Marie de' Medici
Marie de' Medici was Queen of France as the second wife of King Henry IV of France, of the House of Bourbon. She was a member of the powerful House of Medici. Following the assassination of her husband in 1610, which occurred the day after her coronation, she acted as regent for her son, King Louis XIII of France, until 1617, when he came of age, she was noted for her ceaseless political intrigues at the French court and extensive artistic patronage. She was born as Maria at the Palazzo Pitti of Florence, the sixth daughter of Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Archduchess Joanna of Austria. Marie was not a male-line descendant of Lorenzo the Magnificent but from Lorenzo the Elder, a branch of the Medici family sometimes referred to as the'cadet' branch, she did descend from Lorenzo in the female-line however, through his daughter Lucrezia de' Medici. She was a Habsburg through her mother, a direct descendant of Joanna of Castile and Philip I of Castile. Marie was one of seven children.
A portrait of Marie as a young girl shows her with a high forehead. Her wavy hair was light brown in colour, she had honey-brown eyes and fair skin; the painter was from the school of Santi di Tito. She married Henry IV of France in October 1600 following the annulment of his marriage to Margaret of Valois; the wedding ceremony was held in Florence, was celebrated by four thousand guests with lavish entertainment, including examples of the newly invented musical genre of opera, such as Jacopo Peri's Euridice. Henry did not attend the ceremony, the two were therefore married by proxy. Marie brought as part of her dowry 600,000 crowns, her eldest son, the future King Louis XIII, was born at Fontainebleau the following year. Her husband was 47 at the marriage and had a long succession of mistresses. Dynastic considerations required him to take a second wife, his first spouse Margaret of Valois never having produced children by Henry or by her lovers. Henry chose Marie de' Medici because Henry "owed the bride's father, Francesco de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, who had helped support his war effort, a whopping 1,174,000 écus and this was the only means Henry could find to pay back the debt...."The marriage was successful in producing children, but it was not a happy one.
The queen feuded with Henry's mistresses in language. She quarreled with her husband's leading mistress, Catherine Henriette de Balzac d'Entragues, whom he had promised he would marry following the death of his former "official mistress", Gabrielle d'Estrées; when he failed to do so, instead married Marie, the result was constant bickering and political intrigues behind the scenes. Catherine referred to Maria as "the fat banker's daughter". Although the king could have banished his mistress, supporting his queen, he never did so. She, in turn, showed great sympathy and support to her husband's banished ex-wife Marguerite de Valois, prompting Henry to allow her back into the realm. Marie was crowned Queen of France on 13 May 1610, a day before her husband's death. Hours after Henry's assassination, she was confirmed as regent by the Parliament of Paris, she banished his mistress, Catherine Henriette de Balzac, from the court. During her husband's lifetime Marie showed little sign of political acumen, her abilities scarcely improved after she assumed the regency.
Stubborn and of limited intellect, she was influenced by her maid Leonora "Galigai" Dori. Dori conspired with her unscrupulous Italian husband, Concino Concini, created Marquis d'Ancre and a Marshal of France though he had never fought a battle; the Concinis had Henry IV's able minister, the Duke of Sully and Italian representatives of the Roman Catholic Church hoped to force the suppression of Protestantism in France by means of their influence. Half-Habsburg herself, Marie abandoned the traditional anti-Habsburg French foreign policy, she lent support to Habsburg Spain by arranging the marriage of her daughter Elisabeth to the future Philip IV of Spain. Marie overturned the Treaty of Bruzolo, an alliance signed between Henry's representatives and Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy. Under the regent's lax and capricious rule, the princes of the blood and the great nobles of the kingdom revolted; the queen, too weak to assert her authority, consented to buy them off on 15 May 1614. The opposition to the regency was led by Henri de Bourbon, Duke of Enghien, who pressured Marie into convoking the Estates General in 1614 and 1615.
In 1616 Marie's rule was strengthened by the addition to her councils of Armand Jean du Plessis, who had come to prominence at the meetings of the Estates General. However, her son Louis XIII several years into his legal majority, asserted his authority the next year; the king overturned the pro-Habsburg, pro-Spanish foreign policy pursued by his mother, ordered the assassination of Concini, exiled the queen to the Château de Blois and appointed Richelieu to his bishopric. After two years of virtual imprisonment "in the wilderness", as she put it, Marie escaped from Blois in the night of 21/22 February 1619 and became the figurehead of a new aristocratic revolt headed by Louis's brother Gaston, Duke of Orléans, whose forces Louis dispersed. Through the mediation of Richelieu the king was reconciled with his mother, allowed to hold a small court at Angers, she resumed her place in the royal council
House of La Marck
La Marck, original German name von der Mark, was a noble family, which from about 1200 appeared as the Counts of Mark. The family history started with Count Adolf I, scion of a cadet branch of the Rhenish Berg dynasty residing at Altena Castle in Westphalia. In the early 13th century Adolf took his residence at his family's estates around Mark, a settlement in present-day Hamm-Uentrop. Adolf had inherited the Mark fortress from his father Count Frederick I of Berg-Altena together with the older county around Altena and began to call himself Count de La Mark. Liensmen of the Archbishops of Cologne in the Duchy of Westphalia, the family ruled the County of Mark, an immediate state of the Holy Roman Empire, and, at the height of their powers, the four duchies of Julich, Cleves and Guelders as well as the County of Ravensberg. Members of the family became Bishops in the Prince-Bishoprics of Liège, Münster and Osnabrück, Archbishops in Cologne. Collateral lines became Dukes of Bouillon, a title, inherited by the House of La Tour d'Auvergne, Princes of Sedan, Dukes of Nevers, Counts of Rethel and so forth.
Anne of Cleves is one of the most renowned figures in history descending from the main line of the House of La Mark. Adolph de la Marck was Prince-Bishop of Liège from 1313 until 1344 Adolph II of the Marck the son of Engelbert I of the Marck and Mechtild of Arberg Engelbert III of the Mark was a son of Count Adolph II of Mark. Adolf III de la Marck was a son of Count Adolph II, he was bishop of Münster and archbishop of Cologne. In 1364 he left his position as bishop of Cologne to his cousin Engelbert III, to become Count of Cleves. Engelbert de la Marck was prince-bishop of Liège from 1345 until 1364, he was archbishop of Cologne from 1364 until 1369. William I de la Marck was the younger brother of Erard III de la Marck, he was nicknamed Le Sanglier des Ardennes. Erard de la Marck, nephew of William I, was prince-bishop from 1506 till 1538. Robert II de la Marck, nephew of William I, was Duke of seigneur of Sedan and Fleuranges. Robert III de la Marck, son of Robert II, was Marshal of France in historian.
Robert IV de la Marck was Duke of Bouillon and Prince of Sedan, Marshal of France in 1547. William II de la Marck was admiral of the Gueux de mer, the so-called'sea beggars' who fought in the Eighty Years' War, he was the great-grandson of William I de la Marck. In 1591 the heiress of one of the collateral lines of the family, Charlotte de la Marck, was married to Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, Marshal of France. In 1594 Charlotte died without issue, her claims to Bouillon passed to her husband. Louis Pierre Engelbert, Comte de la Marck Louis Engelbert, Comte de la Marck He was the last male descendant of the Counts de la Marck, so his title Comte de la Marck was passed on to his grandson through his daughter, Louise-Marguerite, who married Charles Marie Raymond of Arenberg. Auguste Marie Raymond, Comte de la Marck Adolf I, first documented as comes de Marca in 1202 Engelbert I Eberhard Engelbert II Adolf II, married Margaret of Cleves in 1332 Engelbert III Adolf III, Count of Cleves from 1368 → see below Engelbert, Prince-Bishop of Liège 1345–1364, Archbishop of Cologne 1364–68 Eberhard I, Count of Arenberg → see below Adolf, Prince-Bishop of Liège 1313–1344 Adolf III, second son of Adolf II with Margaret of Cleves, Prince-bishop of Münster 1357–1363 and Archbishop of Cologne in 1363, inherited the County of Cleves upon the death of his maternal uncle Count Johann in 1368 and became Count of Mark upon the death of his elder brother Engelbert III in 1391 Adolph I, Duke of Cleves from 1417 Margaret of Cleves, Duchess of Bavaria-Munich Catherine of Cleves, Duchess of Guelders John I John II John III, married Maria of Jülich-Berg in 1509, inherited the duchies of Jülich and Berg and the County of Ravensberg upon the death of his father-in-law Duke William IV of Jülich-Berg, ruled the United Duchies of Jülich-Cleves-Berg upon the death of his father in 1521 Sybille, married to Elector John Frederick of Saxony Anne, married to King Henry VIII of England William the Rich, married Maria of Habsburg, Archduchess of Austria and daughter of Emperor Ferdinand I, claimed the Duchy of Guelders upon the death of Duke Charles in 1538 Marie Eleonore, married to Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia John Frederick John William, extinction of the line, followed by the War of the Jülich succession Amalia Engelbert, Count of Nevers Elisabeth, Countess of Schwarzburg Agnes, Queen of Navarre Adolph of Cleves, Lord of Ravenstein Mary, Duchess of Orléans Dietrich II Eberhard I Lord of Arenberg Erard II von der Mark, Lord of Sedan & Arenberg Johann II von der Mark, Lord of Sedan & Arenberg Erard III von der Mark, Lord of Arenberg whose issue will die into the house of Ligne, by the marriage of Marguerite de la Marck-Arenberg with Jean de Ligne Robert I de la Marck, Lord of Sedan, chatellain de Bouillon Robert II de la Marck, Lord of Sedan, Duke of Bouillon Robert III de la Marck, Lord of Sedan, Duke of Bouillon Robert IV de la Marck, Duke of Bouillon, Earl of Braine & Maulevrier, Lord of Sedan.
Henri Robert de la Marck, Duke of Bouillon, sovereign Prince de Sedan, Guillaume Robert de la Ma
Catholic League (French)
The Catholic League of France, sometimes referred to by contemporary Catholics as the Holy League, was a major participant in the French Wars of Religion. Formed by Henry I, Duke of Guise, in 1576, the League intended the eradication of Protestants—mainly Calvinists or Huguenots—out of Catholic France during the Protestant Reformation, as well as the replacement of King Henry III. Pope Sixtus V, Philip II of Spain, the Jesuits were all supporters of this Catholic party. Confraternities and leagues were established by French Catholics to counter the growing power of the Lutherans and members of the Reformed Church of France; the Protestant Calvinists at that time dominated much of the French nobility, leading to active persecution of Catholics in some regions. Under the leadership of Henry I, Duke of Guise, the Catholic confraternities and leagues were united as the Catholic League. Guise used the League not only to defend the Catholic cause but as a political tool in an attempt to usurp the French throne.
The Catholic League aimed to preempt any seizure of power by the Huguenots and to protect French Catholics' right to worship. The Catholic League's cause was fueled by the doctrine Extra Ecclesiam Nulla Salus. Catholic Leaguers saw their fight against Calvinism as a Crusade against heresy; the League's pamphleteers blamed any natural disaster that occurred in France at the time as God's way of punishing France for tolerating the existence of the Calvinist heresy. After a series of bloody clashes, the French Wars of Religion, between Catholics and Protestants, the Catholic League formed in an attempt to break the power of the Calvinist gentry once and for all; the Catholic League saw the French throne under Henry III as too conciliatory towards the Huguenots. The League, similar to hardline Calvinists, disapproved of Henry III's attempts to mediate any coexistence between the Huguenots and Catholics; the Catholic League saw moderate French Catholics, known as Politiques, as a serious threat. The Politiques were tired of the many tit for tat killings and were willing to negotiate peaceful coexistence rather than escalating the war.
The League began to exert pressure on Henry III of France. Faced with this mounting opposition he canceled the Peace of La Rochelle, re-criminalizing Protestantism and beginning a new chapter in the French Wars of Religion. However, Henry saw the danger posed by the Duke of Guise, gaining more and more power. In the Day of the Barricades, King Henry III was forced to flee Paris, which resulted in Henry, Duke of Guise becoming the de facto ruler of France. Afraid of being deposed and assassinated, the King decided to strike first. On December 23, 1588, Henry III's guardsmen assassinated the Duke and his brother, Louis II and the Duke's son was imprisoned in the Bastille. However, this move did little to consolidate the King's power and enraged both the surviving Guises and their followers; as a result, the King fled Paris and joined forces with Henry of Navarre, the throne's Calvinist heir presumptive. Both the King and Henry of Navarre began building. On August 1, 1589, as the two Henrys besieged the city and prepared for their final assault, Jacques Clément, a Dominican lay brother with ties to the League infiltrated the King's entourage, dressed as a priest, assassinated him.
This was retaliation for the killing of the Duke of his brother. As he lay dying, the King begged Henry of Navarre to convert to Catholicism, calling it the only way to prevent further bloodshed. However, the King's death threw the army into disarray and Henry of Navarre was forced to lift the siege. Although Henry of Navarre was now the legitimate King of France, the League's armies were so strong that he was unable to capture Paris and was forced to retreat south. Using arms and military advisors provided by Elizabeth I of England, he achieved several military victories. However, he was unable to overcome the superior forces of the League, which commanded the loyalty of most Frenchmen and had the support of Philip II of Spain; the League attempted to declare the Cardinal of Bourbon, Henry's uncle, as king Charles X of France on November 21, 1589, but his status as a prisoner of Henry of Navarre and his death in May 1590 removed all legitimacy from this gesture. Furthermore, the Cardinal refused to usurp the throne and supported his nephew, although to little avail.
Unable to provide a viable candidate for the French throne, the League's position weakened, but remained strong enough to keep Henry from besieging Paris. In a bid to peacefully end the war, Henry of Navarre was received into the Church on July 25, 1593 and was recognized as King Henry IV on February 27, 1594, he is purported to have said "Paris is well worth a Mass," though some scholars question the veracity of this quotation. Under the rule of King Henry IV, the Edict of Nantes was passed, granting religious toleration and limited autonomy to the Huguenots and ensuring a lasting peace for France. Moreover, the Catholic League now lacked the threat of a Calvinist king and disintegrated. Historian Mack Holt argues that historians have sometimes over-emphasised the political role of the League at the expense of its religious and devotional character: What is the final judgement on the Catholic League? It would be a mistake to treat it, as so many historians have, as nothing more than a body motivated purely by p
Louis III, Cardinal of Guise
Louis de Lorraine known as the Cardinal de Guise was the third son of Henry I, Duke of Guise and Catherine of Cleves. His ecclesiastical post was a sinecure, he was made Archbishop of Reims in January 1605, created cardinal on December 2, 1615. He incurred the displeasure of Louis XIII of France, was imprisoned in the Bastille in 1620. However, he joined the royal campaign in Poitou in 1621, there fell ill and died. By papal dispensation, he married Charlotte des Essarts, Mademoiselle de La Haye in 1611, they had five children: Charles Louis, Abbot of Chaalis, Bishop of Condom Achille, Prince of Guise, Count of Romorantin, killed in the siege of Candia, married Anna Maria of Salm-Dhaun and had issue. Charlotte, Abbess of St. Pierre, Lyon Henri Hector Louise, married October 24, 1639 Claude Pot, Lord of Rhodes He was the last cardinal of the House of Guise, cadet branch of the House of Lorraine, his sister in law was Marie de Rohan, the duchesse de Chevreuse and wife of his brother Claude de Lorraine
The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France. A central landmark of the city, it is located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the city's 1st arrondissement. 38,000 objects from prehistory to the 21st century are exhibited over an area of 72,735 square metres. In 2018, the Louvre was the world's most visited art museum; the museum is housed in the Louvre Palace built as the Louvre castle in the late 12th to 13th century under Philip II. Remnants of the fortress are visible in the basement of the museum. Due to the urban expansion of the city, the fortress lost its defensive function and, in 1546, was converted by Francis I into the main residence of the French Kings; the building was extended many times to form the present Louvre Palace. In 1682, Louis XIV chose the Palace of Versailles for his household, leaving the Louvre as a place to display the royal collection, from 1692, a collection of ancient Greek and Roman sculpture. In 1692, the building was occupied by the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres and the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, which in 1699 held the first of a series of salons.
The Académie remained at the Louvre for 100 years. During the French Revolution, the National Assembly decreed that the Louvre should be used as a museum to display the nation's masterpieces; the museum opened on 10 August 1793 with an exhibition of 537 paintings, the majority of the works being royal and confiscated church property. Because of structural problems with the building, the museum was closed in 1796 until 1801; the collection was increased under Napoleon and the museum was renamed Musée Napoléon, but after Napoleon's abdication many works seized by his armies were returned to their original owners. The collection was further increased during the reigns of Louis XVIII and Charles X, during the Second French Empire the museum gained 20,000 pieces. Holdings have grown through donations and bequests since the Third Republic; the collection is divided among eight curatorial departments: Egyptian Antiquities. The Louvre Palace, which houses the museum, was begun as a fortress by Philip II in the 12th century to protect the city from English soldiers which were in Normandy.
Remnants of this castle are still visible in the crypt. Whether this was the first building on that spot is not known. According to the authoritative Grand Larousse encyclopédique, the name derives from an association with wolf hunting den. In the 7th century, St. Fare, an abbess in Meaux, left part of her "Villa called Luvra situated in the region of Paris" to a monastery.. The Louvre Palace was altered throughout the Middle Ages. In the 14th century, Charles V converted the building into a residence and in 1546, Francis I renovated the site in French Renaissance style. Francis acquired what would become the nucleus of the Louvre's holdings, his acquisitions including Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa. After Louis XIV chose Versailles as his residence in 1682, constructions slowed. Four generations of Boulle were granted Royal patronage and resided in the Louvre in the following order: Pierre Boulle, Jean Boulle, Andre-Charles Boulle and his four sons, after him. André-Charles Boulle is the most famous French cabinetmaker and the preeminent artist in the field of marquetry known as "Inlay".
Boulle was "the most remarkable of all French cabinetmakers". He was commended to Louis XIV of France, the "Sun King", by Jean-Baptiste Colbert as being "the most skilled craftsman in his profession". Before the fire of 1720 destroyed them, André-Charles Boulle held priceless works of art in the Louvre, including forty-eight drawings by Raphael'. By the mid-18th century there were an increasing number of proposals to create a public gallery, with the art critic La Font de Saint-Yenne publishing, in 1747, a call for a display of the royal collection. On 14 October 1750, Louis XV agreed and sanctioned a display of 96 pieces from the royal collection, mounted in the Galerie royale de peinture of the Luxembourg Palace. A hall was opened by Le Normant de Tournehem and the Marquis de Marigny for public viewing of the Tableaux du Roy on Wednesdays and Saturdays, contained Andrea del Sarto's Charity and works by Raphael. Under Louis XVI, the royal museum idea became policy; the comte d'Angiviller broadened the collection and in 1776 proposed conversion of the Grande Galerie of the Louvre – which contained maps – into the "French Museum".
Many proposals were offered for the Louvre's renovation into a museum. Hence the museum remained incomplete until the French Revolution. During the French Revolution the Louvre was transformed into a public museum. In May 1791, the Assembly declared that the Louvre would be "a place for bringing together monuments of all the sciences and arts". On 10 August 1792, Louis XVI was imprisoned and the royal collection i
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Charles, Duke of Guise
Charles de Lorraine, 4th Duke of Guise was the son of Henry I, Duke of Guise and Catherine of Cleves. He was born in the Champagne-Ardenne region of northeastern France. Styled the Chevalier de Guise, he succeeded as Duke of Chevreuse upon the death of his great-uncle Charles of Guise, Cardinal of Lorraine, a title he resigned to his brother Claude. After his father's assassination in 1588, he succeeded him as Duke of Guise, but was kept in prison in Tours for three years, escaping in 1591. While the Catholic League had great hopes for him, considered placing him on the throne, he declared his support for Henry IV of France in 1594, for which Henry paid him four million livres and made him Governor of Provence. In 1595, he captured Marseille from the Duc d'Épernon, he was created Grand Master of France and Admiral of the Levant. Falling into disfavor with Cardinal Richelieu for siding with Marie de' Medici, he withdrew to Italy in 1631, his wife and younger children joined him in Florence, where the family was protected by the House of Medici.
His sons François and Charles Louis died in Italy during these years of exile. Duke Charles himself died, at Cuna, in 1640, his widow and children (among them Marie, "Mademoiselle de Guise" were permitted to return to France in 1643. On 6 January 1611 he married Henriette Catherine of Joyeuse and they had ten children: François, Prince of Joinville, who died in Florence during the family's exile and was buried in the church of San Lorenzo and reinterred at Joinville, he was deemed "the most accomplished prince of his day." Twin boys, who were frail and sickly. They died on the same day. Henry II, Duke of Guise Archbishop of Reims Marie, Duchess of Guise A girl, called Mademoiselle de Joinville, born healthy but caught a cold in the winter of 1617 and died shortly thereafter. Charles Louis and was buried at San Lorenzo and at Joinville, styled Duke of Joyeuse Françoise Renée, Abbess of Montmartre Louis, Duke of Joyeuse Duke of Angoulême Roger called the Chevalier de Joinville and the Chevalier de Guise, Knight of the Order of Malta, died of fever at Cambrai and buried near his ancestors at Joinville