Catherine of Aragon

Catherine of Aragon was Queen of England from June 1509 until May 1533 as the first wife of King Henry VIII. The daughter of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, Catherine was three years old when she was betrothed to Arthur, Prince of Wales, heir apparent to the English throne, they married in 1501. She held the position of ambassador of the Aragonese Crown to England in 1507, the first female ambassador in European history. Catherine subsequently married Arthur's younger brother, the ascended Henry VIII, in 1509. For six months in 1513, she served as regent of England. During that time the English won the Battle of Flodden, an event in which Catherine played an important part with an emotional speech about English courage. By 1525, Henry VIII was infatuated with Anne Boleyn and dissatisfied that his marriage to Catherine had produced no surviving sons, leaving their daughter, the future Mary I of England, as heir presumptive at a time when there was no established precedent for a woman on the throne.

He sought to have their marriage annulled, setting in motion a chain of events that led to England's schism with the Catholic Church. When Pope Clement VII refused to annul the marriage, Henry defied him by assuming supremacy over religious matters. In 1533 their marriage was declared invalid and Henry married Anne on the judgement of clergy in England, without reference to the Pope. Catherine refused to accept Henry as Supreme Head of the Church in England and considered herself the King's rightful wife and queen, attracting much popular sympathy. Despite this, she was acknowledged only as Dowager Princess of Wales by Henry. After being banished from court by Henry, she lived out the remainder of her life at Kimbolton Castle, died there on 7 January 1536 of cancer. English people held Catherine in high esteem, her death set off tremendous mourning; the Education of a Christian Woman by Juan Luis Vives, controversial at its release for promoting that women have the right to an education, was commissioned by and dedicated to her in 1523.

Such was Catherine's impression on people that her enemy, Thomas Cromwell, said of her, "If not for her sex, she could have defied all the heroes of History." She appealed for the lives of the rebels involved in the Evil May Day, for the sake of their families. Catherine won widespread admiration by starting an extensive programme for the relief of the poor, she was a patron of Renaissance humanism, a friend of the great scholars Erasmus of Rotterdam and Thomas More. Catherine was born at the Archbishop's Palace of Alcalá de Henares near Madrid, on the night of 16 December 1485, she was the youngest surviving child of King Ferdinand II of Queen Isabella I of Castile. Catherine was quite short in stature with long red hair, wide blue eyes, a round face, a fair complexion, she was descended, from the House of Lancaster, an English royal house. She was third cousin of her father-in-law, Henry VII of England, fourth cousin of her mother-in-law Elizabeth of York. Catherine was educated by a tutor, Alessandro Geraldini, a clerk in Holy Orders.

She studied arithmetic and civil law, classical literature and heraldry, philosophy and theology. She had a strong religious upbringing and developed her Roman Catholic faith that would play a major role in life, she learned to speak and write in Spanish and Latin, spoke French and Greek. She was taught domestic skills, such as cooking, drawing, good manners, lace-making, needlepoint, sewing and weaving. Scholar Erasmus said that Catherine "loved good literature which she had studied with success since childhood". At an early age, Catherine was considered a suitable wife for Arthur, Prince of Wales, heir apparent to the English throne, due to the English ancestry she inherited from her mother. By means of her mother, Catherine had a stronger legitimate claim to the English throne than King Henry VII himself through the first two wives of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster: Blanche of Lancaster and Constance of Castile. In contrast, Henry VII was the descendant of Gaunt's third marriage to Katherine Swynford, whose children were born out of wedlock and only legitimised after the death of Constance and the marriage of John to Katherine.

The children of John and Katherine, while legitimised, were barred from inheriting the English throne, a stricture, ignored in generations. Because of Henry's descent through illegitimate children barred from succession to the English throne, the Tudor monarchy was not accepted by all European kingdoms. At the time, the House of Trastámara was the most prestigious in Europe, due to the rule of the Catholic Monarchs, so the alliance of Catherine and Arthur validated the House of Tudor in the eyes of European royalty and strengthened the Tudor claim to the English throne via Catherine of Aragon's ancestry, it would have given a male heir an indisputable claim to the throne. The two were married by proxy on 19 May 1499 and corresponded in Latin until Arthur turned fifteen, when it was decided that they were old enough to be married. Catherine was accompanied to England by the ambassadors Diego Fernández de Córdoba y Mendoza, 3rd Count of Cabra, Alonso de Fonseca, archbishop of Santiago de Compostela, Antonio de Rojas Manrique, bishop of Mallor


Ladylike is the fourth studio album by German pop trio Monrose. It was released by Starwatch Music in association with Cheyenne Records and the Warner Music Group on 11 June 2010 in German-speaking Europe. Conceived during a hiatus which allowed each member to launch solo projects, production of the album began in mid-2009. Unlike their previous material, recording of Ladylike was not rushed, with sessions taking place in New York City. Monrose reteamed with frequent collaborators Pete Kirtley, Tim Hawes, Obi Mhondera to work on the album, while upcoming producers such as Tuneverse and Alexander Geringas were consulted. Pursuing a new musical direction, Ladylike took the group's work further into the dance pop and electronic genre, marking a departure from the contemporary R&B and teen pop-influenced sound of previous projects in favor of a more international sound. Elaborating a more grown-up and feminine theme for the album, the band requested promotional material to depict a darker, less girlish image.

Ladylike was released to mixed reviews from music critics, many of whom praised the slower songs on the album but found the rest of the material too generic. On the charts, the album peaked at number ten on the German Albums Chart, becoming Monrose's fourth consecutive top ten album to do so, it entered the top thirty in Austria and Switzerland selling 30,000 copies within the first five months of release. In promotion of the album, Starwatch released three singles from Ladylike, including the band's seventh top ten hit "Like a Lady" and follow-up "This Is Me". Following Monrose's announcement of their disbandment in fall 2010, album track "Breathe You In",Ladylike's third single served as the group's farewell single. Following the release of the final single from their third album I Am, "Why Not Us," in November 2008, the Monrose members decided to take a break from music business, during which the trio pursued different branches of the entertainment industry. In summer 2009, they reunited to start work on their fourth studio album Ladylike, recorded in Germany and in New York City.

The three members agreed that recording overseas was "inspiring." Bahar Kizil commented, that "recording an album in a city like New York, means putting yourself on a higher level." The songs that were recorded there include "Superstar DJ" and "Don't Take It Personal."In the end, the group had the highest number of songs to choose from, as in two years of break, a lot of new material had been collected. The songs for the final track list were chosen by the band members, as well as their families and friends; the trio appreciated the break of two years between their fourth album releases. Senna Guemmour explained, that in this way, the recording sessions were relaxed and could be done without any stress; the first new song introduced from Ladylike was "All or Nothing" which premiered during a fan club meeting. The second song was "Superstar DJ", first performed during a promotional event for Douglas fragrances; the presented another new song "This Is Me", along with the Donna Summer cover "On the Radio" at the Thomas & Helga Show in the NDR.

The lead single "Like a Lady" was sent to radios on 17 April 2010. The music video had its premiere on 12 May 2010; the song was performed during the season finale of the fifth season of Germany's Next Topmodel. Ladylike received mixed to negative reviews. LetMeEntertainYou stated that the songs on the album are "more mature" and "more melodic" than the songs on their last album I Am. T-Online stated that the songs on the album are "varied" and "fast-paced". editor Eberhard Dobler rated the album two out of five stars and wrote: "Eurodance-pop, R&B/pop blueprints, one or two electro breakaways – that's how the three Monrose girls shake through their fourth studio album." He found. It's all about a production. A chic styling, a Sexiest Woman of the World past and casting-tested voices: The qualification is done. Musically, Monrose will not survive the group stage."Similarly, Albert Ranner von felt that "contrary to the unpleasantly sterile look of the cover and the video, the fourth Monrose is only half as bad as it was feared.

Mandy and Bahar remember their strengths for six songs. Ladylike still lacks any own identity on the musical side that Monrose will be denied until old age Compared to its predecessors, this time, this fact is less disturbing and the Popstars winners fall into midfield." In her review for Weser-Kurier, journalist Kati Hofacker found that "one thing the trio – or rather their crew of producer – can for sure: They manage to knock out one hit grenade after the other with the simplest of ingredients, the most flimsy set pieces and the stupidest lyrics But yes, this thing will be a hit." — Official site Ladylike at Discogs

2010 Tim Hortons Brier

The 2010 Tim Hortons Brier, the Canadian men's national curling championship, was held between March 6 until March 14, 2010 in Halifax, Nova Scotia at the Halifax Metro Centre. It marked the sixth time the Brier had been to Halifax, the second time in eight years, having hosted the 2003 Nokia Brier; the 2010 Brier was without its two-time defending champions, the Kevin Martin Alberta rink, which did not participate in playdowns, instead focusing on the 2010 Winter Olympics. Alberta was represented for the first time by Kevin Koe. Koe's brother, Jamie skipped the Northwest Territories/Yukon team for the fourth time; the 2010 was the second Brier in a row where two brothers skipped different teams Glenn Howard represented Ontario once again, having won a record fifth straight provincial championship. However his brother Russ did not compete in the playdowns for New Brunswick; that province was represented by James Grattan. The 1996 and 1999 Brier champion Jeff Stoughton skipped for Manitoba for the eighth time, a record for that province.

Former Olympic gold medalist Brad Gushue skipped for Newfoundland and Labrador for the seventh time in eight years. Rounding out the field were Darrell McKee of Saskatchewan in his third Brier, Rod MacDonald who skipped Prince Edward Island for the third time, Brad Jacobs of Northern Ontario playing in his third Brier, Jeff Richard of British Columbia, Serge Reid of Quebec and Ian Fitzner-LeBlanc who all played their first Briers. Kevin Koe's Alberta rink defeated Glenn Howard of Ontario in the final with a score of 6–5 to win the 2010 Tim Hortons Brier. Final Round Robin Standings All draw. Saturday, March 6, 3:00 pm Saturday, March 6, 8:00 pm Sunday, March 7, 10:00 am Sunday, March 7, 3:00 pm Sunday, March 7, 8:00 pm Monday, March 8, 10:00 am Monday, March 8, 3:00 pm Monday, March 8, 8:00 pm Tuesday, March 9, 10:00 am Tuesday, March 9, 3:00 pm Tuesday, March 9, 8:00 pm Wednesday, March 10, 10:00 am Wednesday, March 10, 3:00 pm Wednesday, March 10, 8:00 pm Thursday, March 11, 10:00 am Thursday, March 11, 3:00 pm Thursday, March 11, 8:00 pm Friday, March 12, 8:00 pm Saturday, March 13, 11:00 am Saturday, March 13, 8:00 pm Sunday, March 14, 8:00 pm 2010 Boston Pizza Cup 2010 Canadian Direct Insurance BC Men's Curling Championship 2010 Safeway Championship 2010 Alexander Keith's Tankard 2010 Newfoundland and Labrador Tankard The Dominion 2010 Northern Ontario Men's Curling Championship 2010 Nova Scotia Men's Molson Provincial Championship 2010 Ontario Men's Curling Championship 2010 PEI Labatt Tankard 2010 Quebec Men's Provincial Curling Championship 2010 SaskTel Tankard 2010 Yukon/NWT Men's Curling Championship Round Robin only