Hindi, or Modern Standard Hindi is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language. Hindi, written in the Devanagari script, is one of the official languages of India, along with the English language, it is one of the 22 scheduled languages of the Republic of India. However, it is not the national language of India because no language was given such a status in the Indian constitution. Hindi is the lingua franca of the Hindi belt, to a lesser extent other parts of India. Outside India, several other languages are recognized as "Hindi" but do not refer to the Standard Hindi language described here and instead descend from other dialects of Hindustani, such as Awadhi and Bhojpuri; such languages include Fiji Hindi, official in Fiji, Caribbean Hindustani, a recognized language in Trinidad and Tobago and Suriname. Apart from specialized vocabulary, spoken Hindi is mutually intelligible with Urdu, another recognized register of Hindustani; as a linguistic variety, Hindi is the fourth most-spoken first language in the world, after Mandarin and English.
Alongside Urdu as Hindustani, it is the third most-spoken language in the world, after Mandarin and English. The term Hindī was used to refer to inhabitants of the region east of the Indus, it was borrowed from Classical Persian Hindī, meaning "Indian", from the proper noun Hind "India". The name Hindavī was used by Amir Khusrow in his poetry. Like other Indo-Aryan languages, Hindi is a direct descendant of an early form of Vedic Sanskrit, through Sauraseni Prakrit and Śauraseni Apabhraṃśa, which emerged in the 7th century A. D. Modern Standard Hindi is based on the Khariboli dialect, the vernacular of Delhi and the surrounding region, which came to replace earlier prestige dialects such as Awadhi and Braj. Urdu – another form of Hindustani – acquired linguistic prestige in the Mughal period, underwent significant Persian influence. Modern Hindi and its literary tradition evolved towards the end of the 18th century. However, modern Hindi's earlier literary stages before standardization can be traced to the 16th century.
In the late 19th century, a movement to further develop Hindi as a standardised form of Hindustani separate from Urdu took form. In 1881, Bihar accepted Hindi as its sole official language, replacing Urdu, thus became the first state of India to adopt Hindi. Modern Standard Hindi is one of the youngest Indian languages in this regard. After independence, the government of India instituted the following conventions: standardisation of grammar: In 1954, the Government of India set up a committee to prepare a grammar of Hindi. Standardisation of the orthography, using the Devanagari script, by the Central Hindi Directorate of the Ministry of Education and Culture to bring about uniformity in writing, to improve the shape of some Devanagari characters, introducing diacritics to express sounds from other languages. On 14 September 1949, the Constituent Assembly of India adopted Hindi written in the Devanagari script as the official language of the Republic of India replacing Urdu's previous usage in British India.
To this end, several stalwarts rallied and lobbied pan-India in favor of Hindi, most notably Beohar Rajendra Simha along with Hazari Prasad Dwivedi, Kaka Kalelkar, Maithili Sharan Gupt and Seth Govind Das who debated in Parliament on this issue. As such, on the 50th birthday of Beohar Rajendra Simha on 14 September 1949, the efforts came to fruition following the adoption of Hindi as the official language. Now, it is celebrated as Hindi Day. In Northeast India a pidgin known as Haflong Hindi has developed as a lingua franca for various tribes in Assam that speak other languages natively. In Arunachal Pradesh, Hindi emerged as a lingua franca among locals who speak over 50 dialects natively. Part XVII of the Indian Constitution deals with the official language of the Indian Commonwealth. Under Article 343, the official languages of the Union has been prescribed, which includes Hindi in Devanagari script and English: The official language of the Union shall be Hindi in Devanagari script; the form of numerals to be used for the official purposes of the Union shall be the international form of Indian numerals.
Notwithstanding anything in clause, for a period of fifteen years from the commencement of this Constitution, the English language shall continue to be used for all the official purposes of the Union for which it was being used before such commencement: Provided that the President may, during the said period, by order authorize the use of the Hindi language in addition to the English language and of the Devanagari form of numerals in addition to the international form of Indian numerals for any of the official purposes of the Union. Article 351 of the Indian constitution states It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language, to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment by assimilating without interfering with its genius, the forms and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule, by drawing, wherever necessary or desirable, for its vocabulary on Sanskrit and secondarily on other languages.
It was envisioned that Hindi would become the sole working language of the Union Government by 1965 (per directi
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Malabar Hill, is a hillock and upmarket VIP residential neighbourhood in South Mumbai, India. Malabar Hill is the most exclusive residential area in Mumbai, home to several business tycoons and film personalities. Notable residents include Adi Godrej, the Birla family, Shashi Ruia & family, Pallonji Mistry, Mahesh Jethmalani, the Jindal family, the Petit family, the Thakkar family and the Lal family etc. Prominent landmarks include the Chief Minister of Maharashtra's Bungalow, Government Guest House Sahyadri, official residences of VVIP state officials and additionally the Hanging Gardens, Jain Temple & Banganga Tank. Malabar Hill is the location of the Walkeshwar Temple, founded by the Silhara kings; the original temple was destroyed by the Portuguese, but rebuilt again in 1715 by Rama Kamath, by 1860, 10 to 20 other temples were built in the region. Mountstuart Elphinstone built the first bungalow in Malabar Hill while he was Governor of Bombay, between 1819 and 1827. Following his example, the place soon became an affluent locality.
Raj Bhavan, the official residence of the Governor of Maharashtra,'Varsha', the official residence of the Chief Minister of Maharashtra,'Glenogle' the official residence of the General Manager of Central Railway are located here. Houses here are amongst the most expensive in the world. An unhindered view of Back Bay, with the Girgaum Chowpatti beach in the foreground, the Nariman Point skyline in the background is one of the reasons for the sky-high real estate prices in this district. In January 2012, Maheshwari House was sold to industrialist Sajjan Jindal of Jindal Steel for 400 crores or > Rs. 92,000 per square foot. ). The most expensive private residence lies just outside Malabar Hill on Altamount Road off Pedder Road, namely Antilla, the 27-storey, billion-dollar tower in Mumbai, owned by India's richest and the world's ninth-richest person Mukesh Ambani, the chairman of Reliance Industries. Buses only started serving this area during World War II. South Court, the former residence of Mohammad Ali Jinnah, founder of Pakistan is present here, but is closed to public due to property disputes.
Of note in the Malabar Hill district, there is a cremation ground that sits near the sea, home to the samadhi shrines of several famous Indian saints. Notably among them is the samadhi shrine of the guru of Shri Nisargadatta Maharaj, Shri Siddharameshwar Maharaj, as well as the samadhi shrine of his devoted disciple Shri Ranjit Maharaj. Http://www.amazingmaharashtra.com/2013/04/malabar-hill.html
Jehangir Sabavala was an Indian painter. Jehangir Ardeshir Sabavala was born to an affluent Parsi family in India, his mother belonged to the aristocratic Cowasjee Jehangir family. He studied at Cathedral and John Connon School, Elphinstone College, earned a diploma from Mumbai's Sir J. J. School of Art in 1944. Thereafter he went to Europe and studied at the Heatherley School of Fine Art, in Academie Andre Lhote, the Académie Julian, at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière in 1957. Since 1951, he has held 31 major solo exhibitions across the subcontinent, in Europe, he has participated in more than 150 group exhibitions all over the world. His work is in several important private and public collections, such as the National Gallery of Modern Art, New Delhi, Birla Academy of Fine Arts, Parliament House, New Delhi, The Punjab Government Museum, Air India Mumbai, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, The National gallery of South Australia, Adelaide. Sabavala did not allow archives of his 12 scrapbooks on materials from the early 1940s to the 2000 online.
Arun Khopkar's film on Sabavala's life and art, Colours of Absence, won the National Award in 1994. In 2010, another film about his life was made, The Inheritance of Light: Jehangir Sabavala, his last solo exhibition,'Ricorso', was held at the Sakshi Gallery, Mumbai, in 2008. In 2010, one of his serene landscapes called Casuarina Line fetched Rs 17 million at a Saffronart auction. One of his paintings titled Vespers 1, was sold for £253,650 at a Bonhams sale in London. Due to his academic training in Europe, Jehangir Sabavala’s artistic style was a blend of Cubism and Impressionism, adapted to India’s vibrant colours and landscapes, he took inspiration amongst them nature was dominant. Sabavala trekked along the Western Ghats of India to absorb nature and depict it in his distinct style. Having a philosophical bent of mind, he used to paint human figures clad in black or white robes against dramatic landscapes; these figures were wanderers depicted as monks, set on the journey of life. Jehangir was married to Shirin Dastur.
Padma Shri by the Government of India - 1977 Lalit Kala Ratna, the Fellowship of Lalit Kala Akademi, India's National Academy of Arts, by the President of India - 2007 Dilip Chitre, The Reasoning Vision: Jehangir Sabavala's Painterly Universe. ISBN 978-0-07-096622-2 Ranjit Hoskote, Exile, Sorcerer: The Painterly Evolution of Jehangir Sabavala. ISBN 81-900602-2-8 Ranjit Hoskote, The Crucible of Painting: The Art of Jehangir Sabavala. ISBN 81-902170-9-7 Jehangir Sabavala profile at Saffronart The Inheritance of Light: Jehangir Sabavala on YouTube Jehangir Sabavala: A Master’s Lasting Impression on Indian Modern Art Jehangir Sabavala: Artist Profile and Artworks
Homi J. Bhabha
Homi Jehangir Bhabha was an Indian nuclear physicist, founding director, professor of physics at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research. Colloquially known as "father of the Indian nuclear programme", Bhabha was the founding director of the Atomic Energy Establishment, Trombay, now named the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in his honor. TIFR and AEET were the cornerstone of Indian development of nuclear weapons which Bhabha supervised as director. Bhabha was awarded the Adams Padma Bhushan, he was nominated for the Nobel Prize for Physics in the years 1951 and 1953–1956. Homi Jehangir Bhabha was born into a wealthy and prominent industrial family, through which he was related to businessmen Dinshaw Maneckji Petit, Dorabji Tata, he was born on 30 October 1909, in an illustrious family with a long tradition of learning and service to the country. His father was Jehangir Hormusji Bhabha, a well known Parsi lawyer and his mother was Meheren, he received his early studies at Bombay's Cathedral and John Connon School and entered Elphinstone College at age 15 after passing his Senior Cambridge Examination with Honors.
He attended the Royal Institute of Science in 1927 before joining Caius College of Cambridge University. This was due to the insistence of his father and his uncle Dorab Tata, who planned for Bhabha to obtain a degree in mechanical engineering from Cambridge and return to India, where he would join the Tata Steel or Tata Steel Mills in Jamshedpur as a metallurgist. Bhabha's father understood his son's predicament, he agreed to finance his studies in mathematics provided that he obtain first class on his Mechanical Sciences Tripos exam. Bhabha passed with first class. Afterwards, he excelled in his mathematical studies under Paul Dirac to complete the Mathematics Tripos. Meanwhile, he worked at the Cavendish Laboratory while working towards his doctorate in theoretical physics. At the time, the laboratory was the center of a number of scientific breakthroughs. James Chadwick had discovered the neutron, John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton transmuted lithium with high-energy protons, Patrick Blackett and Giuseppe Occhialini used cloud chambers to demonstrate the production of electron pairs and showers by gamma radiation.
During the 1931–1932 academic year, Bhabha was awarded the Salomons Studentship in Engineering. In 1932, he obtained first class on his Mathematical Tripos and was awarded the Rouse Ball traveling studentship in mathematics. During this time, nuclear physics was attracting the greatest minds and it was one of the most emerging fields as compared to theoretical physics, the opposition towards theoretical physics attacked the field because it was lenient towards theories rather than proving natural phenomenon through experiments. Conducting experiments on particles which released enormous amounts of radiation, was a lifelong passion of Bhabha, his leading edge research and experiments brought great laurels to Indian physicists who switched their fields to nuclear physics, one of the most notable being Piara Singh Gill. In January 1933, Bhabha received his doctorate in nuclear physics after publishing his first scientific paper, "The Absorption of Cosmic radiation". In the publication, Bhabha offered an explanation of the absorption features and electron shower production in cosmic rays.
The paper helped him win the Isaac Newton Studentship in 1934, which he held for the next three years. The following year, he completed his doctoral studies in theoretical physics under Ralph H. Fowler. During his studentship, he split his time working with Niels Bohr in Copenhagen. In 1935, Bhabha published a paper in the Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series A, in which he performed the first calculation to determine the cross section of electron-positron scattering. Electron-positron scattering was named Bhabha scattering, in honor of his contributions in the field. In 1936, with Walter Heitler, he co-authored a paper, "The Passage of Fast Electrons and the Theory of Cosmic Showers" in the Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series A, in which they used their theory to describe how primary cosmic rays from outer space interact with the upper atmosphere to produce particles observed at the ground level. Bhabha and Heitler made numerical estimates of the number of electrons in the cascade process at different altitudes for different electron initiation energies.
The calculations agreed with the experimental observations of cosmic ray showers made by Bruno Rossi and Pierre Victor Auger a few years before. Bhabha concluded that observations of the properties of such particles would lead to the straightforward experimental verification of Albert Einstein's theory of relativity. In 1937, Bhabha was awarded the Senior Studentship of the 1851 exhibition, which helped him continue his work at Cambridge until the outbreak of World War II in 1939. In September 1939, Bhabha was in India for a brief holiday when World War II started, he decided not to return to England for the time being, he accepted an offer to serve as the Reader in the Physics Department of the Indian Institute of Science headed by renowned physicist C. V. Raman, he received a special research grant from the Sir Dorab Tata Trust, which he used to establish the Cosmic Ray Research Unit at the Institute. Bhabha selected a few students, including Harish-Chandra. On 20 March 1941, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.
With the help of J. R. D. Tata, he played an instrumental role in the establishment of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Mumbai. Starting his nuclear physics career in Britain, Bhabha had returned to India for his annual vacation bef
Ameesha Patel is an Indian actress and model who predominantly appears in Bollywood films. She has appeared in a few Telugu and Tamil films, she has won a Filmfare Award. Patel made her acting debut in the 2000 blockbuster romantic thriller film Kaho Naa... Pyaar Hai, she rose to prominence by featuring in top grossing productions- Gadar: Ek Prem Katha, which became one of the biggest hits in the history of Hindi cinema, earning her a Filmfare Special Performance Award and Kya Yehi Pyaar Hai. She received critical recognition for her performance in Ankahee. Subsequently, she featured in box-office hits Honeymoon Travels Pvt. Ltd. and Bhool Bhulaiyaa which proved to be her first commercial success in five years. In 2013, she made an extended special appearance in Race 2. Patel is cited as one of the "sexiest" Bollywood actresses of all time. Rediff featured Patel as one of the top Bollywood actresses of 2001. In 2011, she founded her own production company Ameesha Patel Productions. Patel was born in a Gujarati family to Asha Patel.
She is the sister of Ashmit Patel and the granddaughter of the famous lawyer-politician Barrister Rajni Patel, the Congress Pradesh Committee President of Mumbai. She was born in the Breach Candy Hospital in Mumbai and has been a trained Bharatnatyam dancer since the age of five, her birth name is a blend of the first three letters of her father's name Amit and the last three letters of her mother's name Asha. She studied at the Cathedral and John Connon School in Mumbai and was head girl for the academic year 1992–93 before heading to Tufts University in USA to study Bio-genetic engineering, which she studied for two years, switching to Economics. Patel's career began as an economic analyst at Khandwala Securities Limited after graduation. On, she received an offer from Morgan Stanley but turned it down. After returning to India, she joined Satyadev Dubey's theatre group and acted in plays, including an Urdu language play titled Neelam, written by Tanveer Khan, upon receiving permission from her conservative parents.
At the same time she plunged into modelling. Patel has modelled for well-known Indian brands such as Bajaj Sevashram, Fair & Lovely, Cadburys Jai Lime, Fem and many more. Patel's first opportunity for acting came in the form of an offer from her father's schoolmate, Rakesh Roshan, to star opposite his son, Hrithik Roshan, in Kaho Naa... Pyaar Hai; the offer came after she graduated from high school, but she refused the project because she wanted to continue her education in the US. Afterwards, Kareena Kapoor replaced her, but luckily, Kapoor dropped out a few days into the principal photography and Patel was given the opportunity once again during a family lunch, she agreed to do the project this time. The role of an exuberant college girl in love, undergoing a tortuous time at losing her lover and rediscovering a more mature relationship gave Patel scope to perform; the film was a smashing success and established Patel as a rising star, earning her awards for Best Debut at a number of award ceremonies.
In her second film, the Telugu language drama Badri, she starred opposite Pawan Kalyan. The film was a major success, grossing more than Rs 120 million in India.2001 saw her appearing in Anil Sharma's cross-border romance Gadar: Ek Prem Katha, alongside Sunny Deol. Patel signed on much before she shot into the limelight with Kaho Naa... Pyaar Hai and was among 22 girls that were screen-tested from 500 girls who came to audition for the film. Patel had gone through a 12-hour audition; the film went on to become the top-grossing film of the year, as well as the biggest hit of the 21st century, earning Rs 973 million in India. Set during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947, it featured Patel as Sakeena, a Muslim girl who finds refuge in Deol's house during the riots, subsequently falls for him, her performance was praised, won her the Filmfare Special Performance Award, as well as nominations for Best Actress at various award ceremonies. Taran Adarsh of IndiaFM concluded: "Despite being one-film-old, Amisha Patel deserves full marks for handling the complex role with elegance.
She looks the character she is portraying and impresses with a natural performance." The film was perceived as being excessively anti-Pakistani. These successes were followed by a series of films. In Yeh Zindagi Ka Safar, she played a successful singer, abandoned by her mother at the time of her birth. In 2002, Patel had three failures. In Aap Mujhe Achche Lagne Lage, she played the role of Sapna, caged in protective custody of her own father, she co-starred opposite Hrithik Roshan for the second time in this film. Unlike their successful pairing in Kaho Naa... Pyaar Hai, the film proved to be a disappointment and resulted in a critical and commercial failure. Patel's performance in the film was criticised by a section of the media, but during an interview she clarified that there was an "error" because the scene explaining that her character is supposed to be asthmatic in the film was edited out not knowing that one shot would make such a difference, thus creating confusion to the viewer about her appearing out of breath, as if she's overacting or crying.
Patel's unsuccessful follow-up continued with Kranti and David Dhawan's comedy Yeh Hai Jalwa in 2002. In the same year, she tasted minor box office success with Kya Yehi Pyaar Hai, in which she played a career-oriented young woman who rejects the advances of Aftab Shivdasani's character, she found another major success when her last release of the year, became the fifth highest-grossing film of the year at