SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Cathedral

A cathedral is a church that contains the cathedra of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, conference, or episcopate. Churches with the function of "cathedral" are specific to those Christian denominations with an episcopal hierarchy, such as the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, some Lutheran churches. Church buildings embodying the functions of a cathedral first appeared in Italy, Gaul and North Africa in the 4th century, but cathedrals did not become universal within the Western Catholic Church until the 12th century, by which time they had developed architectural forms, institutional structures and legal identities distinct from parish churches, monastic churches and episcopal residences. Following the Protestant Reformation, the Christian church in several parts of Western Europe, such as Scotland, the Netherlands, certain Swiss Cantons and parts of Germany, adopted a Presbyterian polity that did away with bishops altogether. Where ancient cathedral buildings in these lands are still in use for congregational worship, they retain the title and dignity of "cathedral", maintaining and developing distinct cathedral functions, but void of hierarchical supremacy.

From the 16th century onwards, but since the 19th century, churches originating in Western Europe have undertaken vigorous programmes of missionary activity, leading to the founding of large numbers of new dioceses with associated cathedral establishments of varying forms in Asia, Australasia and the Americas. In addition, both the Catholic Church and Orthodox churches have formed new dioceses within Protestant lands for converts and migrant co-religionists, it is not uncommon to find Christians in a single city being served by three or more cathedrals of differing denominations. The word "cathedral" is derived from the French cathédrale, from the Latin cathedra, from the Greek καθέδρα kathédra, "seat, bench", from κατά kata "down" and ἕδρα hedra "seat, chair." The word refers to the presence and prominence of the bishop's or archbishop's chair or throne, raised above both clergy and laity, located facing the congregation from behind the High Altar. In the ancient world, the chair, on a raised dais, was the distinctive mark of a teacher or rhetor and thus symbolises the bishop's role as teacher.

A raised throne within a basilican hall was definitive for a Late Antique presiding magistrate. The word "cathedral", as the seat of a bishop, is found in most languages. While the terms are not synonymous many cathedral churches are collegiate churches, so that Duomo, or Dom, has become the common name for a cathedral in those countries. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the English word "cathedral" translates as katholikon, meaning "assembly", but this title is applied to monastic and other major churches without episcopal responsibilities; when the church at which an archbishop or "metropolitan" presides is intended, the term kathedrikós naós is used. The episcopal throne embodies the principle that only a bishop makes a cathedral, this still applies in those churches that no longer have bishops, but retain cathedral dignity and functions in ancient churches over which bishops presided, but the throne can embody the principle that a cathedral makes a bishop. In this there is a distinction between those church traditions, predominantly those of Eastern Orthodox Christianity but also including Celtic churches in Ireland and Wales, whose bishops came to be made in monasteries.

In the Catholic or Roman Catholic tradition, the term "cathedral" applies only to a church that houses the seat of the bishop of a diocese. The abbey church of a territorial abbacy does not acquire the title. In any other jurisdiction canonically equivalent to a diocese but not canonically erected as such, the church that serves this function is called the "principal church" of the respective entity—though some have coopted the term "cathedral" anyway; the Catholic Church uses the following terms. A pro-cathedral is a parish or other church used temporarily as a cathedral while the cathedral of a diocese is under construction, renovation, or repair; this designation applies. A co-cathedral is a second cathedral in a diocese; this situation can arise in various ways such as a merger of two former dioceses, preparation to split a diocese, or perceived need to perform cathedral functions in a second location due to the expanse of the diocesan territory. A proto-cathedral is the former cathedral of a transferred.

The cathedral church of a metropolitan bishop is called a metropolitan cathedral. The term "cathedral" carries no

Tahitians

The Tahitians, are a Polynesian ethnic group native to Tahiti and thirteen other Society Islands in French Polynesia, as well as the modern population of these lands of multiracial Polynesian-French, ancestry. The Tahitians are one of the largest indigenous Polynesian ethnic groups, behind the Māori and Hawaiians; the first Polynesian settlers arrived in Tahiti around 400AD by way of Samoan navigators and settlers via the Cook Islands. Over the period of half a century there was much inter-island relations with trade and Polynesian expansion with the Islands of Hawaii and through to Rapanui; the original Tahitians were unaware of metal but using their Stone Age technology they were able to clear land for cultivation on the fertile volcanic soils and build fishing canoes, their two basic subsistence activities. The tools of the Tahitians when first discovered were made of stone, shell or wood; the Tahitians were divided into three major classes: ra'atira and manahune. Ari'i were few in number while manahune constituted the bulk of population and included some members who played essential roles in the society.

It is estimated that by the first contact with Europeans in 1767 the population of Tahiti was no more than 40,000 while other Society Islands held 15,000-20,000 natives. Tahitians divided the day into the periods of daylight and darkness. There was a concept of irrational fear called mehameha, translated as uncanny feelings; the healers, familiar with herbal remedies, were called ta'ata rā ` ta'ata rapa'au. In the 19th century Tahitians added the European medicine to their practice; the most famous Tahitian healer Tiurai, of ari'i, died aged 83 during the influenza outbreak on Tahiti in 1918. When British Captain Samuel Wallis "discovered" Tahiti on 18 June 1767, the natives were eager to trade in iron nails unknown to them. Philibert Commerçon in his The Tahitian Savage to the French wrote: "They have a fruit instead of bread, their other foods are simple". Commerçon described the practice of public sex, which he said Tahitians engaged in while being cheered on by applause and musical instruments.

In the marital relationships Tahitians approached the situation where all women were the wives of men and the wife of every man was the wife of his friend. Louis Antoine de Bougainville described a scene, where a young girl came on board, placed herself upon the quarter deck and carelessly dropt the cloth. Charles Darwin wrote on Tahitians during the voyage on the Beagle: "There is a mildness in the expression of their countenances, which at once banishes the idea of a savage; the European ships, brought such diseases for which Tahitians had little or no immunity, such as dysentery, scarlet fever, typhoid fever and tuberculosis. As a result of these changes by 1797 the population of Tahiti decreased to 16,000 from estimated 40,000 in 1767, when the first European ship HMS Dolphin touched on the island; the 1881 census enumerated about 5,960 native Tahitians. The recovery continued in spite of a few more epidemics. Three hundred Tahitian volunteers fought in the European theatre of World War II with the Free French Forces.

In the late 1960s and early 1970s Tahitian poets Henri Hiro, Charles Manutahi and Turo Raapoto spearheaded the anticolonial writing in Tahiti. Hiro's God of Culture implores Oihanu, the Tahitian god of culture and husbandry, to empower the'new generation'. Three women writers - Michou Chaze, Chantal Spitz and Vaitiare explore the problems of Tahitian identification in contemporary French Polynesia. Tahitian peasants and workers call themselves the'true Tahitians' to distinguish from part-Europeans. At the same time demis quite identify themselves as indigenous people in terms of culture and political affiliation; such Tahitian activists as Pouvanaa a Oopa, Francis Sanford and Charlie Ching and Catholic bishops Michel-Gaspard Coppenrath and Hubert Coppenrath are of demi ancestry. Many natives were painted from life by Paul Gauguin. In Ea haere ia oe, for example, a pensive young girl wears the white flower tiare behind her left ear, signifying readiness to take a lover. Tahitians are French citizens and are represented by two elected deputies to the French National Assembly and one representative in the French Senate.

Tahitians vote by universal adult suffrage in all major French elections. Media related to People of Tahiti at Wikimedia Commons

Wilhelmus Beurs

Wilhelmus Beurs was a Dutch Golden Age painter. He was born in Dordrecht. According to Houbraken, he was the son of a shoemaker and a quick study, able to produce a good landscape after only a year's instruction, though he took up flower painting. Houbraken met him as a fellow pupil of Willem van Drielenburg in 1671. Houbraken reprinted one page of it as an example. According to the RKD he moved to Amsterdam in 1672 where he married. In 1687 he moved to Zwolle, where from 1688 he gave painting lessons from his studio and where he wrote a book on the art of painting, published in 1692, he dedicated his book to his four pupils Aleida Greve, Anna Cornelia Holt, Sophia Holt, Cornelia van Marle. He is known for Italianate landscapes, he died in Zwolle in 1700. Wilhelmus Beurs 1692 on the Google Books Library Project