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Catharina of Württemberg

Princess Catharina Frederica of Württemberg was Queen consort of Westphalia by marriage to Jérôme Bonaparte, who reigned as King of Westphalia between 1807 and 1813. Catharina was born in Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire, to the King Frederick I of Württemberg and Duchess Augusta of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, her mother, who died when Catharina was five years old, was a sister of Caroline of Brunswick and a niece of King George III of the United Kingdom. After the death of Catharina's mother, her father married Charlotte, Princess Royal, eldest daughter of George III and thus a first cousin of his first wife. In 1803, Württemberg entered into an alliance with France under Emperor Napoleon I, one of the terms of the treaty was the marriage of Catharina with Jérôme Bonaparte, Napoleon's younger brother; the wedding was held four years on 22 August 1807, at the Royal Palace of Fontainebleau in France. Upon marriage, Catharina became queen consort of the Kingdom of Westphalia. Catharina and Jérôme bonded and had a happy marriage, remaining attached to each other.

King Jérôme, was unfaithful with multiple partners, including a three-year relationship with Diana Rabe von Pappenheim, but Catharina chose to turn a blind eye. When the kingdom of Westphalia was dissolved in 1813, she followed Jerome to France. During the war, she and Désirée Clary took refuge with Julie Clary at Mortefontaine, when the allied troops took Paris, they took refuge in the home of Desirée Clary in the capital. After the downfall of the Napoleonic Empire in 1814, her father expected her to separate from Jerome, as Empress Marie Louise had done from Napoleon, but instead she followed him into exile to Trieste in Austrian Italy. During the Hundred Days in 1815, she helped Jerome to escape and join Napoleon, was as a consequence deported to Württemberg, where she was placed under house arrest. After the defeat of Napoleon, she was joined by her spouse in house arrest. Catharina and Jerome were released from house arrest and spent their remaining life together in Trieste and Switzerland, under the name of the Princess and Prince of Montfort.

In November 1835, Catharina died in Switzerland. Jérôme Napoléon Charles Bonaparte, served in the army of his maternal uncle, King William I of Württemberg. Mathilde Bonaparte, was prominent during and after the Second Empire as a hostess to men of arts and letters. Napoléon Joseph Charles Paul Bonaparte, was a close advisor to his cousin Napoleon III and, in particular, was seen as a leading advocate of French intervention in Italy and of the Italian nationalists. Sabine Köttelwesch, Katharina von Westphalen, in: Helmut Burmeister und Veronika Jäger, König Jérôme und der Reformstaat Westphalen, Hofgeismar 2006, S. 73–94, ISSN 0440-7520 Media related to Catharina of Württemberg at Wikimedia Commons

Wipeout 2048

Wipeout 2048 is a racing video game in which players pilot anti-gravity ships around futuristic race tracks. It was published by Sony Computer Entertainment. A launch title for the PlayStation Vita, the game was released on 19 January 2012 in Japan and on 22 February in Europe and North America, it is the ninth installment of the Wipeout series and the last game to be developed by Studio Liverpool before its August 2012 closure. Wipeout 2048 is a prequel to the first game in the series, is set in the years 2048, 2049, 2050; the game was designed as a testbed for the PlayStation Vita. During development, Studio Liverpool staff sent feedback to Sony regarding aspects of the game that could affect the design of the new console. Ideas including a rear touchscreen device and two separate analogue sticks, not conceived by Sony made it onto the console. Wipeout 2048 preserves some technical aspects of its predecessor Wipeout HD, including downloadable content, online multiplayer mode, cross-platform play with PlayStation 3 owners of Wipeout HD.

The game received positive reviews. Critics agreed that its graphics and visuals showcased the power of the then-new PlayStation Vita, but criticised its long loading time and other technical issues. Wipeout 2048 is a racing game which involves players piloting anti-gravity ships through a variety of scenarios. Set in the year 2048, it is a prequel to the first instalment of the Wipeout series; the single-player game progresses through the first three years, 2048, 2049, 2050, of the AGRC. The game has four types of ships: speed ships, agility ships and prototypes. Speed ships are used for speed-oriented races, such as time trials. Agility ships, similar to rally cars, have increased handling. Numerous weapons may be picked up during a race by flying over different-coloured weapon pads. Yellow pads equip the player with offensive weaponry to destroy other racers and green pads provide defensive weapons such as mines and speed boosts. Game modes carried over from Wipeout HD include one-on-one races, time trials, speed laps, Zone mode.

The latter mode revolves around survival as the player's ship automatically accelerates to extreme speeds. Online multiplayer mode has the same modes as single-player; the game features cross-platform online racing, allowing players of the PlayStation 3 version of Wipeout HD Fury to play the Fury tracks with the handheld console. The game features downloadable content, with two separate DLCs offering twelve tracks and twelve ships each for cross-play. Studio Liverpool's technical director, Stuart Lovegrove, affirmed that the game was developed in parallel with the PlayStation Vita and was a testbed for the console. Lovegrove was aware that the next Wipeout game would be a launch title, said that it was something Studio Liverpool had done before. Chris Roberts, the game's director of graphics and technologies, said that Sony Computer Entertainment involved the Liverpudlian studio early in the development of the PlayStation Vita and had a "fairly good idea" of the console's capability. Jon Eggleton, former senior artist of the Wipeout series, said in an interview that Studio Liverpool influenced the Vita's design.

When staff were given development kits for what was called a "next-generation portable", a group was formed to brainstorm hardware details. Eggleton speculated that the console was released with two analogue sticks because "Studio Liverpool said it needed two sticks". During early development of Wipeout 2048 and the PlayStation Vita, the studio provided Sony with feedback on the hardware and libraries and sent updated application code to Sony's firmware staff for testing their compilers. Both Lovegrove and Roberts were impressed with the simplicity of the Vita's firmware, in contrast to the architecture of the PlayStation 3; the development team recognised the differences between creating a game for the PlayStation Vita and the PlayStation 3. Lovegrove said that designing the game for the Vita's smaller screen made it easier to develop, alleviating previous issues with designing a game targeted for an HD screen, but the studio had to ensure that the game could run at any resolution. Roberts agreed.

Asked about major differences between the PlayStation 3's RSX Reality Synthesizer graphics processing unit and the PlayStation Vita's ARM architecture, Roberts said that the most seen difference was the Vita's lack of stream processing units. He said that most of Wipeout HD's SPU code was directed towards GPU support, which included features such as geometry culling, lighting effects and rendering. According to Roberts, the Vita's GPU and ARM architecture were more capable and handled Wipeout 2048 easily. Lovegrove, who had worked with ARM architecture on the BBC Micro, said that the team did not have to optimise anything to accomplish their goals and it was enjoyable to see the same architecture running the game. Although Wipeout 2048 and Wipeout HD have a shared shader program and did not require retooling for the Vita's architecture, Roberts said that significant time and attention was spent fine-tuning the game's shader effects for the Vita's GPU. Lovegrove thought that the method of working on a PlayStation 3 and its handheld counterpart was identical (a sentiment shared b

Socratic questioning

Socratic questioning was named after Socrates. He utilized an educational method that focused on discovering answers by asking questions from his students. According to Plato, one of his students, Socrates believed that "the disciplined practice of thoughtful questioning enables the scholar/student to examine ideas and be able to determine the validity of those ideas". Plato described this rigorous method of teaching to explain that the teacher assumes an ignorant mindset in order to compel the student to assume the highest level of knowledge. Thus, a student has the ability to acknowledge contradictions, recreate inaccurate or unfinished ideas and critically determine necessary thought. Socratic questioning is a form of disciplined questioning that can be used to pursue thought in many directions and for many purposes, including: to explore complex ideas, to get to the truth of things, to open up issues and problems, to uncover assumptions, to analyze concepts, to distinguish what we know from what we do not know, to follow out logical consequences of thought or to control discussions.

Socratic questioning is based on the foundation that thinking has structured logic, allows underlying thoughts to be questioned. The key to distinguishing Socratic questioning from questioning per se is that the former is systematic, disciplined and focuses on fundamental concepts, theories, issues or problems. Socratic questioning is referred to in teaching, has gained currency as a concept in education in the past two decades. Teachers, students, or anyone interested in probing thinking at a deep level can construct Socratic questions and engage in them. Socratic questioning and its variants have been extensively used in psychotherapy; when teachers use Socratic questioning in teaching, their purpose may be to probe student thinking, to determine the extent of student knowledge on a given topic, issue or subject, to model Socratic questioning for students or to help students analyze a concept or line of reasoning. It is suggested that students should learn the discipline of Socratic questioning so that they begin to use it in reasoning through complex issues, in understanding and assessing the thinking of others and in following-out the implications of what they and others think.

In fact, Socrates himself thought. In teaching, teachers can use Socratic questioning for at least two purposes: To probe student thinking, to help students begin to distinguish what they know or understand from what they do not know or understand. To foster students' abilities to ask Socratic questions, to help students acquire the powerful tools of Socratic dialogue, so that they can use these tools in everyday life. To this end, teachers can model the questioning strategies they want students to employ. Moreover, teachers need to directly teach students how to ask deep questions. Beyond that, students need practice to improve their questioning abilities. Socratic questioning illuminates the importance of questioning in learning; this includes differentiating between systematic and fragmented thinking, while forcing individuals to understand the root of their knowledge and ideas. Educators who support the use of Socratic Questioning in educational settings argue that it helps students become active and independent learners.

Examples of Socratic questions that are used for students in educational settings: Getting students to clarify their thinking and explore the origin of their thinking e.g.'Why do you say that?','Could you explain further?' Challenging students about assumptions e.g.'Is this always the case?','Why do you think that this assumption holds here?' Providing evidence as a basis for arguments e.g.'Why do you say that?','Is there reason to doubt this evidence?' Discovering alternative viewpoints and perspectives and conflicts between contentions e.g.'What is the counter-argument?','Can/did anyone see this another way?' Exploring implications and consequences e.g.'But if...happened, what else would result?','How does...affect...?' Questioning the question e.g.'Why do you think that I asked that question?','Why was that question important?','Which of your questions turned out to be the most useful?' The art of Socratic questioning is intimately connected with critical thinking because the art of questioning is important to excellence of thought.

Socrates argued for the necessity of probing individual knowledge, acknowledging what one may not know or understand. Critical thinking has the goal of reflective thinking that focuses on what should be believed or done about a topic. Socratic questioning adds another level of thought to critical thinking, by focusing on extracting depth and assessing the truth or plausibility of thought. Socrates argued that a lack of knowledge is not bad, but students must strive to make known what they don't know through the means of a form of critical thinking. Critical thinking and Socratic questioning both seek truth. Critical thinking provides the rational tools to monitor and reconstitute or re-direct our thinking and action; this is what educational reformer John Dewey described as reflective inquiry: "in which the thinker turns a subject over in the mind, giving it serious and consecutive consideration." Socratic questioning is an explicit focus on framing self-directed, disciplined questions to achieve that goal.

The technique of questioning or leading discussion is spontaneous and issue-specific. The Socratic educator listens to the viewpoints of the student and considers the alternative points of view, it is necessary to teach students