Old Town (Lviv)
Lviv's Old Town is the historic centre of the city of Lviv, within the Lviv Oblast in Ukraine, recognized as the State Historic-Architectural Sanctuary in 1975. Since 1998, the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization lists Lviv's historic center as part of "World Heritage". On 5 December 1998, during the 22nd Session of the World Heritage Committee in Kyoto, Lviv was included to the UNESCO World Heritage List. UNESCO gave the following reasons for its selection: Criterion ii: In its urban fabric and its architecture, Lviv is an outstanding example of the fusion of the architectural and artistic traditions of eastern Europe with those of Italy and Germany. Criterion v: The political and commercial role of Lviv attracted to it a number of ethnic groups with different cultural and religious traditions, who established separate yet interdependent communities within the city, evidence for, still discernible in the modern townscape; the territory of the Lviv Historic Centre Ensemble covers 120 hectares of the Old Russ and Medieval part of the city, as well as the territory of the St. George’s Cathedral on St. George’s Hill.
The buffer area of the Historic Centre, defined by the historic area bounds, is 3,000 hectares. Beside the listed items of three major areas there are some 2,007 other historical landmarks within the Old City's area, 214 of which are considered national landmarks. Pidzamche High Castle and Sub-castle neighborhood, the original center of the city containing the neighborhood of Old Market Square, the castle was preserved in ruins, however the general area of the city is better known for its name Church of St. Nicholas, the family church of the Halychyna kings Church of St. Paraskeva-Praxedia, contains 1740 inconostasis of the church by Fedor Senkovych Church of St. Onuphrius and Basilian Monastery, contains artworks of Lazar Paslavsky and Modest Sosenko Church of St. John the Baptist, the church was dedicated to the Hungarian wife of King Leo, Constance, a daughter of King Béla IV Church of Snowy Mary, the church of German colonists of the citySeredmistia Ensemble of Rynok Square, contains Lviv Rathaus and square perimeter of housing surrounding it Ensemble of the Church of Assumption, beside the church includes Chapel of Three Prelates and Korniakt's Tower Ensemble of Armenian Church, beside the church includes a belfry, a column with statue of St.
Christopher, a building of former Armenian bank, a palace of the Armenian archbishops, Benedictine Armenian convent Ensemble of Latin Metropolitan Cathedral, beside the cathedral of St. Mary includes Boim Chapel and Kampians' Chapel Ensemble of Bernardine Monastery, includes cathedral, belfry, decorative colon, defensive walls Ensemble of the Jesuit Cathedral and Collegium Ensemble of Dominican Church, beside the church includes monastery and belfry City's fortifications include the City's Arsenal, the Gunpowder Tower, the Turners and Ropemakers' Tower, the Royal Arsenal, a bastion of lower defense wall House of the "Dnister" Insurance CompanyChurch of St. Yura, the DragonfighterSt. George’s Cathedral, beside the cathedral includes the Metropolitan's Palace, capitular houses and fence with two gates Old Town landmarks that are not part of the World Heritage SiteChurch of Carmelites, the Barefooted Church and Nunnery of Carmelites, the Barefooted Church of Poor Clares Church of St. Martin Church of Transfiguration Church of St.
Casimir Lviv Theatre of Opera and Ballet Potocki Palace, Lviv a residence of the President of Ukraine Commodity Stock Exchange List of historic reserves in Ukraine Description at the website of the Institute of History of the NANU Mayor of Lviv Sadovy wants the sanctuary to be discontinued The city council is unaware of the sanctuary Information on a book about the sanctuary published in 1979 Illustrated map of the city Description of the World Heritage site
Jan Alojzy Matejko was a Polish painter known for paintings of notable historical Polish political and military events. His works include large oil on canvas paintings like Rejtan, Union of Lublin or Battle of Grunwald, numerous portraits, a gallery of Polish kings, murals in St. Mary's Basilica, Kraków, he is referred to as the most famous Polish painter or the "national painter" of Poland. Matejko spent most of his life in Kraków, his teachers at the Kraków Academy of Fine Arts included Wojciech Korneli Stattler and Władysław Łuszczkiewicz. He became a director at this institution, renamed the Jan Matejko Academy of Fine Arts. A number of his students became prominent painters themselves, including Maurycy Gottlieb, Jacek Malczewski, Józef Mehoffer and Stanisław Wyspiański. Matejko was born on 24 June 1838, in the Free City of Kraków, his father, Franciszek Ksawery Matejko, a Czech from the village of Roudnice, was a graduate of the Hradec Králové school who became a tutor and music teacher.
He first worked for the Wodzicki family in Kościelniki, Poland moved to Kraków, where he married the half-German, half-Polish Joanna Karolina Rossberg. Jan was the ninth child of eleven children, he grew up in a kamienica building on Floriańska Street. After the death of his mother in 1845, Jan and his siblings were cared for by his maternal aunt, Anna Zamojska. At a young age he witnessed the Kraków revolution of 1846 and the 1848 siege of Kraków by the Austrians, the two events which ended the existence of the Free City of Kraków, his two older brothers served in these battles, under General Józef Bem. Matejko attended St. Ann's High School. From his earliest days Matejko showed artistic talent, but had great difficulty with other academic areas, he never mastered a foreign language. Despite that, because of his exceptional skill, he studied at the School of Fine Arts in Kraków from 1852 to 1858, his teachers included Władysław Łuszczkiewicz. He selected historical painting as his specialization, finished his first major work, Tsars Shuyski before Zygmunt III, in 1853.
During this time, he began exhibiting historical paintings at the Kraków Society of Friends of Fine Arts. His seminal project for his graduation in 1858 was Sigismund I the Old ennobles the professors of the Jagiellonian University. After graduation, Matejko received a scholarship in 1859 to study with Hermann Anschütz at the Academy of Fine Arts, Munich; the following year he received a scholarship to study at the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna as well, but after a few days and a major quarrel with Christian Ruben, Matejko returned to Kraków. and opened a studio at his family home in Floriańska Street. It would however be years. In 1860 Matejko published an illustrated album, Clothing in Poland, a project reflecting his intense interest in historical records of all kinds and his desire to promote such interest among Polish people, to intensify their patriotism, his financial situation improved when he sold two paintings, Death of Wapowski during the crowning of Henry Valois and Jan Kochanowski mourning his daughter Urszulka, which settled his debts.
In 1862 he finished Stańczyk. Received without much applause, in time this would become known as one of Matejko's most famous masterpieces, it marks a visible transition in Matejko's art style, from illustrating history to creating a philosophical and moral commentary of it. During the January Uprising of 1863, in which he did not participate because of poor health, Matejko gave financial support, donating most of his savings to the cause, transported arms to the insurgents' camp, his Skarga's Sermon, finished in May 1864, was displayed in the gallery of the Kraków Society of Friends of Fine Arts, which gained him much publicity. On 5 November that year, in recognition for his contributions to recreating historical themes, he became a member of the Kraków Scientific Society. Soon afterward, on 21 November, he married Teodora Giebultowska, with whom he would have five children: Beata, Tadeusz and Regina. Helena, his daughter an artist, helped victims in World War I and was awarded the Cross of Independence by president Stanisław Wojciechowski.
At that time Matejko started to gain international recognition. In 1865, Matejko's painting Skarga's Sermon was awarded a gold medal at the yearly Paris salon. In 1867, his painting Rejtan was awarded a gold medal at the World Exhibition in Paris and acquired by Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria for 50,000 franks, his next major painting was the Union of Lublin, created in the years 1867-1869. Once again applauded in Paris, it won Matejko a Cross of the French Légion d'honneur. and was purchased by the Sejm of Galicia. Union... was followed by Stefan Batory at Pskov, finished in 1871. In 1872 he visited Istanbul in the Ottoman Empire, a
In Christianity, an archbishop is a bishop of higher rank or office. In some cases, such as the Lutheran Church of Sweden and the Church of England, the title is borne by the leader of the denomination. Like popes, metropolitans, cardinal bishops, diocesan bishops, suffragan bishops, archbishops are in the highest of the three traditional orders of bishops and deacons. An archbishop may be granted the title or ordained as chief pastor of a metropolitan see or another episcopal see to which the title of archbishop is attached. Episcopal sees are arranged in groups in which one see's bishop has certain powers and duties of oversight over the others, he is known as the metropolitan archbishop of. In the Catholic Church, canon 436 of the Code of Canon Law indicates what these powers and duties are for a Latin Church metropolitan archbishop, while those of the head of an autonomous Eastern Catholic Churches are indicated in canon 157 of the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches; as well as the much more numerous metropolitan sees, there are 77 Roman Catholic sees that have archiepiscopal rank.
In some cases, such a see is the only one in a country, such as Luxembourg or Monaco, too small to be divided into several dioceses so as to form an ecclesiastical province. In others, the title of archdiocese is for historical reasons attributed to a see, once of greater importance; some of these archdioceses are suffragans of a metropolitan archdiocese. Others are subject to the Holy See and not to any metropolitan archdiocese; these are "aggregated" to an ecclesiastical province. An example is the Archdiocese of Hobart in Australia, associated with the Metropolitan ecclesiastical province of Melbourne, but not part of it; the ordinary of such an archdiocese is an archbishop. Until 1970, a coadjutor archbishop, one who has special faculties and the right to succeed to the leadership of a see on the death or resignation of the incumbent, was assigned to a titular see, which he held until the moment of succession. Since the title of Coadjutor Archbishop of the see is considered sufficient and more appropriate.
The rank of archbishop is conferred on some bishops. They hold the rank not because of the see that they head but because it has been granted to them personally; such a grant can be given when someone who holds the rank of archbishop is transferred to a see that, though its present-day importance may be greater than the person's former see, is not archiepiscopal. The bishop transferred is known as the Archbishop-Bishop of his new see. An example is Gianfranco Gardin, appointed Archbishop-Bishop of Treviso on 21 December 2009; the title borne by the successor of such an archbishop-bishop is that of Bishop of the see, unless he is granted the personal title of Archbishop. The distinction between metropolitan sees and non-metropolitan archiepiscopal sees exists for titular sees as well as for residential ones; the Annuario Pontificio marks titular sees of the former class with the abbreviation Metr. and the others with Arciv. Many of the titular sees to which nuncios and heads of departments of the Roman Curia who are not cardinals are assigned are not of archiepiscopal rank.
In that case the person, appointed to such a position is given the personal title of archbishop. They are referred to as Archbishop of the see, not as its Archbishop-Bishop. If an archbishop resigns his see without being transferred to another, as in the case of retirement or assignment to head a department of the Roman Curia, the word emeritus is added to his former title, he is called Archbishop Emeritus of his former see; until 1970, such archbishops were transferred to a titular see. There can be several Archbishops Emeriti of the same see: The 2008 Annuario Pontificio listed three living Archbishops Emeriti of Taipei. There is no Archbishop Emeritus of a titular see: An archbishop who holds a titular see keeps it until death or until transferred to another see. In the Anglican Communion, retired archbishops formally revert to being addressed as "bishop" and styled "The Right Reverend", although they may be appointed "archbishop emeritus" by their province on retirement, in which case they retain the title "archbishop" and the style "The Most Reverend", as a right.
Archbishop Desmond Tutu is a prominent example, as Archbishop Emeritus of Cape Town. Former archbishops who have not received the status of archbishop emeritus may still be informally addressed as "archbishop" as a courtesy, unless they are subsequently appointed to a bishopric, in which case, the courtesy ceases. While there is no difference between the official dress of archbishops, as such, that of other bishops, Roman Catholic metropolitan archbishops are distinguished by the use in liturgical ceremonies of the pallium, but only within the province over which they have oversight. Roman Catholic bishops and archbishops are styled "The Most Reverend" and addressed as "Your Excellency" in most cases. In English-speaking countries, a Catholic archbishop is addressed as "Your Grace", while a Catholic bishop is addressed as "Your Lordship". Before December 12, 1930, the title "Most Reverend" was only for archbishops, while bishops were styled as "Right Reverend"; this practice is still followed by Catholic bishops in the United Kingdom to mirror that of
Lwów Eaglets is a term of affection applied to the Polish teenagers who defended the city of Lwów in Eastern Galicia, during the Polish-Ukrainian War. The city now known as the Ukrainian Lviv was before the breakdown of the Austro-Hungarian empire known as Lemberg, the capital of one of the Habsburg dominions, namely the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. Poles were the prevailing ethnic group in the province overall, but in the eastern Galician territories Ukrainians were a majority, Poles a significant minority dominating the cities along with Jews. In Lemberg, according to the Austrian census of 1910, 51% of the city's population were Roman Catholics, 28% Jews, 19% Ukrainian Greek Catholics. 86 % of the city's population spoke 11 % Ukrainian. In the final days of the collapsing Habsburg empire, on November 1, 1918, Ukrainian soldiers from Austrian army units occupied Lemberg's public buildings and military depots, raised Ukrainian flags throughout the city and proclaimed the birth of a new Ukrainian state.
While the Ukrainian residents enthusiastically supported the proclamation, the city's significant Jewish minority remained neutral towards it and the Polish residents, the majority of the city's inhabitants, were shocked to find themselves in a Ukrainian state. Reacting to this military revolution, Poles rose up throughout the city. Polish forces numbering only about 200, organized a small pocket of resistance in a school at the western outskirts, where a group of veterans of the Polish Military Organization put up a fight armed with 64 outdated rifles. After initial clashes, the defenders were joined by hundreds of volunteers boy scouts and youngsters. More than 1000 people joined the Polish ranks in the first day of the fighting. Among these were many young volunteers, who became known as the Lwów Eaglets; this term was confined to those who had participated in the fights within the city between November 1 and November 22, 1918, the following siege by the Ukrainian army between November 23, 1918 and May 22, 1919.
With time, the term's application was broadened, it is now used for all the young soldiers who fought in the area of Eastern Galicia for the Polish cause in the Polish-Ukrainian War and the Polish-Bolshevik War. In addition to the young Polish nationals of Lviv, those fighting in the Polish-Ukrainian battle for Przemyśl are frequently referred to as Przemyskie Orlęta. After the Polish-Ukrainian conflict, the Lwów Eaglets were interred at the Cemetery of the Defenders of Lwów, part of the Lychakiv Cemetery; the Cemetery of the Defenders held the remains of both teenaged and adult soldiers, including foreign volunteers from France and the United States. The Cemetery of the Defenders of Lwów was designed by Rudolf Indruch, a student at the Lviv Institute of Architecture, himself an Eaglet. Among the most notable Eaglets to be buried there was 14-year-old Jerzy Bitschan, the youngest of the city's defenders, whose name became an icon of the Polish interbellum. Resting in the Eaglet's pantheon is six-year-old Oswald Anissimo, executed together with his father Michał by the Ukrainian soldiers.
After the annexation of Eastern Galicia with the city of Lwów by the Soviet Union in World War II and the following expulsion of the Polish population from the city, the graves were destroyed in 1971, the Cemetery of the Defenders of Lwów was turned into a municipal waste dump and into truck depot. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the formation of an independent Ukraine, work began on the restoration of the "Eaglets' Cemetery", although slowed by opposition of local nationalists. Following Polish support for Ukraine's Orange Revolution, the opposition declined and the Cemetery was reopened in a Polish-Ukrainian ceremony on June 24, 2005; the last surviving Lwów Eaglet, Major Aleksander Sałacki, died in Tychy, on April 5, 2008. Battle of Lwów Battle of Zadwórze Leopold Lis-Kula Official website Defenders of Lwow website With the Lwów Eaglets dear to their hearts, Orlęta, Polish Folk Song and Dance Group recreate an evening cafe scene in Lwów from the 1920s
Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II was the head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005. He was elected pope by the second Papal conclave of 1978, called after Pope John Paul I, elected in August to succeed Pope Paul VI, died after 33 days. Cardinal Wojtyła was elected on the third day of the conclave and adopted his predecessor's name in tribute to him. John Paul II is recognised as helping to end Communist rule in his native Poland and all of Europe. John Paul II improved the Catholic Church's relations with Judaism, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Anglican Communion, he upheld the Church's teachings on such matters as artificial contraception, the ordination of women, a celibate clergy, although he supported the reforms of the Second Vatican Council, he was seen as conservative in their interpretation. He was one of the most travelled world leaders in history, visiting 129 countries during his pontificate; as part of his special emphasis on the universal call to holiness, he beatified 1,340 and canonised 483 people, more than the combined tally of his predecessors during the preceding five centuries.
By the time of his death, he had named most of the College of Cardinals, consecrated or co-consecrated a large number of the world's bishops, ordained many priests. A key goal of John Paul's papacy was to reposition the Catholic Church, his wish was "to place his Church at the heart of a new religious alliance that would bring together Jews and Christians in a great religious armada". John Paul II was the second longest-serving pope in modern history after Pope Pius IX, who served for nearly 32 years from 1846 to 1878. Born in Poland, John Paul II was the first non-Italian pope since the Dutch Pope Adrian VI, who served from 1522 to 1523. John Paul II's cause for canonisation commenced in 2005 one month after his death with the traditional five-year waiting period waived. On 19 December 2009, John Paul II was proclaimed Venerable by his successor Pope Benedict XVI and was beatified on 1 May 2011 after the Congregation for the Causes of Saints attributed one miracle to his intercession, the healing of a French nun from Parkinson's disease.
A second miracle attributed to John Paul II's intercession was approved on 2 July 2013, confirmed by Pope Francis two days later. John Paul II was canonised on 27 April 2014, together with Pope John XXIII. On 11 September 2014, Pope Francis added these two optional memorials to the worldwide General Roman Calendar of saints, in response to worldwide requests, it is traditional to celebrate saints' feast days on the anniversary of their deaths, but that of John Paul II is celebrated on the anniversary of his papal inauguration. Posthumously, he has been referred to by some Catholics as "St. John Paul the Great", although the title has no official recognition. Karol Józef Wojtyła was born in the Polish town of Wadowice, he was the youngest of three children born to Karol Wojtyła, an ethnic Pole, Emilia Kaczorowska, whose mother's maiden surname was Scholz. Emilia, a schoolteacher, died from a heart attack and kidney failure in 1929 when Wojtyła was eight years old, his elder sister Olga had died before his birth, but he was close to his brother Edmund, nicknamed Mundek, 13 years his senior.
Edmund's work as a physician led to his death from scarlet fever, a loss that affected Wojtyła deeply. As a boy, Wojtyła was athletic playing football as goalkeeper. During his childhood, Wojtyła had contact with Wadowice's large Jewish community. School football games were organised between teams of Jews and Catholics, Wojtyła played on the Jewish side. "I remember. At elementary school there were fewer. With some I was on friendly terms, and what struck me about some of them was their Polish patriotism." It was around this time. He became close to a girl called Ginka Beer, described as "a Jewish beauty, with stupendous eyes and jet black hair, slender, a superb actress."In mid-1938, Wojtyła and his father left Wadowice and moved to Kraków, where he enrolled at the Jagiellonian University. While studying such topics as philology and various languages, he worked as a volunteer librarian and was required to participate in compulsory military training in the Academic Legion, but he refused to fire a weapon.
He worked as a playwright. During this time, his talent for language blossomed, he learned as many as 12 languages — Polish, Italian, Portuguese, English, Ukrainian, Serbo-Croatian and Esperanto, nine of which he used extensively as pope. In 1939, Nazi German occupation forces closed the university after invading Poland. Able-bodied males were required to work, so from 1940 to 1944 Wojtyła variously worked as a messenger for a restaurant, a manual labourer in a limestone quarry and for the Solvay chemical factory, to avoid deportation to Germany. In 1940 he was struck by a tram; the same year he was hit by a lorry in a quarry, which left him with one shoulder higher than the other and a permanent stoop. His father, a former Austro-Hungarian non-commissioned officer and officer in the Polish Army, died of a heart attack in 1941, leaving Wojtyła as the immediate family's only surviving member
Lviv Dormition Brotherhood
Lviv Dormition Brotherhood known as Lviv Stauropegion Brotherhood was an influential religious organization associated with the Dormition Church in Lviv and one of the oldest Brotherhood Orthodox organizations. It was first an association of Orthodox and from 1708 Greek Catholic burghers in Lviv. Like other brotherhoods in Ukraine, it is a military force tasked with defending the Orthodox church and the faith against Polish and Latin influences; the organization possessed stauropegion rights and oversaw not only activities of its secular members, but clergy and sometimes bishops. Members of any estate had a chance to join the brotherhood. Money contributed to the society were used to fund Monastery and church of St. Onuphrius and Dormition Church. With the help of the brotherhood, Lviv Orthodox eparchy, liquidated by the Kingdom of Poland after annexation of Galicia was revived in 1539. Lviv Dormition Brotherhood had its own publishing house, operated hospitals, elderly homes and provided other community services.
It founded a school in 1585 and campaigned against clerics who neglect their religious duties. It was a military force that fought the Polish and Latin influences although it capitulated to the latter, subsequently joining Unia or the Eastern Catholic Churches in the eighteenth century, its first recorded organizational statute was approved by Patriarch of Antioch Joachim IV in 1586. In 1708 it accepted the Union of Brest. Following the partitions of Poland, in 1788 the Austrian authorities liquidated the organizations, reformed into the Stauropegion Institute. In 1989 Lviv Dormition Brotherhood was revived on the efforts of Volodymyr Yarema who at that time was a priest of the Moscow's Patriarchate Church of Peter and Paul. Since fall of the Soviet Union, it is associated with Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church. Monastery and church of St. Onuphrius, Lviv Ivan Fyodorov, Konstanty Korniakt Isaievych Ia. Volunatary Brotherland: Confraternities of Laymen in Early Modern Ukraine. Edmonton–Toronto, 2006 Lviv Dormition Brotherhood in the Encyclopedia of Ukraine Lviv Dormition Brotherhood in the Historical Dictionary of Ukraine Lviv Regional Stauropegion Brotherhood official website Isaievych, Ya.
Lviv Brotherhood. Encyclopedia of History of Ukraine
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term dioikesis meaning "administration". Today, when used in an ecclesiastical sense, it refers to the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop. In the organization of the Roman Empire, the subdivided provinces were administratively associated in a larger unit, the diocese. After Christianity was given legal status in 313, the Churches began to organize themselves into dioceses based on provinces, not on the larger regional imperial districts; the dioceses were smaller than the provinces since there were more bishops than governors. Christianity was declared the Empire's official religion by Theodosius I in 380. Constantine I in 318 gave litigants the right to have court cases transferred from the civil courts to the bishops; this situation must have hardly survived Julian, 361-363. Episcopal courts are not heard of again in the East until 398 and in the West in 408; the quality of these courts were low, not above suspicion as the bishop of Alexandria Troas found out that clergy were making a corrupt profit.
Nonetheless, these courts were popular. Bishops had no part in the civil administration until the town councils, in decline, lost much authority to a group of'notables' made up of the richest councilors and rich persons exempted from serving on the councils, retired military, bishops post-450 A. D; as the Western Empire collapsed in the 5th century, bishops in Western Europe assumed a larger part of the role of the former Roman governors. A similar, though less pronounced, development occurred in the East, where the Roman administrative apparatus was retained by the Byzantine Empire. In modern times, many dioceses, though subdivided, have preserved the boundaries of a long-vanished Roman administrative division. For Gaul, Bruce Eagles has observed that "it has long been an academic commonplace in France that the medieval dioceses, their constituent pagi, were the direct territorial successors of the Roman civitates."Modern usage of'diocese' tends to refer to the sphere of a bishop's jurisdiction.
This became commonplace during the self-conscious "classicizing" structural evolution of the Carolingian Empire in the 9th century, but this usage had itself been evolving from the much earlier parochia, dating from the formalized Christian authority structure in the 4th century. Most archdioceses are metropolitan sees. A few are suffragans of a metropolitan are directly subject to the Holy See. While the terms "diocese" and "episcopal see" are applicable to the area under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of any bishop, a bishop in charge of an archdiocese thereby holds the rank of archbishop. If the title of archbishop is granted on personal grounds to a diocesan bishop, his diocese does not thereby become an archdiocese; as of January 2019, in the Catholic Church there are 2,886 regular dioceses: 1 papal see, 645 archdioceses and 2,240 dioceses in the world. In the Eastern rites in communion with the Pope, the equivalent unit is called an eparchy; the Eastern Orthodox Church calls dioceses episkopē in the Greek tradition and eparchies in the Slavic tradition.
After the English Reformation, the Church of England retained the existing diocesan structure which remains throughout the Anglican Communion. The one change is that the areas administered under the Archbishop of Canterbury and Archbishop of York are properly referred to as dioceses, not archdioceses: they are the metropolitan bishops of their respective provinces and bishops of their own diocese and have the position of archbishop. Certain Lutheran denominations such as the Church of Sweden do have individual dioceses similar to Roman Catholics; these dioceses and archdioceses are under the government of a bishop. Other Lutheran bodies and synods that have dioceses and bishops include the Church of Denmark, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, the Evangelical Church in Germany, the Church of Norway. From about the 13th century until the German mediatization of 1803, the majority of the bishops of the Holy Roman Empire were prince-bishops, as such exercised political authority over a principality, their so-called Hochstift, distinct, considerably smaller than their diocese, over which they only exercised the usual authority of a bishop.
Some American Lutheran church bodies such as the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America have a bishop acting as the head of the synod, but the synod does not have dioceses and archdioceses as the churches listed above. Rather, it is divided into a middle judicatory; the Lutheran Church - International, based in Springfield, presently uses a traditional diocesan structure, with four dioceses in North America. Its current president is Archbishop Robert W. Hotes; the Church of God in Christ has dioceses throughout the United States. In the COGIC, most states are divided into at least three or more dioceses that are each led by a bishop; these dioceses are called "jurisdictions" within COGIC. In the Latter Day Saint movement, the term "bishopric" is used to describe the bishop himself, together with his two counselors, not the ward or congregation of which a bishop has charge. In the United Methodist Church, a bishop is given oversight over a geographical area called an episcopal area; each episcopal area contains one or more an