final moments of the film, Boyle explained the logic behind his selection. "'You don't want to do anything too obvious. You're trying to find an extra irony, an extra delight,' Boyle says.'That was a big track for my dad. He loved crooners. And, God's honest truth, we were hanging out in Glasgow where we did most of the shooting, as we got into a black cab, the driver was playing it; that moment, as you get into the cab, you go, "That's the end of the film." You know. It's perfect. Despite what you're seeing, inside he's feeling, "It's my happy heart," and singing loud as he can.'"The female impersonator Holly Woodlawn lip-synced to the Clark version in the 1998 Tommy O'Haver film Billy's Hollywood Screen Kiss. The soundtrack CD included the Clark recording as well as a new remix of the song.

In the August 8, 1998, issue of Billboard, Dance Trax columnist Larry Flick wrote, "Speaking of revamping oldies, Junior Vasquez has done a fine job of tweaking Petula Clark's'Happy Heart' into a thumpy house anthem" and added that "the track benefits tremendously from a rare peek into Vasquez's festive sense of humor. He seems to be having a blast playing with Clark's girlish vocal, wrapping it in vibrant synths and wriggling percussion fills." Two months in the October 10 issue, the Vasquez remix reached number five on the Billboard Hot Dance Breakouts chart for Maxi-Singles Sales, which describes Breakouts as titles with future chart potential based on sales reports. List of number-one adult contemporary singles of 1969 Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics