Caterham CT03

The Caterham CT03 is a Formula One racing car designed by Mark Smith for the Caterham F1 team. It was used during the 2013 Formula One season, where it was driven by Charles Pic and Giedo van der Garde; the car was unveiled on the eve of testing for the 2013 season at the Circuito de Jerez. The first chassis was assembled in early October 2012, completed on 30 January and launched on 5 February; the CT03 aroused controversy during pre-season testing. Lotus technical director James Allison observed details of the car's exhaust outlet that he believed contravened Article 5.8.4 of the technical regulations, that prohibits the use of bodywork within a defined area with respect to the exhaust outlet. The FIA deemed this system to be illegal. After driving the car during FP1 at Bahrain, Heikki Kovalainen stated the car was the previous year's car with nothing done to it. After the initial three races of the season the CT03 received a major upgrade to improve handling and performance; the most noticeable part of this was the introduction of a vanity panel over the stepped-nose.

In the season the vanity panel was removed again and the car was raced for the rest of the season without it. Caterham F1 went into the 2013 season with livery changes; the white-yellow-white stripe in the front section was replaced by solid green with white accent as Caterham F1's main colour while the white-yellow stripe on the rear section was retained. The green became brighter unlike previous seasons. Official Caterham F1 Team website

Greenhouse Item

Greenhouse Item was an American nuclear test conducted on May 25, 1951, as part of Operation Greenhouse at the Pacific Proving Ground on the island of Engebi in the Eniwetok Atoll in the Central Pacific Ocean. This test explosion was the first test of a boosted fission weapon. In this test deuterium-tritium gas was injected into the enriched uranium core of a nuclear fission bomb; the extreme heat of the fissioning bomb produced thermonuclear fusion reactions within the D-T gas, but not enough of them to be considered a full nuclear fusion bomb. This fusion reaction released a large number of free neutrons, which increased the efficiency of the nuclear fission reaction; the explosive yield of this bomb was 45.5 kilotons, about twice the yield of the unboosted bomb. This bomb was known as the "Booster" in its development stages, a name for the mechanism coined by Edward Teller in September 1947. Planning for it had begun in the late 1940s. According to the researcher Chuck Hansen, it was mentioned in official U.

S. Atomic Energy Commission documents as early as 1947; the main problems in development were making modifications to the fission core to accept the gas without reducing its own efficiency. The 1951 test was to test the nuclear principles involved, to gain research data, it was not considered a design for a weaponizable device; as late as 1954, no boosted weapon had entered into the nuclear-weapons stockpile, the only use for the Greenhouse Item nuclear test had been for its research results. The "Booster" device was detonated at 6:17 am on May 25, 1951, from a 200-foot-tall shot tower on the island of Engebi in the Enewetok Atoll, its fusion fuel was injected by means of a cryogenic pump at the base of the tower. Chuck Hansen, Swords of Armageddon, 1995, esp. "The Item Shot" in Volume III. The short film Nuclear Test Film - Operation Greenhouse is available for free download at the Internet Archive Operation Greenhouse at

Wolvesey Castle

Wolvesey Castle known as the "Old Bishop's Palace", is a ruined castle in Winchester, England. It is located next to Winchester Cathedral; the original palace on the site was built around 970 by Æthelwold of Winchester on a piece of land known as Wulveseye or Wulf's island, an eyot in the River Itchen east of the cathedral. About 1110, the second Norman bishop, William Giffard, constructed a new hall to the south west, his successor, Henry of Blois, brother of King Stephen added a second hall to the west between 1135 and 1138. A new palace in the baroque style was built to the south by Thomas Finch for George Morley in 1684. However, Brownlow North demolished all but the west wing of this palace in 1786. After a variety of different uses the remaining part was refurbished for use once again as the bishop's residence in 1926 by Theodore Woods; the castle was created by Henry of Blois in 1141 by linking the two Norman halls with a curtain wall which would have obliterated any remaining parts of the Anglo-Saxon palace.

It was the scene for the Rout of Winchester in which the Empress Matilda assaulted the castle in 1141, during the period of civil war known as The Anarchy. It was the castle's first and only siege, when it was held for Stephen by the retainers of Bishop Henry; the besieged defenders of Wolvesey burnt with fireballs all the houses of the city which were too near the enceinte and gave cover to the enemy. Most of the old town of Winchester was destroyed. Empress Matilda's forces were held off for three weeks until Stephen's wife, arrived with reinforcements from London. Henry II is said to have slighted Wolvesey after the death of Bishop Henry in 1171; this did not include the destruction of the residential quarters as many occupants of the see of Winchester dwelled there in high state. But the gate and portcullis were removed and some breaches made in the curtain, it was once a important building, was the location on 25 July 1554 of the wedding breakfast of Queen Mary and Philip II of Spain. The castle was destroyed by Roundheads during the English Civil War in 1646.

The chapel is the only considerable remnant of the south range of the castle, is still in use, being attached to the palace. The extensive surviving ruins are owned and maintained by English Heritage; the castle has had Grade I listed status since 24 March 1950, as has the palace located on the same site. A fair amount of the curtain wall remains, but nearly all the inner arrangements are gone, though it is possible to make out the hall, in which there is a good round arch and one surviving Norman window. Castles in Great Britain and Ireland List of castles in England