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Catamaran

A catamaran is a multi-hulled watercraft featuring two parallel hulls of equal size. It is a geometry-stabilized craft, deriving its stability from its wide beam, rather than from a ballasted keel as with a monohull sailboat. Catamarans were invented by the Austronesian peoples which enabled their expansion to the islands of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Catamarans have less hull volume, smaller displacement, shallower draft than monohulls of comparable length; the two hulls combined often have a smaller hydrodynamic resistance than comparable monohulls, requiring less propulsive power from either sails or motors. The catamaran's wider stance on the water can reduce both heeling and wave-induced motion, as compared with a monohull, can give reduced wakes. Catamarans range in size from small to large; the structure connecting a catamaran's two hulls ranges from a simple frame strung with webbing to support the crew to a bridging superstructure incorporating extensive cabin and/or cargo space.

Catamarans from Oceania and Maritime Southeast Asia became the inspiration for modern catamarans. Catamaran-type vessels were an early technology of the Austronesian peoples. Early researchers like Heine-Geldern and Hornell once believed that catamarans evolved from outrigger canoes, but modern authors specializing in Austronesian cultures like Doran and Mahdi now believe it to be the opposite. Two canoes bound together developed directly from minimal raft technologies of two logs tied together. Over time, the double-hulled canoe form developed into the asymmetric double canoe, where one hull is smaller than the other; the smaller hull became the prototype outrigger, giving way to the single outrigger canoe to the reversible single outrigger canoe. The single outrigger types developed into the double outrigger canoe; this would explain why older Austronesian populations in Island Southeast Asia and the Comoros tend to favor double outrigger canoes, as it keeps the boats stable when tacking. But they still have small regions.

In contrast, more distant outlying descendant populations in Micronesia and Polynesia retained the double-hull and the single outrigger canoe types, but the technology for double outriggers never reached them. To deal with the problem of the instability of the boat when the outrigger faces leeward when tacking, they instead developed the shunting technique in sailing, in conjunction with reversible single-outriggers. Despite their being the more "primitive form" of outrigger canoes, they were nonetheless effective, allowing seafaring Polynesians to voyage to distant Pacific islands. Catamarans were constructed in the West before the 19th century, but they were in wide use as early as the 5th century by the Tamil people of Tamil Nadu, South India; the word "catamaran" is derived from the Tamil word, which means "logs bound together", although this did not refer to double-hulled boats but to a type of raft made of two or more tree trunks.. Today, the term kattumaram refers to a type of single-hulled boat made from several lashed and shaped logs in Tamil-speaking areas in eastern India.

The 17th-century English adventurer and privateer William Dampier encountered the Tamil people of southeastern India during his first circumnavigation of the globe. He was the first to write in English about the watercraft. In his 1697 account of his trip, A New Voyage Round the World, he wrote, On the coast of Malabar they call them Catamarans; these are but one Log, or two, sometimes of a sort of light Wood... so small, that they carry but one Man, whose legs and breech are always in the Water. The acquisition of the catamaran and outrigger canoe technology by the non-Austronesian peoples in Sri Lanka and southern India is due to the result of early Austronesian contact with the region, including the Maldives and the Laccadive Islands, estimated to have occurred around 1000 to 600 BCE and onwards; this may have included limited colonization that have since been assimilated. This is still evident in Sri South Indian languages. For example, Tamil paṭavu, Telugu paḍava, Kannada paḍahu, all meaning "ship", are all derived from Proto‑Hesperonesian *padaw, "sailboat", with Austronesian cognates like Javanese perahu, Kadazan padau, Maranao padaw, Cebuano paráw, Samoan folau, Hawaiian halau, Maori wharau.

Until the 20th century catamaran development focused on sail-driven concepts. The first documented example of double-hulled craft in Europe was designed by William Petty in 1662 to sail faster, in shallower waters, in lighter wind, with fewer crew than other vessels of the time. However, the unusual design was not a commercial success; the design remained unused in the West for 160 years until the early 19th-century, when the Englishman Mayflower F. Crisp built a two-hulled merchant ship in Rangoon, Burma; the ship was christened Original. Crisp described it as "a fast sailing fine sea boat; that century, the American Nathanael Herreshoff constructed a double-hulled sailing boat of his own design. The craft, raced at her maiden regatta on June 22, 1876, performed exceedingly well, her debut demonstrated the distinct performance advantages afforded to catamarans over the standard monohulls. It was as a result of this event, the Centennial Regatta of the New York Yacht Club, that catamarans were barred from regular sailing c

Mdzovreti fortress

Mdzovreti fortress is a fortress in Georgia, Shida kartli, in the valley of the river Dzama, in the village Ortubani, Kareli District. The fortress situated on the right bank of the river Dzama; the complex includes: a bell-tower, a castle and several houses and agricultural places. There was a historical city Mdzovreti. In X century here found a shelter a future King of Abkhazia Teodos III, in 13th century the fortress belonged to the Duke of Dukes Gamrekeli son of Kakha. In 1640 in this fortress was fortified Nodar Tsitsishvili during his rebellion against the king. King Rostom could not manage to take the fortress, it is a complicated monumental construction erected on the rock. Three constructing layers are found in the fortress. From the XIV century begins the governance of Panaskerteli-Tsitsishvilis in the valley of Dzama. In the eastern part of the fortress there is a church of Virgin Mary. Description of Georgian historical and cultural monuments. Volume 5. Page: 380-381

Club de Rugby San Roque

The Club de Rugby San Roque is a rugby club, founded in 1971 in Valencia, when a teacher of the San Roque public school in the Benicalap district gathered a group of pupils and created an academy for this sport. Nowadays, the team is in the Regional First Division of the Valencian Rugby Federation and has a squad in every other division, including a women's team. Among its most recent successes, is its promotion to First Division in 2000, being undefeated in the league and the achievement by the junior team of the Promotion Championship in the 2004/05 season. For more than a decade, the club has focused numerous efforts on its junior players; the organization has consolidated junior intake from the Santa María School, the base which maintains all its inferior squads, from Under 6 to Under 18's. Combined with this, in the months leading up to the start of each school year, its instructors begin the recruiting process conducting rugby workshops and training initiation days in many city schools.

This junior process ends when the first children grow old enough to graduate from the Under 18's and are promoted to the Senior team, no longer kicking a ball around as they warm up, rather warming up shoulder to shoulder with the seniors, all like one big family. The time, spent training young players comes to fruition with the many call-ups of San Roque players to the junior representative teams of the Valencian Rugby Federation and in the Spain national rugby union team, playing international tournaments. Rugby union in Spain