Catalysis is the process of increasing the rate of a chemical reaction by adding a substance known as a catalyst, not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly. Because of this, only small amounts of catalyst are required to alter the reaction rate in principle. In general, chemical reactions occur faster in the presence of a catalyst because the catalyst provides an alternative reaction pathway with a lower activation energy than the non-catalyzed mechanism. In catalyzed mechanisms, the catalyst reacts to form a temporary intermediate, which regenerates the original catalyst in a cyclic process. A substance which provides a mechanism with a higher activation energy does not decrease the rate because the reaction can still occur by the non-catalyzed route. An added substance which does reduce the reaction rate is not considered a catalyst but a reaction inhibitor. Catalysts may be classified as either heterogeneous. A homogeneous catalyst is one whose molecules are dispersed in the same phase as the reactant's molecules.
A heterogeneous catalyst is one whose molecules are not in the same phase as the reactant's, which are gases or liquids that are adsorbed onto the surface of the solid catalyst. Enzymes and other biocatalysts are considered as a third category. In the presence of a catalyst, less free energy is required to reach the transition state, but the total free energy from reactants to products does not change. A catalyst may participate in multiple chemical transformations; the effect of a catalyst may vary due to the presence of other substances known as inhibitors or poisons or promoters. Catalyzed reactions have a lower activation energy than the corresponding uncatalyzed reaction, resulting in a higher reaction rate at the same temperature and for the same reactant concentrations. However, the detailed mechanics of catalysis is complex. Catalysts may bind to the reagents to polarize bonds, e.g. acid catalysts for reactions of carbonyl compounds, or form specific intermediates that are not produced such as osmate esters in osmium tetroxide-catalyzed dihydroxylation of alkenes, or cause dissociation of reagents to reactive forms, such as chemisorbed hydrogen in catalytic hydrogenation.
Kinetically, catalytic reactions are typical chemical reactions. The catalyst participates in this slowest step, rates are limited by amount of catalyst and its "activity". In heterogeneous catalysis, the diffusion of reagents to the surface and diffusion of products from the surface can be rate determining. A nanomaterial-based catalyst is an example of a heterogeneous catalyst. Analogous events associated with substrate binding and product dissociation apply to homogeneous catalysts. Although catalysts are not consumed by the reaction itself, they may be inhibited, deactivated, or destroyed by secondary processes. In heterogeneous catalysis, typical secondary processes include coking where the catalyst becomes covered by polymeric side products. Additionally, heterogeneous catalysts can dissolve into the solution in a solid–liquid system or sublimate in a solid–gas system; the production of most industrially important chemicals involves catalysis. Most biochemically significant processes are catalysed.
Research into catalysis is a major field in applied science and involves many areas of chemistry, notably organometallic chemistry and materials science. Catalysis is relevant to many aspects of environmental science, e.g. the catalytic converter in automobiles and the dynamics of the ozone hole. Catalytic reactions are preferred in environmentally friendly green chemistry due to the reduced amount of waste generated, as opposed to stoichiometric reactions in which all reactants are consumed and more side products are formed. Many transition metals and transition metal complexes are used in catalysis as well. Catalysts called. A catalyst works by providing an alternative reaction pathway to the reaction product; the rate of the reaction is increased as this alternative route has a lower activation energy than the reaction route not mediated by the catalyst. The disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide creates oxygen, as shown below. 2 H2O2 → 2 H2O + O2This reaction is preferable in the sense that the reaction products are more stable than the starting material, though the uncatalysed reaction is slow.
In fact, the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is so slow that hydrogen peroxide solutions are commercially available. This reaction is affected by catalysts such as manganese dioxide, or the enzyme peroxidase in organisms. Upon the addition of a small amount of manganese dioxide, the hydrogen peroxide reacts rapidly; this effect is seen by the effervescence of oxygen. The manganese dioxide is not consumed in the reaction, thus may be recovered unchanged, re-used indefinitely. Accordingly, manganese dioxide catalyses this reaction. Catalytic activity is denoted by the symbol z and measured in mol/s, a unit, called katal and defined the SI unit for catalytic activity since 1999. Catalytic activity is not a kind of reaction rate, but a property of the catalyst under certain conditions, in relation to a specific chemical reaction. Catalytic activity of one katal of a catalyst means one mole of that catalyst will catalyse 1 mole of the reactant to product in one second. A catalyst may and will have different catalytic activity for di
Nouvelle Manga is an artistic movement which gathers Franco-Belgian and Japanese comic creators together. The expression was first used by Kiyoshi Kusumi, editor of the Japanese manga magazine Comickers, in referring to the work of French expatriate Frédéric Boilet, who lived in Japan for much of his career but has since returned to France in December 2008. Boilet encouraged other artists to participate; the Nouvelle Manga movement was born of several observations. Whereas European cinema bases its theme on everyday life, French/Belgian bande dessinée has, for a long time, been restricted to stereotyped genres such as science fiction or westerns. Japanese authors on the other hand exploit daily life extensively – but these are the least to be translated. For the participants of Nouvelle Manga there are bridges to build between the comics of all nationalities, not least between the comics d'auteur in each country. People restrict Nouvelle Manga to the world of alternative comics, yet there are many examples of Nouvelle Manga authors publishing in all kinds of arenas.
For instance, Boilet himself has been published in mainstream Seinen magazines like Big Comics in Japan as well as in alternative editorial structures such as Spore in Japan, Ego Comme X in France and, more Fanfare / Ponent Mon in the US. Boilet prefers to refer to Nouvelle Manga as being in the French feminine form as opposed to the French masculine form, used for the mainstream action-oriented manga, more published in France. Examples of artists who are associated in varying degrees with the outputs and debates surrounding Nouvelle Manga are: Moyoko Anno, Aurélia Aurita, David B. Matthieu Blanchin, Frédéric Boilet, Nicolas de Crécy, Étienne Davodeau, Yoji Fukuyama, Emmanuel Guibert, Kazuichi Hanawa, Daisuke Igarashi, Little Fish, Taiyō Matsumoto, Fabrice Neaud, Loïc Néhou, Benoît Peeters, Frédéric Poincelet, David Prudhomme, François Schuiten, Joann Sfar, Kiriko Nananan, Hideji Oda, Kan Takahama, Jiro Taniguchi, Yoshiharu Tsuge and Naito Yamada. A great exhibition and a cycle of debates were held in Tokyo in September and October 2001, notably at the Tokyo Museum of Fine Arts and at the French-Japanese Institute.
Nouvelle Manga has extended to other media with Nouvelle Manga Digitale, a creation of the multimedia author Fred Boot. Yukiko's Spinach - Frédéric Boilet Monokuro Kinderbook - Kan Takahama Mariko Parade - Frédéric Boilet & Kan Takahama Doing Time - Kazuichi Hanawa The Walking Man - Jiro Taniguchi Blue - Kiriko Nananan The Times of Botchan vol. 1 - Jiro Taniguchi & Natsuo Sekikawa The Times of Botchan vol. 2 - Jiro Taniguchi & Natsuo Sekikawa Japan as Viewed by 17 Creators - Various Authors A Patch of Dreams - Hideji Oda Sweet Cream and Red Strawberries - Kiriko Nananan The Building Opposite - Vanyda Manga-influenced comics Anime-influenced animation Manfra, a general term for describing French Japanese-influenced comics DZ-manga Nouvelle Manga in 2006 Boilet's Nouvelle Manga Manifesto A Spanish and English publisher that emphasizes Nouvelle Manga works
Faccenda Group is a owned UK business established in 1962 by Robin Faccenda, which supplies fresh poultry products. In 2018, Faccenda and Cargill opened a joint venture to take over their UK fresh poultry businesses, named Avara Foods, employing 6,000 people; the group is owned by Hillesden Investments Ltd. growing the business through acquisitions of Hinton Poultry, Perry Poultry and Webbs Country Foods, with an annual turnover of around £300m with 2,500 employees in 2005, growing to a turnover of £365 million with a profit of £5 million in 2013. In 2007-2008 the Faccenda Group had suffered a loss of £5 million. In 2008 it was the second-largest chicken processing company in the UK, capable of processing 2 million chickens per week. Robin Faccenda, Chairman of the Faccenda Group, has invested £300,000 in a new student centre at Harper Adams, which will bear his name when it opens in 2010. A further £200,000 will fund a long-term programme of student financial support. In 2014, Robin Faccenda and his family were listed by Farmers Weekly as the richest within the UK poultry industry.
In 2017, Faccenda and Cargill announced a joint venture to take over their UK fresh poultry businesses. In 2018, following agreement by the Competition and Markets Authority, they announced the name of the joint venture as Avara Foods, employing 6,000 people; the purchase of the loss making Webbs Country Foods in December 2000, required the closure of the most underinvested site at the Lymington, Hampshire factory with a loss of 500 jobs. However, 850 jobs were saved across the remaining 3 production facilities; as part of a major business consolidation exercise, Faccenda closed the factory in Sutton Benger, Wiltshire in 2008, with the loss of 450 jobs, moving all production to the Brackley site. This exercise included the investment of £3 million in its factory in Brackley, £2 million to its factories in Hortonwood and Dudley and the creation of 100 new jobs - some transferring from the Sutton Benger site. In 2012 Faccenda bought a turkey business. In 2002, the company was fined £75,000 for polluting the River Avon from its Sutton Benger plant.
It was fined a further £14,000 after 17-year-old worker lost his little finger and ring finger after he reached into a machine through a gap in the guarding mesh. In 2003, police arrested 20 Brazilians working illegally at the plant in 2003; the Environment Agency found in 2006 that the smell from the Brackley plant fell outside limits under the Pollution Prevention and Control regulations. In 2009, the company was fined £5000 under the Environmental Protection Act for incorrectly disposing of waste at Lyneham Farm, near Chippenham; the court heard that, in April 2008, a routine visit to the poultry unit by Environment Agency inspectors found that hazardous waste was being bought from other sites and incorrectly stored. A further inspection in October showed that the hazardous waste, including fluorescent light tubes, was still being stored, mixed with other waste and taken to a waste transfer site; the Environment Agency prosecutor told the court: "The defendant company failed to comply with the advice given to it by the Environment Agency and tried to dispose of hazardous waste, despite being warned on previous occasions about the illegal mixing and transportation of hazardous wastes."A case brought by Faccenda against a former sales manager, Faccenda Chicken v Fowler, is a key legal case in confidentiality and trade secrets.