The Basilica of the Sacred Heart of Paris known as Sacré-Cœur Basilica and simply Sacré-Cœur, is a Roman Catholic church and minor basilica, dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus, in Paris, France. A popular landmark and the second most visited monument in Paris, the basilica stands at the summit of the butte Montmartre, the highest point in the city. Sacré-Cœur Basilica is above all a religious building, shown by its perpetual adoration of the Holy Eucharist since 1885, is seen as a double monument and cultural, both a national penance for the defeat of France in the 1870 Franco-Prussian War and for the socialist Paris Commune of 1871 crowning its most rebellious neighborhood, an embodiment of conservative moral order, publicly dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus, an popular devotion since the visions of Saint Margaret Mary Alacoque; the basilica was designed by Paul Abadie. Construction began in 1875 and was completed in 1914; the basilica was consecrated after the end of World War I in 1919.
The inspiration for Sacré Cœur's design originated on 4 September 1870, the day of the proclamation of the Third Republic, with a speech by Bishop Fournier attributing the defeat of French troops during the Franco-Prussian War to a divine punishment after "a century of moral decline" since the French Revolution, in the wake of the division in French society that arose in the decades following that revolution, between devout Catholics and legitimist royalists on one side, democrats, secularists and radicals on the other. This schism in the French social order became pronounced after the 1870 withdrawal of the French military garrison protecting the Vatican in Rome to the front of the Franco-Prussian War by Napoleon III, the secular uprising of the Paris Commune of 1870-1871, the subsequent 1871 defeat of France in the Franco-Prussian War. Though today the basilica is asserted to be dedicated in honor of the 58,000 who lost their lives during the war, the decree of the Assemblée nationale 24 July 1873, responding to a request by the archbishop of Paris and voting its construction, specifies that it is to "expiate the crimes of the Commune."
Montmartre had been the site of the Commune's first insurrection, the Communards had executed Georges Darboy, Archbishop of Paris, who became a martyr for the resurgent Catholic Church. His successor Guibert, climbing the Butte Montmartre in October 1872, was reported to have had a vision as clouds dispersed over the panorama: "It is here, it is here where the martyrs are, it is here that the Sacred Heart must reign so that it can beckon all to come."In the moment of inertia following the resignation of the government of Adolphe Thiers, 24 May 1873, François Pie, bishop of Poitiers, expressed the national yearning for spiritual renewal— "the hour of the Church has come"— that would be expressed through the "Government of Moral Order" of the Third Republic, which linked Catholic institutions with secular ones, in "a project of religious and national renewal, the main features of which were the restoration of monarchy and the defense of Rome within a cultural framework of official piety," of which Sacré-Cœur is the chief lasting, triumphalist monument.
The 24 July decree voting its construction as a "matter of public utility" followed close on Thiers' resignation. The project was expressed by the Church as a National Vow and financial support came from parishes throughout France; the dedicatory inscription records the basilica as the accomplishment of a vow by Alexandre Legentil and Hubert Rohault de Fleury, ratified by Joseph-Hippolyte Guibert, Archbishop of Paris. The project took many years to complete. A law of public utility was passed to seize land at the summit of Montmartre for the construction of the basilica. Architect Paul Abadie designed the basilica after winning a competition over 77 other architects. With delays in assembling the property, the foundation stone was laid 16 June 1875. Passionate debates concerning the basilica were raised in the Conseil Municipal in 1880, where the basilica was called "an incessant provocation to civil war" and it was debated whether to rescind the law of 1873 granting property rights, an impracticable proposition.
The matter reached the Chamber of Deputies in the summer of 1882, in which the basilica was defended by Archbishop Guibert while Georges Clemenceau argued that it sought to stigmatize the Revolution. The law was rescinded but the basilica was saved by a technicality, the bill was not reintroduced in the next session. A further attempt to halt the construction was defeated in 1897, by which time the interior was complete and had been open for services for six years. Abadie died not long after the foundation had been laid, in 1884, five architects continued with the work: Honoré Daumet, Jean-Charles Laisné, Henri-Pierre-Marie Rauline, Lucien Magne, Jean-Louis Hulot; the basilica was not completed until 1914. Construction costs, estimated at 7 million French francs and drawn from private donations, were expended before any above-ground, visible structure was to be seen. A provisional chapel was consecrated 3 March 1876, pilgrimage donations became the mainstay of funding. Donations were encouraged by the expedient of permitting donors to "purchase" individual columns or other features as small as a brick.
It was declared by the National Assembly. Muted echoes of the basilica's "tortured history" are still heard, geographer David Harvey has no
Périgueux is a commune in the Dordogne department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France. Périgueux is the prefecture of the départment, it is the seat of a Roman Catholic diocese. The name Périgueux comes from Petrocorii, a Latinization of Celtic words meaning "the four tribes" – the Gallic people that held the area before the Roman conquest. Périgueux was their capital city. In 200 BC, the Petrocorii came from the north and settled at Périgueux and established an encampment at La Boissière. After the Roman invasion, they left this post and established themselves on the plain of L'Isle, the town of Vesunna was created; this Roman city was embellished with amenities such as temples, amphitheatres, a forum. At the end of the third century AD, the Roman city was surrounded by ramparts, the town took the name of Civitas Petrocoriorum. In the 10th century, Le Puy-Saint-Front was constructed around an abbey next to the old Gallo-Roman city, it was organised into a municipality around 1182. During the year 1940, many Jews from Alsace and Alsatians were evacuated to Périgueux.
Simone Mareuil committed self-immolation on 24 October 1954 by dousing herself in gasoline and burning herself to death in a public square in Périgueux. The Isle flows through Périgueux. Sights include: the remains of a Roman amphitheatre the centre of, turned into a green park with a water fountain; the cathedral of St Front was restored in the 19th century. The history of the church of St Front of Périgueux has given rise to numerous discussions between archaeologists. Félix de Verneihl claims. M. Brutails is of the opinion that if the style of St Front's reveals an imitation of Oriental art, the construction differs altogether from Byzantine methods; the dates 984–1047 given for the erection of St Front's, he considers too early. The local architect, Paul Abadie, was responsible for radical changes to St Front's which are no longer appreciated by architects or local residents who prefer the purer Romanesque church of Saint-Étienne de la Cité, the former Cathedral of Périgueux; the cathedral is part of the World Heritage Sites of the Routes of Santiago de Compostela in France.
Périgueux railway station offers connections to Limoges, Brive-la-Gaillarde, other regional destinations. Périgueux has an oceanic climate with warm to hot summers combined with cool to mild winters. Périgueux has a mild climate for its latitude and inland position due to the significant Gulf Stream influence on the Bay of Biscay to its west; the resulting maritime air warms winters up, while at the same time it is far enough inland to cause warm summers on average. Périgueux was the birthplace of: general of the First Empire. Georges Bégué, engineer and agent in the Special Operations Executive Francine Benoît, music critic and teacher, who gained Portuguese citizenship in 1929, she taught composer Emanuel Nunes, amongst others. William Joseph Chaminade, founder of the Society of Mary and the Daughters of Mary Immaculate Patrick Ollier, President of the National Assembly in 2007. Jean Clédat, Egyptologist and philologist. Ketty Kerviel, film actress Nicole Duclos born Salavert, athlete. Rachilde, writer associated with the Symbolist movements.
Julien Dupuy, rugby union player. René Thomas, racing driver, winner of the Indianapolis 500 in 1914. Périgueux is twinned with: Amberg, Germany Communes of the Dordogne department Périgord INSEE This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. City council of Périgueux reports on culture and people in Périgueux Web site of the Périgord Perigueux-city.com
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock, granular and phaneritic in texture. Granites can be predominantly white, pink, or gray depending on their mineralogy; the word "granite" comes from the Latin granum, a grain, in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a holocrystalline rock. Speaking, granite is an igneous rock with between 20% and 60% quartz by volume, at least 35% of the total feldspar consisting of alkali feldspar, although the term "granite" is used to refer to a wider range of coarse-grained igneous rocks containing quartz and feldspar; the term "granitic" means granite-like and is applied to granite and a group of intrusive igneous rocks with similar textures and slight variations in composition and origin. These rocks consist of feldspar, quartz and amphibole minerals, which form an interlocking, somewhat equigranular matrix of feldspar and quartz with scattered darker biotite mica and amphibole peppering the lighter color minerals; some individual crystals are larger than the groundmass, in which case the texture is known as porphyritic.
A granitic rock with a porphyritic texture is known as a granite porphyry. Granitoid is a descriptive field term for lighter-colored, coarse-grained igneous rocks. Petrographic examination is required for identification of specific types of granitoids; the extrusive igneous rock equivalent of granite is rhyolite. Granite is nearly always massive and tough; these properties have made granite a widespread construction stone throughout human history. The average density of granite is between 2.65 and 2.75 g/cm3, its compressive strength lies above 200 MPa, its viscosity near STP is 3–6·1019 Pa·s. The melting temperature of dry granite at ambient pressure is 1215–1260 °C. Granite has poor primary permeability overall, but strong secondary permeability through cracks and fractures if they are present. Granite is classified according to the QAPF diagram for coarse grained plutonic rocks and is named according to the percentage of quartz, alkali feldspar and plagioclase feldspar on the A-Q-P half of the diagram.
True granite contains both alkali feldspars. When a granitoid is devoid or nearly devoid of plagioclase, the rock is referred to as alkali feldspar granite; when a granitoid contains less than 10% orthoclase, it is called tonalite. A granite containing both muscovite and biotite micas is called two-mica granite. Two-mica granites are high in potassium and low in plagioclase, are S-type granites or A-type granites. A worldwide average of the chemical composition of granite, by weight percent, based on 2485 analyses: Granite containing rock is distributed throughout the continental crust. Much of it was intruded during the Precambrian age. Outcrops of granite tend to form rounded massifs. Granites sometimes occur in circular depressions surrounded by a range of hills, formed by the metamorphic aureole or hornfels. Granite occurs as small, less than 100 km2 stock masses and in batholiths that are associated with orogenic mountain ranges. Small dikes of granitic composition called aplites are associated with the margins of granitic intrusions.
In some locations coarse-grained pegmatite masses occur with granite. Granite is more common in continental crust than in oceanic crust, they are crystallized from felsic melts which are less dense than mafic rocks and thus tend to ascend toward the surface. In contrast, mafic rocks, either basalts or gabbros, once metamorphosed at eclogite facies, tend to sink into the mantle beneath the Moho. Granitoids have crystallized from felsic magmas that have compositions near a eutectic point. Magmas are composed of minerals in variable abundances. Traditionally, magmatic minerals are crystallized from the melts that have separated from their parental rocks and thus are evolved because of igneous differentiation. If a granite has a cooling process, it has the potential to form larger crystals. There are peritectic and residual minerals in granitic magmas. Peritectic minerals are generated through peritectic reactions, whereas residual minerals are inherited from parental rocks. In either case, magmas will evolve to the eutectic for crystallization upon cooling.
Anatectic melts are produced by peritectic reactions, but they are much less evolved than magmatic melts because they have not separated from their parental rocks. The composition of anatectic melts may change toward the magmatic melts through high-degree fractional crystallization. Fractional crystallisation serves to reduce a melt in iron, titanium and sodium, enrich the melt in potassium and silicon – alkali feldspar and quartz, are two of the defining constituents of granite; this process operates regardless of the origin of parental magmas to granites, regardless of their chemistry. The composition and origin of any magma that differentiates into granite leave certain petrological evidence as to what the granite's parental rock was; the final texture and composition of a granite are distinctive as to its parental rock. For instance, a granite, derived from partial melting of meta
St. Cloud, Minnesota
St. Cloud is a city in the U. S. state of Minnesota and the largest population center in the state's central region. Its population is 67,984 according to the 2017 US census estimates, making it Minnesota's tenth largest city. St. Cloud is the county seat of Stearns County and was named after the city of Saint-Cloud, named after the 6th-century French monk Clodoald. Though in Stearns County, St. Cloud extends into Benton and Sherburne counties, straddles the Mississippi River, it is the center of a small, contiguous urban area totaling over 120,000 residents, with Waite Park, Sauk Rapids, Sartell, St. Joseph, St. Augusta directly bordering the city, Foley, Kimball, Clear Lake, Cold Spring nearby. With 189,093 residents at the 2010 census, the St. Cloud metropolitan area is the fourth-largest in Minnesota, behind Minneapolis–St. Paul, Duluth–Superior, Rochester. St. Cloud is 65 miles northwest of the Twin Cities of Minneapolis–St. Paul along Interstate 94, U. S. Highway 10, Minnesota State Highway 23.
The St. Cloud Metropolitan Statistical Area is made up of Stearns and Benton Counties; the city was included in a newly defined Minneapolis–St. Paul–St. Cloud Combined Statistical Area in 2000. St. Cloud as a whole has never been part of the 13-county MSA comprising Minneapolis, St. Paul and parts of western Wisconsin, although its Sherburne County portion is considered part of the Twin Cities metropolitan area by Census Bureau definition. St. Cloud State University, Minnesota's third-largest public university, is located between the downtown area and the Beaver Islands, which form a maze for a two-mile stretch of the Mississippi; the 30 undeveloped islands are a popular destination for kayak and canoe enthusiasts and are part of a state-designated 12-mile stretch of wild and scenic river. St. Cloud owns and operates a hydroelectric dam on the Mississippi that can produce up to nine megawatts of electricity. What is now the St. Cloud area was occupied by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years.
Europeans encountered the Ottawa and Winnebago when they started to trade with Native American peoples. Minnesota was organized as a territory in 1849; the St. Cloud area was opened up to settlers in 1851 after treaty negotiations with the Winnebago tribe in 1851 and 1852. John Wilson, a Maine native with French Huguenot ancestry and an interest in Napoleon, named the settlement St. Cloud after Saint-Cloud, the Paris suburb where Napoleon had his favorite palace. St. Cloud was a waystation on the Middle and Woods branches of the Red River Trails used by Métis traders between the Canada–US border at Pembina, North Dakota and St. Paul; the cart trains consisted of hundreds of oxcarts. The Métis, bringing furs to trade for supplies to take back to their rural settlements, would camp west of the city and cross the Mississippi in St. Cloud or just to the north in Sauk Rapids The City of St. Cloud was incorporated in 1856, it developed from three distinct settlements, known as Upper Town, Middle Town, Lower Town, that were established by European-American settlers starting in 1853.
Remnants of the deep ravines that separated the three are still visible today. Middle Town was settled by Catholic German immigrants and migrants from eastern states, who were recruited to the region by Father Francis Xavier Pierz, a Catholic priest who ministered as a missionary to Native Americans. Lower Town was founded by settlers from the Northern Tier of New England and the mid-Atlantic states, including former residents of upstate New York. Upper Town, or Arcadia, was plotted by General Sylvanus Lowry, a slaveholder and trader from Kentucky who brought slaves with him, although Minnesota was organized as a free territory, he served on the territorial Council from 1852 to 1853 and was elected St. Cloud's first mayor in 1856, serving for one year. Jane Grey Swisshelm, an abolitionist newspaper editor who had migrated from Pittsburgh attacked Lowry in print. At one point Lowry organized a "Committee of Vigilance" that broke into Swisshelm's newspaper office and removed her press, throwing it into the Mississippi River.
Lowry started The Union. The US Supreme Court's 1857 decision in the Dred Scott case ruled that slaves could not file freedom suits, as well as declaring the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional, so the territory's prohibition against slavery became unenforceable. Nearly all Southerners left the St. Cloud area when the Civil War broke out, taking their slaves with them. Lowry died in the city in 1865. Beginning in 1864, Stephen Miller served a two-year term as Minnesota governor, the only citizen of St. Cloud to hold the office. Miller was a "Pennsylvania German businessman", writer, active abolitionist, personal friend of Alexander Ramsey, he was on the state's Republican electoral ticket with Abraham Lincoln in 1860. Steamboats docked at St. Cloud as part of the fur trade and other commerce, although river levels were not reliable; this ended with the construction of the Coon Rapids Dam in 1912–14. Granite quarries have operated in the area since the 1880s, giving St. Cloud its nickname, "The Granite City."
In 1917, Samuel Pandolfo started the Pan Motor Company in St. Cloud. Pandolfo claimed, he was convicted and imprisoned for attempting to defraud investors. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 41.08 square miles. The ci
A cathedral is a Catholic church that contains the cathedra of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, conference, or episcopate. The equivalent word in German for such a church is Dom. Churches with the function of "cathedral" are specific to those Christian denominations with an episcopal hierarchy, such as the Catholic, Anglican and some Lutheran and Methodist churches. Church buildings embodying the functions of a cathedral first appeared in Italy, Gaul and North Africa in the 4th century, but cathedrals did not become universal within the Western Catholic Church until the 12th century, by which time they had developed architectural forms, institutional structures and legal identities distinct from parish churches, monastic churches and episcopal residences. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the English word "cathedral" translates as katholikon, meaning "assembly", but this title is applied to monastic and other major churches without episcopal responsibilities; when the church at which an archbishop or "metropolitan" presides is intended, the term kathedrikós naós is used.
Following the Protestant Reformation, the Christian church in several parts of Western Europe, such as Scotland, the Netherlands, certain Swiss Cantons and parts of Germany, adopted a Presbyterian polity that did away with bishops altogether. Where ancient cathedral buildings in these lands are still in use for congregational worship, they retain the title and dignity of "cathedral", maintaining and developing distinct cathedral functions, but void of hierarchical supremacy. From the 16th century onwards, but since the 19th century, churches originating in Western Europe have undertaken vigorous programmes of missionary activity, leading to the founding of large numbers of new dioceses with associated cathedral establishments of varying forms in Asia, Australasia and the Americas. In addition, both the Catholic Church and Orthodox churches have formed new dioceses within Protestant lands for converts and migrant co-religionists, it is not uncommon to find Christians in a single city being served by three or more cathedrals of differing denominations.
In the Catholic or Roman Catholic tradition, the term "cathedral" applies only to a church that houses the seat of the bishop of a diocese. The abbey church of a territorial abbacy does not acquire the title. In any other jurisdiction canonically equivalent to a diocese but not canonically erected as such, the church that serves this function is called the "principal church" of the respective entity—though some have coopted the term "cathedral" anyway; the Catholic Church uses the following terms. A pro-cathedral is a parish or other church used temporarily as a cathedral while the cathedral of a diocese is under construction, renovation, or repair; this designation applies. A co-cathedral is a second cathedral in a diocese; this situation can arise in various ways such as a merger of two former dioceses, preparation to split a diocese, or perceived need to perform cathedral functions in a second location due to the expanse of the diocesan territory. A proto-cathedral is the former cathedral of a transferred.
The cathedral church of a metropolitan bishop is called a metropolitan cathedral. The term "cathedral" carries no implication as to the size or ornateness of the building. Most cathedrals are impressive edifices. Thus, the term "cathedral" is applied colloquially to any large and impressive church, regardless of whether it functions as a cathedral, such as the Crystal Cathedral in California or the Arctic Cathedral in Tromsø, Norway. Although the builders of Crystal Cathedral never intended the building to be a true cathedral, the Roman Catholic Diocese of Orange purchased the building and the surrounding campus in February 2012 for use as a new cathedral church; the building is now under renovation and restoration for solemn dedication under the title "Christ Cathedral" in 2019. The word "cathedral" is derived from the French cathédrale, from the Latin cathedra, from the Greek καθέδρα kathédra, "seat, bench", from κατά kata "down" and ἕδρα hedra "seat, chair." The word refers to the presence and prominence of the bishop's or archbishop's chair or throne, raised above both clergy and laity, located facing the congregation from behind the High Altar.
In the ancient world, the chair, on a raised dais, was the distinctive mark of a teacher or rhetor and thus symbolises the bishop's role as teacher. A raised throne within a basilican hall was definitive for a Late Antique presiding magistrate; the episcopal throne embodies the principle that only a bishop makes a cathedral, this still applies in those churches that no longer have bishops, but retain cathedral dignity and functions in ancient churches over which bishops presided. But the throne can embody the principle that a cathedral makes a bishop.
Downtown Saint Paul
Downtown Saint Paul is an official neighborhood in Saint Paul, United States. Its boundaries are the Mississippi River to the south, University Avenue to the north, US 52 to the east, Kellogg Avenue to the west, it is bounded by the Dayton's Bluff, Summit-University, West Seventh, West Side, Payne-Phalen neighborhoods. The West Side neighborhood is on the other side of the river, can be accessed via the Robert Street Bridge or the Wabasha Street Bridge. Interstate 35E and Interstate 94 run through the north side of the neighborhood, providing a separation between the Minnesota State Capitol and other state government buildings with the rest of downtown; the Minnesota State Capitol is located on the northern fringe of the downtown neighborhood. Work began on the current capitol in 1896, construction was completed in 1905; the early 1950s saw the development of the expansive mall that surrounds the capitol. This development required the demolition of many homes, apartments and businesses, paved the way for the construction of four government agency buildings surrounding the mall: Veteran Services Building, the Transportation Building, the Centennial Office Building, the National Guard Armory.
Saint Paul City Hall and Ramsey County Courthouse is located downtown. A number of corporations and institutions are located in downtown Saint Paul. Since 1933, Ecolab has maintained its headquarters in downtown. In 1989 Twin Cities PBS relocated to its current location in downtown In 1997 the Minnesota State Colleges and Universities System moved its headquartered in the Wells Fargo Place. Minnesota Public Radio purchased its current downtown headquarters in 2001 from the Public Housing Agency of St. Paul. In 2005 Gander Mountain relocated to downtown. Securian Financial Group is located in the Securian Center and is the largest private employer in downtown with 2,600 employees. Travelers Insurance maintains a large presence downtown. In 2009 supercomputer manufacturer Cray Inc. relocated to become the anchor tenant of the Cray Plaza in downtown. The Lowertown Historic District is a historic district on the east-side of Downtown Saint Paul; this 16-block warehouse and wholesaling district comprises 37 contributing properties built 1870s–1920.
It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1983 for the significance of its river and rail connections, economic impact and urban planning. In recent years Lowertown has been undergoing changes from a bohemian, artist-community into a gentrified neighborhood filled with coffee shops, bars and market-rate apartments. Downtown has three city parks; the land for both Mears Park and Rice Park was donated to the city of Saint Paul in 1849. Both parks have gone through host several festivals throughout the year. Rice Park most notably hosts the Saint Paul Winter Carnival, the oldest winter carnival in the country, having operated since 1886. Since 1999, Mears Park has hosted the Twin Cities Jazz Festival; the Saint Paul Public Library system operates the Central Library, on the National Register of Historic Places since 1975. James J. Hill Reference Library is located within the Central Library; the Landmark Center is located on the north side of Rice Park. Palace Theatre Ordway Center for the Performing Arts Roy Wilkins Auditorium Fitzgerald Theater Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra Minnesota Children's Museum Minnesota Museum of American Art Minnesota History Center Science Museum of Minnesota In September 2000 the Xcel Energy Center opened in downtown to serve as the home for the Minnesota Wild.
Apart from hosting the Wild, the Xcel Energy Center has hosted the U. S. Figure Skating Championships, the NCAA Men's Ice Hockey Championship, the Minnesota State High School League Boys’ Hockey Tournament, the WNBA's Minnesota Lynx, the now defunct National Lacrosse League team Minnesota Swarm. Located in the Lowertown District of downtown, CHS Field opened in May 2015 at a cost of $63 million. CHS field servs as home field for the Saint Paul Saints of the American Association of Independent Professional Baseball and despite not having an affiliation with a Major League Baseball team, an average of 8,438 fans visited CHS Field to watch the Saints, the seventh-highest average attendance across minor league baseball; the Saints' move from Midway Stadium to CHS Field marks the return of baseball to downtown since the St. Paul Saints of the American Association played their games at The Pillbox from 1903-1909; the Pillbox, or Downtown Stadium, was located on the current site of the Metro Green Line Robert Street station between 12th and 13th Streets.
In January 2018 TRIA Rink opened on the top floor of the former Macy's building since renamed Treasure Island Center. TRIA Rink is the practice facility for the Minnesota Wild and the home arena for the Minnesota Whitecaps of the National Women's Hockey League and Hamline University's hockey program. Since 2011, downtown has played host for the Red Bull Crashed Ice event. Crashed Ice is a winter extreme sporting event featuring ice cross downhill which involves downhill skating in an urban environment, on a track which includes steep turns and high vertical drops; the event coincides with the Saint Paul Winter Carnival and draws crowds of more than 100,000. The neighborhood is served by five stops along the METRO Green Line light rail system. Capitol/Rice Street Robert Street station 10th Street station Central station Union Depot station Similar to its twin city, Downtown Saint Paul has a skyway system consisting of 40 bridges that link most of the buildings along Kellogg Boulevard with the midcentury office core.
The skyway is open seven days a
Summit Avenue (St. Paul)
Summit Avenue is a street in Saint Paul, United States, known for being the longest avenue of Victorian homes in the country, having a number of historic houses, churches and schools. The street starts just west of downtown Saint Paul and continues four and a half miles west to the Mississippi River where Saint Paul meets Minneapolis. Other cities have similar streets, such as Prairie Avenue in Chicago, Euclid Avenue in Cleveland, Fifth Avenue in New York City. Summit Avenue is notable for having preserved its historic character and mix of buildings, as compared to these other examples. Historian Ernest R. Sandeen described Summit Avenue as "the best preserved example of the Victorian monumental residential boulevard."Summit Avenue is part of two National Historic Districts and two City of Saint Paul Heritage Preservation Districts. The National Historic Districts are the Historic Hill District, an irregular area bounded by Lexington Avenue, Portland Avenue, Dale Street North, Marshall Avenue, Pleasant Street, Grand Avenue, the West Summit Avenue Historic District, a narrow area running from Oxford Street South west to the Mississippi River along Summit Avenue.
The city districts are Summit Hill known as Crocus Hill, a triangular region from Lexington Avenue on the west, Summit Avenue on the north, the bluffs on the south, Ramsey Hill, the area bounded by Summit Avenue, Dale Street, Interstate Highway 94, a line running north from the Cathedral of Saint Paul. Most of the houses in this district are large, distinctive houses built between 1890 and 1920. Summit Avenue was named one of 10 "great streets" nationally by the American Planning Association in 2008; the history of Summit Avenue dates back to the early 1850s. Mansions were starting to appear on top of the hill in the earliest days of the city. An 1859 photograph by Joel Whitney shows six houses on the hill. Edward Duffield Neill owned the first house on Summit Avenue, in a location now occupied by the James J. Hill House. Continuing westward, the photo shows the houses of William and Angelina Noble, Henry F. Masterson, Henry Mower Rice, Henry Neill Paul, David Stuart; the Stuart house, at 312 Summit Avenue, is the only one of these still standing, making it the oldest remaining house on Summit Avenue and one of the oldest in Saint Paul.
Development was slow during the American Civil War and afterward, but the district began to grow in the 1880s. City water service was provided in 1884, a cable car line built on Selby Avenue in 1887 provided improved access to downtown. In 1890, the city's first streetcars began operating on Grand Avenue, just south of Summit, the Hill District became a fashionable place to live; the district began to decline in the 1930s as many old mansions either turned into rooming-houses or went vacant for many years. The housing stock was not decimated by commercial development pressure, as the bluffs separating the Summit Avenue area from downtown St. Paul made it difficult for downtown to expand into the area; the area began to turn around in the 1960s and 1970s, as young couples discovered that the Victorian homes could be purchased affordably and could be restored over time. Neighborhood associations formed and helped with preservation efforts; the Hill District is again one of the most fashionable places to live in Saint Paul.
Summit Avenue has the longest line of Victorian style housing in the nation. Frank Lloyd Wright, noted as "the greatest American architect of all time" by AIA, claimed that Summit Avenue is "the worst collection of architecture in the world." This was in part due to the imposing scale of the buildings, but because Summit Avenue architecture copied design styles from Europe, rather than attempting to find an original American aesthetic. F. Scott Fitzgerald disliked Summit Avenue as well, stating that Summit Avenue is “a mausoleum of American architectural monstrosities.” These buildings are listed in numerical address order. Three buildings on or near Summit Avenue are National Historic Landmarks. James J. Hill House, 240 Summit Avenue F. Scott Fitzgerald House, 599 Summit Avenue The Frank B. Kellogg House, 633 Fairmount Avenue, is just south of Summit Avenue A number of buildings on Summit Avenue are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Cathedral of Saint Paul, 201 Summit Avenue Burbank–Livingston–Griggs House, 432 Summit Avenue Minnesota Governor's Residence, 1006 Summit Avenue Pierce and Walter Butler House, 1345-1347 Summit Avenue Dr. Ward Beebe House, 2022 Summit Avenue Other buildings include: University Club of St. Paul, 420 Summit Avenue Germanic-American Institute, 301 Summit Avenue William Mitchell College of Law, 875 Summit Avenue Macalester College, various buildings between Snelling Avenue and Cambridge Avenue University of St. Thomas, various buildings between Cleveland Avenue and Cretin Avenue Saint Paul Seminary, 2260 Summit Avenue The Burnquist House, 27 Crocus Place Mount Zion Temple, 1300 Summit Avenue Ramsey County Historical Society's Summit Hill Neighborhood profile "Writings of F. Scott Fitzgerald", broadcast from Summit Avenue from C-SPAN's American Writers