The Cathedral of Learning is a building that serves as the centerpiece of the University of Pittsburgh's main campus in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh, United States. Standing at 535 feet, the 42-story Late Gothic Revival Cathedral is the tallest educational building in the Western hemisphere and the second-tallest university building in the world, after the main building of Moscow State University, it is the second-tallest gothic-styled building in the world. The Cathedral of Learning was commissioned in 1921 and ground was broken in 1926 under general contractor Stone & Webster; the first class was held in the building in 1931 and its exterior finished in October 1934, prior to its formal dedication in June 1937. It is a Pittsburgh landmark listed in the National Register of Historic Places. Colloquially referred to as "Cathy" by some Pitt students, the Cathedral of Learning is a steel frame structure overlaid with Indiana limestone and contains more than 2,000 rooms and windows, it functions as a primary classroom and administrative center of the university, is home to the Dietrich School of Arts and Sciences, the School of Social Work, many of its departments, as well as the University Honors College.
It houses many specialty spaces, including a studio theater, food court, study lounges, offices and language labs, 31 Nationality Rooms, a 1⁄2-acre, 4-story-high, gothic study and event hall. The building contains noted examples of stained glass, stone and iron work and is used by the university in photographs and other advertisements; the basement and floors up to floor 40 are used for educational purposes, although most floors above 36 house the building's mechanical equipment. These floors include theaters, computer laboratories, language laboratories and departmental offices; the basement contains a black box theater and the ground floor contains computer labs, language labs and the Cathedral Café food court. The "lobby", comprising the first through third floors, contains a massive gothic "Commons Room", used as a general study area and for special events and is ringed by three floors of classrooms, including, on the first and third floors, the 31 Nationality Rooms designed by members of Pittsburgh's ethnic communities in the styles of different nations and ethnic groups.
Twenty-eight of these serve as functional classrooms while more conventional classrooms are located on the second floor and elsewhere throughout the building. The first floor serves as the home to the offices of the Chancellor, Executive Vice Chancellor, other administration offices, as well as the Nationality Rooms Gift Shop; the fourth floor, home to the main stacks of the university's library and the McCarl Center for Nontraditional Student Success, now houses a mix of interdisciplinary studies programs. The fifth floor housed the main borrowing and reading rooms of the university library, now houses the Department of English; the Pitt Humanities Center is housed on the sixth floor. The University Honors College is located on the 36th floors; the Cathedral of Learning houses the Department of Philosophy, as of 2009 considered one of the top five in the United States, the Department of History and Philosophy of Science ranked at the top of the field. Other departments in the Cathedral include English, Religious Studies, Theatre Arts, the School of Social Work which maintains the highest classrooms in the building located on the 23rd floor.
Floors 37–40 are closed to the general public, as they contain electrical wiring for the building, as well as the Babcock Room, a large conference room on the 40th floor used for meetings and special events and which provides a panoramic view of downtown Pittsburgh and the rest of the university. The 40th floor balcony houses a nesting pair of Peregrine falcons. A view from the top is available via a webcam. Golden lights, dubbed "victory lights," surround the outside of the highest floors and are lit following Pitt football wins and other notable victories, giving the upper part of the Cathedral an amber glow; the top of the building serves as the site for the transmitter of the student-run radio station WPTS-FM as well as the amateur radio repeater W3YJ, run by the Panther Amateur Radio club on a frequency of 443.45 MHz. The building is one of the host buildings of the Pennsylvania Mock Trial Competition. In 1921, John Gabbert Bowman became the tenth chancellor of the university. At that time, the school consisted of a series of buildings constructed along Henry Hornbostel's plan for the campus and included "temporary" wooden structures built during World War I.
He began to envision a "tall building", that would be termed the Cathedral of Learning, to provide a dramatic symbol of education for the city and alleviate overcrowding by adding much needed space in order to meet present and future needs of the university. His reasoning is summarized in this quote: The building was to be more than a schoolhouse, it was to make visible something of the spirit, in the hearts of pioneers as, long ago, they sat in their log cabins and thought by candlelight of the great city that would sometime spread out beyond their three rivers and that they were starting to build. Bowman looked at a 14-acre plot of land named Frick Acres. On November 26, 1921, with aid from the Mellon family, the university was given the $2.5 million plot, began plans for a proper university building on the site. One of the foremost Gothic architects of the time, Philadelphian
Ζ Microscopii, Latinised as Zeta Microscopii, is a solitary, yellow-white hued star in the southern constellation of Microscopium. It is faintly visible to the naked eye with an apparent visual magnitude of +5.31. Based upon an annual parallax shift of 28.27 mas as seen from the Earth, it is 115 light years from the Sun. The star is moving away from the Sun with a radial velocity of +4.6 km/s. This is an F-type main-sequence star with a stellar classification of F5 V; this indicates that, at the age of 2.2 billion years, it is still generating energy through hydrogen fusion at its core. It is radiating 7.5 times the Sun's luminosity from its photosphere at an effective temperature of 6,471 K. The star has an estimated 1.4 times the mass of the Sun and is spinning with a moderately high projected rotational velocity of 44.4 km/s
Maryland Route 335 is a state highway in the U. S. state of Maryland. The state highway runs 16.36 miles from the upper end of Hooper's Island north to MD 16 in Church Creek. MD 335 provides access to several communities along the Honga River in southern Dorchester County; the state highway passes through Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge. MD 335 was designated as one of the original state roads, but only the portion of the highway from Crossroads to the Blackwater River was completed by the early 1920s; the highway was constructed from Crossroads to Golden Hill in the mid-1920s, from Crossroads to Church Creek in the late 1920s, from Golden Hill to Hooper's Island with the completion of a modern bridge over Fishing Creek in 1934. MD 335 begins in the village of Honga on Upper Hooper's Island just south of Applegarth Road. Hoopers Island Road continues south through Upper Hooper's Island and Middle Hooper's Island to the villages of Fishing Creek and Hoopersville. MD 335 heads north as two-lane undivided Hoopers Island Road on a high-level bridge across Fishing Creek, a strait between Tar Bay and the Honga River.
After heading north up Meekins Neck, the state highway curves to the east and enters the Great Marsh. Within the marsh, MD 335 intersects Smithville Road at the settlement of Golden Hill between crossings of Great Marsh Creek and Spicer Creek, which flow into the Honga River estuary; the state highway continues southeast where it crosses Wallace Creek before intersecting MD 336 in the hamlet of Crossroads. MD 335 turns north onto Golden Hill Road and enters a series of swamps that make up Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge. After the state highway traverses the Blackwater River, the road passes by the Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Visitor Center, located within Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad State Park; the road passes by Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad National Historical Park and the Chesapeake Forest Lands, heading through farmland. MD 335 crosses Birch Dam Creek before entering the town of Church Creek. There, the highway reaches its northern terminus at MD 16, named Church Creek Road north toward Cambridge and Taylors Island Road headed west.
A park and ride lot is located south of this intersection. The road from Cambridge to Hooper's Island, which includes part of modern MD 16 and all of MD 335, was marked for improvement as one of the original state roads by the Maryland State Roads Commission in 1910. However, the first section of MD 335, from just north of the Blackwater River to 1 mile south of Church Creek, was not improved until it was paved as a state-aid road by 1921. By 1923, pavement had been added from the southern end of the state-aid section south to Crossroads; the section from Crossroads to Golden Hill was completed in 1925. The section north of Blackwater River was reconstructed and extended to Church Creek by 1930. MD 335 south of Golden Hill was completed in 1933; the last piece of the state highway was a new bridge over Fishing Creek completed in 1934. The Fishing Creek Bridge was replaced in 1991 and 1992 contemporaneously with new bridges over the Blackwater River, Great Marsh Creek, Spicer Creek; the entire route is in Dorchester County.
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