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Catherine I of Russia

Catherine I was the second wife of Peter the Great and Empress of Russia from 1725 until her death. The life of Catherine I was said by Voltaire to be nearly as extraordinary as that of Peter the Great himself. There are no documents. Said to have been born on 15 April 1684, she was named Marta Helena Skowrońska. Marta was the daughter of Samuel Skowroński, a Roman Catholic peasant from the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth born to Minsker parents, who in 1680 married Dorothea Hahn at Jakobstadt, her mother is named in at least one source as Elizabeth Moritz, the daughter of a Baltic German woman and there is debate as to whether Moritz's father was a Swedish officer. It is that two stories were conflated, Swedish sources suggest that the Elizabeth Moritz story is incorrect; some biographies state that Marta's father was a gravedigger and handyman, while others speculate that he was a runaway landless serf. Marta's parents died of the plague around 1689. According to one of the popular versions, at the age of three Marta was taken by an aunt and sent to Marienburg where she was raised by Johann Ernst Glück, a Lutheran pastor and educator, the first to translate the Bible into Latvian.

In his household she served as a lowly servant either a scullery maid or washerwoman. No effort was made to teach her to read and write and she remained illiterate throughout her life. Marta was considered a beautiful young girl, there are accounts that Frau Glück became fearful that she would become involved with her son. At the age of seventeen, she was married off to a Swedish dragoon, Johan Cruse or Johann Rabbe, with whom she remained for eight days in 1702, at which point the Swedish troops were withdrawn from Marienburg; when Russian forces captured the town, Pastor Glück offered to work as a translator, Field Marshal Boris Sheremetev agreed to his proposal and took him to Moscow. There are unsubstantiated stories that Marta worked in the laundry of the victorious regiment, that she was presented in her undergarments to Brigadier General Rudolph Felix Bauer the Governor of Estonia, to be his mistress, she may have worked in Sheremetev. It is not known whether she was household maid, she travelled back to the Russian court with Sheremetev's army.

Afterwards she became part of the household of Prince Alexander Menshikov, the best friend of Peter the Great of Russia. Anecdotal sources suggest. Whether the two of them were lovers is disputed, as Menshikov was engaged to Darya Arsenyeva, his future wife, it is clear that Marta formed a lifetime alliance. It is possible that Menshikov, quite jealous of Peter's attentions and knew his tastes, wanted to procure a mistress on whom he could rely. In any case, in 1703, while visiting Menshikov at his home, Peter met Marta. In 1704, she was well established in the Tsar's household as his mistress, gave birth to a son, Peter. In 1705, she took the new name of Catherine Alexeyevna, she and Darya Menshikova accompanied Menshikov on their military excursions. Though no record exists and Peter are described as having married secretly between 23 October and 1 December 1707 in Saint Petersburg, they had twelve children, two of whom survived into adulthood and Yelizaveta. Peter had moved the capital to St. Petersburg in 1703.

While the city was being built he lived in a three-room log cabin with Catherine, where she did the cooking and caring for the children, he tended a garden as though they were an ordinary couple. The relationship was the most successful of Peter's life and a great number of letters exist demonstrating the strong affection between Catherine and Peter; as a person she was energetic, compassionate and always cheerful. She was able to calm Peter in his frequent rages and was called in to do so. Catherine went with Peter on his Pruth Campaign in 1711. There, she was said to have saved Peter and his Empire, as related by Voltaire in his book Peter the Great. Surrounded by overwhelming numbers of Turkish troops, Catherine suggested before surrendering, that her jewels and those of the other women be used in an effort to bribe the Ottoman grand vizier Baltacı Mehmet Pasha into allowing a retreat. Mehmet allowed the retreat, whether motivated by the bribe or considerations of diplomacy. In any case Peter credited Catherine and proceeded to marry her again at Saint Isaac's Cathedral in St. Petersburg on 9 February 1712.

She was Peter's second wife. Upon their wedding, Catherine became Tsarina; when Peter elevated the Russian Tsardom to Empire, Catherine became Empress. The Order of Saint Catherine was instituted by her husband on the occasion of their wedding. Catherine and Peter had twelve children, all of whom died in childhood except Anna and Elizabeth: Pyotr Petrovich b. 1704, died in infancy Pavel Petrovich b. 1705, died in infancy Catherine Petrovna Dec 1706–Jun 1708 Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna 1708–1728 Grand Duchess Yelizaveta Petrovna 1709–1762 Grand Duchess Maria Petrovna of Russia 1713–1715 Grand Duchess Margarita Petrovna 1714–1715 Grand Duk

Pudhumai Pithan (1998 film)

Pudhumai Pithan is a 1998 Tamil political satire film directed by S. K. Jeeva; the film features Parthiban in lead role whilst Roja, Priya Raman and Ranjith play supporting roles. The film had musical score by Deva and was released on 20 October 1998; the film was declared hit at the box office. It was dubbed into Telugu as'Oka Votu'; the film was one among 1998 Deepavali releases. Jeeva, a social activist, ends up in a police lock-up. Mahesh, a police officer, is surprised to see his best friend Jeeva in this condition and brings him to his home. Mahesh lives with his wife Aarthi and his daughter. Aarthi and Jeeva were in love in the past. Ramadass, Aarthi's father, hated his activism; as an honest police officer, Ramadass protected a corrupted politician and was beaten by Jeeva's supporters. Aarthi and Jeeva split up. Jeeva clashes with the same politician, his whole family dies due to his orders and Jeeva was sent to a mental hospital. Gayathri, a nurse, helps him to escape from the hospital and she accommodates him in her house.

He fled. Now, Jeeva is determined to clean up the society, he falls in love with the prostitute Shenbagam. Jeeva as Bharath subsequently becomes a minister; the film score and the soundtrack were composed by film composer Deva. The soundtrack, released in 1998, features 6 tracks with lyrics written by Pulamaipithan, Pazhani Bharathi and Thamarai

Asan Institute for Policy Studies

The Asan Institute for Policy Studies is an independent, non-profit think tank based in Seoul, South Korea. The institute was founded by the honorary chairman Chung Mong-joon in 2008; the Institute conducts research in national security and foreign policy, area studies, public opinion, domestic politics, social science methodology, global governance. In 2015, it was ranked one of the top 100 think tanks in the world by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences; the Asan Institute was ranked 5th among foreign policy and security-related research institutions in the Korea Economic Daily’s annual survey of "Korea`s Top 100 Think Tanks in 2016.”Since 2012, the institute has run the Asan Academy, a special fellowship program to train future leaders of Korea with an understanding of humanities and knowledge across various disciplines. The Asan Institute launched The Asan Forum in 2013, a bimonthly journal for in-depth interpretation of changes across the Asia-Pacific region; the Asan Report entitled'In China's Shadow' was published in September 2016 and contributed to the enhancement of US/China cooperation on North Korea.

The report garnered worldwide media attention, making headlines in the Wall Street Journal and New York Times, along with more than 200 Korean and international media outlets. Founder & Honorary Chairman: Dr. Chung Mong-joon Chairman of the Board of Trustees: Dr. Hang Sung-Joo The Asan Forum is a bimonthly journal for in-depth interpretation of rapid changes across the Asia-Pacific region, it aims to capture the latest trends within Asia on transformative issues expressed through voices from the region and international assessments. While current events and how they are interpreted are at the forefront, insight into the historical and cultural backgrounds relevant to distinct national responses is stressed; the objective is to stimulate well-informed observations from diverse perspectives that highlight what political elites and the media in Asia are discussing. The Asan Academy offers a liberal arts educational program based on a combination of Korea’s Confucian system of scholarship and the University of Oxford’s renowned “Philosophy and Economics" degree.

All selected Asan Young Fellows live and share the same routine activities throughout their studies in Korea and learn to bond and appreciate the value of community through monthly volunteer work and community outreach activities. The Asan Academy provides Asan Young Fellows with the opportunity to work as interns at leading think tanks and non-profit organizations in either Washington, D. C. or Beijing, China. Through international experience and philosophical teachings, the Asan Academy seeks to foster Korea’s future leaders with global outlooks, profound knowledge of the humanities, community spirit; the Asan Institute for Policy Studies official english website The Asan Institute for Policy Studies Facebook The Asan Forum official website The Asan Academy official website

Jüri Aarma

Jüri Aarma was an Estonian actor and cultural journalist. From 1970 to 1977, he studied at the Department of the Performing Arts of the Tallinn State Conservatory and completed the 6th Flight, under the guidance of Grigori Kromanov and Mikk Mikiver, he was an actor in the Youth Theater until 1995. From 1992 to 1996, he was a regular editor co-author of Kuku Raadio. From 1995 to 2002 he was a member of Teater. Muusika. Kino. Aarma has worked for Maaleht since 2005 and has held a number of roles in editing cultural news, writing colorful interviews, participating in several television programs with which Maaleht was a partner, he hosted the cultural program Praegu ja siin on Tallinna TV. Aarma was married to choral conductor Merike Aarma and his children are Kiur Aarma and Roosi-Mae Aarma. On 21 May 2019, Aarma was struck and killed by a train on the Tallinn-Veerenni level crossing while on his bicycle

Graham Clive Watts

Graham Clive Watts OBE MCMI FRSA MRICS FRIBA CIBSE is chief executive of the Construction Industry Council. He was manager of Great Britain's fencing team at the 2008 Summer Olympics and chairman of the National Dance Awards, he was awarded the OBE in 2008. Watts was born on 5 August 1956 and educated at Bedford Modern School, Westfield College and University College, Chichester. Watts was chief executive of the Society of Architectural and Associated Technicians from 1983 to 1986, chief executive of the British Institute of Architectural Technicians from 1986 to 1991 and since has been chief executive of the Construction Industry Council. Outside of his professional work, Watts was manager of the British fencing team and Olympic team manager for fencing. Watts was made chairman of the National Dance Awards in 2011

Crystal Creek (Mutarnee)

Crystal Creek is a creek that runs for 17.5 km, beginning just below Paluma, flowing through the township of Mutarnee and emptying into the Coral Sea. It forms part of the Paluma Range National Park and is known for its division into two tourist destinations, namely Little Crystal Creek and Big Crystal Creek. Little Crystal Creek is situated two thirds of the way along Mt Spec Road, heading towards the village of Paluma; this location consists of a number of small swimming holes and waterfalls, as well as the Little Crystal Creek Bridge, an historical arch bridge of which construction began in 1932. Facilities here include a wheelchair accessible picnic area and toilets. Big Crystal Creek is located a few kilometres downstream from Little Crystal Creek, at the end of Spiegelhauer Road. Facilities at Big Crystal Creek include a wheelchair accessible picnic area, toilets, as well as a designated camping ground; the most popular of the swimming holes at Big Crystal Creek is Paradise Waterhole, larger than that of the Little Crystal Creek waterholes, can be accessed by a short walk from the picnic area along a bush track.

Further down the road from the picnic area, the Big Crystal Creek Rockslides can be found, another swimming destination known for its natural waterslide formed by mossy rocks. Crystal Creek has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Mt Spec Road: Mount Spec Road and Little Crystal Creek Bridge List of rivers of Queensland