Catherine of Alexandria

Saint Catherine of Alexandria, or Saint Katharine of Alexandria known as Saint Catherine of the Wheel and The Great Martyr Saint Catherine, is, according to tradition, a Christian saint and virgin, martyred in the early 4th century at the hands of the emperor Maxentius. According to her hagiography, she was both a princess and a noted scholar who became a Christian around the age of 14, converted hundreds of people to Christianity and was martyred around the age of 18. More than 1,100 years after Catherine's martyrdom Joan of Arc identified her as one of the saints who appeared to and counselled her; the Eastern Orthodox Church venerates her as a Great Martyr and celebrates her feast day on 24 or 25 November, depending on the regional tradition. In Catholicism she is traditionally revered as one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers. In 1969 the Roman Catholic Church removed her feast day from the General Roman Calendar; however she continued to be commemorated in the Roman Martyrology on 25 November.

In 2002, her feast was restored to the General Roman Calendar as an optional memorial. Some modern scholars consider that the legend of Catherine was based on the life and murder of the Greek philosopher Hypatia, with reversed roles of Christians and pagans. According to the traditional narrative, Catherine was the daughter of Constus, the governor of Alexandria during the reign of the emperor Maximian. From a young age she devoted herself to study. A vision of Saint Mary and Baby Jesus persuaded her to become a Christian; when the persecutions began under Maxentius, she went to the emperor and rebuked him for his cruelty. The emperor summoned 50 of the best pagan philosophers and orators to dispute with her, hoping that they would refute her pro-Christian arguments, but Catherine won the debate. Several of her adversaries, conquered by her eloquence, declared themselves Christians and were at once put to death. Catherine was scourged and imprisoned, she was scourged so cruelly and for so long that her whole body was covered with wounds, from which the blood flowed in streams.

The spectators wept with pity, but Catherine stood with her eyes raised to heaven, without giving a sign of suffering or fear. Maxentius ordered her to be imprisoned without food, so she would starve to death. During the confinement, angels tended her wounds with salve. Catherine was fed daily by a dove from Heaven and Christ visited her, encouraging her to fight bravely, promised her the crown of everlasting glory. During her imprisonment more than 200 people came to see her, including Maxentius' wife, Valeria Maximilla. Twelve days when the dungeon was opened, a bright light and fragrant perfume filled it and Catherine came forth more radiant and beautiful. Upon the failure of Maxentius to make Catherine yield by way of torture, he tried to win the beautiful and wise princess over by proposing marriage; the saint refused, declaring that her spouse was Jesus Christ, to whom she had consecrated her virginity. The furious emperor condemned Catherine to death on a spiked breaking wheel, but, at her touch, it shattered.

Maxentius ordered her to be beheaded. Catherine herself ordered the execution to commence. A milk-like substance rather than blood flowed from her neck. Angels transported her body to the highest mountain next to Mount Sinai. In 850, her incorrupt body was discovered by monks from the Sinai Monastery; the monks found on the surface of the granite on which her body lay an impression of the form of her body. Her hair still growing, a constant stream of the most heavenly fragranced healing oil issuing from her body; this oil produced countless miracles. In the 6th century, the Eastern Emperor Justinian had established what is now Saint Catherine's Monastery in Egypt, her relics include her left hand, said to be warm to the touch, her head. Her incorrupt body is not publicly displayed. Countless people make the pilgrimage to the Monastery to receive miracle healing from Saint Catherine. Donald Attwater dismisses what he calls the "legend" of Saint Catherine, arguing for a lack of any "positive evidence that she existed outside the mind of some Greek writer who first composed what he intended to be an edifying romance."

Harold Davis writes that "assiduous research has failed to identify Catherine with any historical personage" and has theorized that Catherine was an invention inspired to provide a counterpart to the story of the later pagan philosopher Hypatia of Alexandria. Modern scholarship supports Davis' assumption that the legend of Catherine of Alexandria was based on the life and murder of Hypatia, with the roles of Christians and pagans reversed. Hypatia was a Greek mathematician and philosopher, brutally murdered by a Christian mob after being accused of exacerbating a conflict between two prominent figures in Alexandria, the governor and the bishop, Cyril of Alexandria. Sometimes cited as a possible inspiration of Saint Catherine, the writer Eusebius wrote, around the year 320, that the Emperor Maximinus had ordered a young Christian woman to come to his palace to become his mistress, when she refused he had her punished by having her banished and her estates confiscated. Although Eusebius did not name the woman, she had been identified with Dorothea of Alexandria.

The earliest surviving account of Saint Catherine's life comes around 600 years after the traditional date of her martyrdom, in the Menologium a document compiled for Emperor Basil


Clifton George Bailey III, better known by the stage name Capleton, is a Jamaican reggae and dancehall artist. He is referred to as King Shango, King David, The Fireman and The Prophet, his record label is called David House Productions. He is known for his Rastafari movement views expressed in his songs. Bailey was born in Islington in St. Mary in 1967; as a youth, he was given the surname of a popular St. Mary lawyer and friend of the family, Capleton, as a nickname by his relatives and friends. Capleton rejects the name given to him at birth, given its European origin, he now prefers "King Shango", given its roots in the Yoruba language. As a teenager, he sneaked out of his home to catch local dancehall acts leaving St. Mary for Kingston at the age of 18 to work on his career as a dancehall deejay. In 1989, he got his first big international exposure. Stewart Brown, owner of a Toronto-based sound called African Star, gave the untested artist his first break, flying him to Canada for a stage show alongside Ninjaman and Flourgon.

When Capleton first arrived on the scene in the late 1980s, slackness and gun talk were the dominant lyrics in the dancehalls. The pre-Rasta Capleton had a string of hit songs from "Bumbo Red" to "Number One on the Look Good Chart" and "No Lotion Man", he recorded the song that began to establish his significant place in Dancehall, "Alms House" in 1992. The tune became a big hit in the dancehall, followed up by "Music is a Mission" and the massive hit "Tour". By 1993, he was voicing tunes which became conscious, such as "Prophet" and "Cold Blooded Murderer". Tunes such as "Tour" and "Wings of the Morning" earned him a deal with Russell Simmons' Def Jam Recordings, which culminated in the Prophecy and I-Testament albums of the mid-1990s. In 1999, Capleton headlined Reggae Sumfest's dancehall night, to much fanfare; the performance, which led to a subsequent headliner placement the following year, is credited with "re-bussing", or creating a comeback for, his career. The 1999–2000 period elicited a string of hits, many of which can be found on the album More Fire.

By 2004, some argued the quality of Capleton's music had been downgraded by over-proliferation on numerous riddims, while Capleton himself argued his continued recording over both dancehall and roots reggae riddims created balance in his musical output. Nonetheless, he scored hit singles over one of the most popular riddims of 2004, "That Day Will Come" over the Hard Times riddim. After a hiatus from the label, Capleton returned to VP Records in 2010 with the release of I-Ternal Fire. After headlining a U. S. tour which included Romain Virgo, Munga Honorable, Kulcha Knox in the fall of 2010, Capleton embarked upon a tour of the African continent for late 2010 and early 2011. Stops included Gambia, South Africa and multiple dates in Zimbabwe. In December 2012 the music Unite Cape Town International Reggae Festival saw Capleton and dancehall artists like Black Dillinger, Blak Kalamawi. Capleton's annual'A St Mary Mi Come From' live show has raised funds for several charities since it was first staged in 2000, including local schools and hospitals.

Capleton makes reference to one of the various mansions of the Rastafari movement. Yet he mentions there's no separation between the mansions of Rastafari as he sees it, he stated in an interview on TraceTV that he doesn't eat meat of any kind, consume dairy in any form, or eat anything from soya. "Not an ordinary vegetarian..." he stated, "I'm vegan." He touches on the subject of his lyrics regarding fire, saying they are metaphoric references of purification, not violence or murder. Capleton has faced criticism for anti-gay lyrics in some of his songs though homosexuality remains illegal in his native Jamaica, his manager has argued that some of the controversial lyrics have been mistranslated and do not refer to gays. Capleton himself has admitted that through his Rastafari faith he believes that a homosexual lifestyle is not right, but has insisted that terms such as "burn" and "fire" are not to be understood in the literal sense "to go out and burn and kill people", but as a metaphor for "purification" and cleansing.

As part of an agreement to end the Stop Murder Music campaign and other artists signed the Reggae Compassionate Act in 2007. However, Capleton has continued to sing songs that some claim violate the RCA, causing the cancellation of a concert in Switzerland in 2008 and a United States tour in 2010. Official website Capleton's profile at VP Records' website History of Capleton Capleton Biography

Dufay River

The Dufay River is a tributary of Lake Buies, flowing in the Northwestern part of the territory of the city of Rouyn-Noranda, in administrative region of Abitibi-Temiscamingue, in Quebec, in Canada. Forestry is the main economic activity of this hydrographic slope. Annually, the surface of the river is frozen from mid-November to late April, the period of safe ice circulation is from mid-December to early April; the river begins at the mouth of the Dufay Lake in the area of Montbeillard. Lake Dufay has an island of 1.3 kilometres in length in the middle. It is fed on the East side by the outlet of Lake Senaka. From the dam at the mouth of Dufay Lake, the river flows on 1.3 kilometres towards the northwest, to its mouth The mouth of the Dufay River empties onto the south shore of Buies Lake. This confluence is located at: 2.9 metres South-west of the Quebec - Ontario border. From the confluence of the Dufay River with Lake Buies, the current flows through Raven Lake descends successively to the Larder River, Blanche River, the Lake Timiskaming, crossed by the Ottawa River, the largest tributary of the North Shore of the St. Lawrence River.

The term "Dufay" is a family name of French origin. The toponym "Dufay River" has been officialized on December 5, 1968, at the Commission de toponymie du Québec, i.e. at the creation of this commission. Dufay Lake, a body of water Raven Lake, a body of water Larder River, a watercourse Blanche River, a watercourse Lake Timiskaming, a body of water Ottawa River, a watercourse List of rivers of Quebec