Vigo is a city and municipality adjoining the Atlantic Ocean in the province of Pontevedra in Galicia, northwest Spain. It is the capital of the comarca of Vigo metropolitan area. Vigo is the most populous municipality of Galicia, the 14th in Spain, the most populous Spanish municipality, not the capital of a province, it has an area of 109.06 km2 and had a population of 292,817 in 2016. The city is located in the southwest of Galicia, in the southern part of Vigo Ria, one of Europe's rainiest areas. In the northeast, it borders the municipality of Redondela. On the other side of its bay are the municipalities of Cangas and Moaña, they are all part of the southern Galician region called Rías Baixas. Vigo is just north of the border with Portugal. Vigo and its metropolitan area are one of the region's primary economic agents. In the Middle Ages, the small village of Vigo was part of the territory of Galician-speaking neighbouring towns Tui, suffered several Viking attacks. However, its number of inhabitants was so small that it was not considered a real village until around the 15th century, when the earliest records began.
In the 16th and 17th centuries, the city was attacked several times. In 1585 and 1589, during an unsuccessful attack by the English counter-Armada, Francis Drake raided the city and temporarily occupied it, burning many buildings. Several decades a Turkish fleet tried to attack the city; as a result, the city's walls were built in 1656 in the reign of Philip IV of Spain. They are still preserved. At this time, in spite of the attacks, Vigo developed its earliest commerce and was given several privileges by the kings of Spain. In 1702, the Battle of Vigo Bay occurred, in 1719, because a Spanish fleet which departed from Vigo attempted to invade Scotland in support of the Jacobites, the city was occupied for ten days by a British force. In 1808, the French Army annexed Spain to the Napoleonic Empire, although Vigo remained unconquered until January, 1809. Vigo was the first city of Galicia to be freed from French rule, in what is annually celebrated on March 28 as the Reconquista. In 1833, the city of Pontevedra was designated the provincial capital.
Vigo grew rapidly in the 19th and 20th centuries. Continuous urban-planning changes left Vigo less structured than other Galician cities such as Pontevedra and A Coruña. Vigo's urban area is built over a Roman settlement, it is accepted that the name Vigo is derived from the Latin word vicus spacorum, meaning "small village". The standard pronunciation of Vigo in both Galician and Spanish is. Vigo has been given the nickname cidade olívica, it is said that, after the conflict between the Isabel de Castilla and Juana la Beltraneja—where Galician nobility fought for the latter—the victor ordered all of Galicia's olive trees to be cut down, as they symbolized peace. She couldn't uproot the tree in Vigo, because it was planted in sacred ground; the tree is represented in the city seal, a descendant of it is still alive in Vigo's city centre. The city of Vigo has 292,817 inhabitants with an extended metropolitan population of 481,268, making it Spain's 14th-largest metropolitan area. In 2010, 16,735 foreigners lived in 5.6 % of the total population.
The main nationalities are Portuguese and Colombians. By language, according to 2013 data, 7.68% of the population speak in Galician, 51.39% in Spanish. This makes Vigo the least Galician-speaking city in Galicia. Vigo's climate is classified as oceanic. In actuality, with its noticeable drying trend in the summer, Vigo's climate is more similar to the variant of the oceanic climate seen in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. Substantial rainfall throughout the year prevents it from being classified as a Mediterranean climate though there is a drying trend in summer; the average annual temperature in Vigo is 14 °C. Compared to many other Galician towns, Vigo experiences warmer summer temperatures than A Coruña and milder winters than inland areas; this is due to its sheltered location, surrounded by mountains inland and the Illas Cíes out in the bay towards the sea. The all-time record high for the city is 39.7 °C set on July 5, 2013. Vigo is known for its extreme rainfall in winter. December 1978 saw 925.6 millimetres fall at the weather station in a single month.
During that month on 7 December, 175 millimetres fell on a single day. Normal values for 1981-2010 was 1,791 millimetres falling on just 129.2 days indicating heavy rain to be common. The airport where values are taken is at a higher elevation than the city centre, warmer year-round. Vigo is administratively divided into 23 districts, which are further subdivided into wards Alcabre: Ameixeira, Carregal, Castañal, Forte, Gándara, Pardaíña, Sobreira, Viñagrande Beade: Babio, Carballo do Pazo, Coutada, Gándara, Porto, A Pena, Quintián, O Seixo, A Venda, Sáa Bembrive: Baruxans, Chans, Mosteiro, San Cibrán, Areeiro, Mouteira, Recaré, Xesteira Bouzas Cabral: Becerreira, Carball
John I of Portugal
John I called John of Aviz, was King of Portugal from 1385 until his death in 1433. He is recognized chiefly for his role in Portugal's victory in a succession war with Castile, preserving his country's independence and establishing the Aviz dynasty on the Portuguese throne, his long reign of 48 years, the most extensive of all Portuguese monarchs, saw the beginning of Portugal's overseas expansion. John's well-remembered reign in his country earned him the epithet of Fond Memory; as part of his efforts to acquire Portuguese territories in Africa, he became the first king of Portugal to use the title "Lord of Ceuta". John was born in Lisbon as the natural son of King Peter I of Portugal by a woman named Teresa, according to the royal chronicler Fernão Lopes, was a noble Galician. In the 18th century, António Caetano de Sousa found a 16th-century document in the archives of the Torre do Tombo in which she was named as Teresa Lourenço. In 1364, by request of Nuno Freire de Andrade, a Galician Grand Master of the Order of Christ, he was created Grand Master of the Order of Aviz.
On the death without a male heir of his half-brother, King Ferdinand I, in October 1383, strenuous efforts were made to secure the succession for Beatrice, Ferdinand's only daughter. As heir presumptive, Beatrice had married king John I of Castile, but popular sentiment was against an arrangement in which Portugal would have been annexed by Castile; the 1383–1385 Portuguese interregnum followed, a period of political anarchy, when no monarch ruled the country. On 6 April 1385, the Council of the Kingdom met in Coimbra and declared John Master of Aviz, to be king of Portugal; this was followed by the liberation of all of the Minho in the course of two months as part of a war against Castile in opposition to its claims to the Portuguese throne. Soon after, the king of Castile again invaded Portugal with the purpose of conquering Lisbon and removing John I from the throne. John I of Castile was accompanied by French allied cavalry while English troops and generals took the side of John of Aviz.
John and Nuno Álvares Pereira, his constable and talented supporter, repelled the attack in the decisive Battle of Aljubarrota on 14 August 1385. John I of Castile retreated; the Castilian forces abandoned Santarém, Torres Vedras and Torres Novas, many other towns were delivered to John I by Portuguese nobles from the Castilian side. As a result, the stability of the Portuguese throne was permanently secured. On 11 February 1387, John I married Philippa of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt, who had proved to be a worthy ally; the marriage consolidated an Anglo-Portuguese Alliance. John I of Castile died in 1390 without issue from his wife Beatrice, which meant that a competing legitimate bloodline with a claim to the throne of Portugal died out. John I of Portugal was able to rule in peace and concentrate on the economic development and territorial expansion of his realm; the most significant military actions were the siege and conquest of the city of Ceuta by Portugal in 1415, the successful defence of Ceuta from a Moroccan counterattack in 1419.
These measure were intended to help seize control of navigation off the African coast and trade routes from the interior of Africa. The raids and attacks of the Reconquista in the Iberian Peninsula created captives on both sides who were either ransomed or sold as slaves; the Portuguese crown extended this practice to North Africa. After the attack on Ceuta, the king sought papal recognition of the military action as a Crusade; such a ruling would have enabled those captured to be legitimately sold as slaves. In response to John's request, Pope Martin V issued the Papal bull Sane charissimus of 4 April 1418, which confirmed to the king all of the lands he might win from the Moors. Under the auspices of Prince Henry the Navigator, voyages were organized to explore the African coast; these led to the discovery of the uninhabited islands of Madeira in 1417 and the Azores in 1427. Contemporaneous writers describe John as a man of wit, keen on concentrating power on himself, but at the same time possessed a benevolent and kind demeanor.
His youthful education as master of a religious order made him an unusually learned king for the Middle Ages. His love for knowledge and culture was passed on to his sons, who are referred to collectively by Portuguese historians as the "illustrious generation": Edward, the future king, was a poet and a writer. In 1430, John's only surviving daughter, married Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, enjoyed an refined court culture in his lands. On 2 February 1387, John I married Philippa of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, in Porto. From that marriage were born several famous princes and princesses of Portugal that became known as the "illustrious generation"; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "John I. of Portugal". Encyclopædia Britannica. 15. Cambridge University Press. P. 443. Williamson, D. 1988. Debrett's Kings and Queens of Europe Ana Echevarría Arsuaga: Catalina de Lancaster, edit. Nerea, 2002. ISBN 84-89569-79-7)
Pontevedra is a Spanish city in the north-west of the Iberian Peninsula. It is the capital of both the Comarca and Province of Pontevedra, of the Rias Baixas in Galicia, it is the capital of its own municipality which is, in fact considered as an extension of the actual city. In 1999, Pontevedra pedestrianized its 300,000 square meter medieval center by banning all but the essential automobile traffic. Pontevedra's car free center helped transform it into one of the most accessible cities, leading to awards for its urban quality: the international European prize, "Intermodes" in Brussels in 2013, the United Nations Habitat prize in Dubai in 2014 and the "Excellence Prize" of the Center for Active Design in New York City in 2015. Surrounded by hills, the city is located on the edge of an estuary at the mouth of the river Lérez by the sea, at the bottom of the Ría de Pontevedra, in the heart of the Rías Baixas. An economic centre and tourist destination, with a population of 82,946, it is at the head of an urban area around its Ria of more than 185,000 inhabitants comprising the municipalities of Poio, Marín, Bueu, Cotobade, Ponte Caldelas and Soutomaior.
Pontevedra is the second city in Galicia for its rich heritage, only after Santiago de Compostela. A city of art and history, the city is known as "The Good City" or "The City of the Lérez". Pontevedra is the seat of the General provincial Council and the provincial district court as well as the provincial police station and the provincial administrative offices; the city is an important stopover on the Portuguese Way path of the Camino de Santiago that bears witness to the circular church of the Pilgrim's Virgin with a plant in the shape of a scallop shell. The name of the city is a Latin composite of pons and veter, veterum. In Galicia, Latin pons, a masculine word, became feminine, hence Vulgar Latin Ponte Vetera, which became by the 13th century the modern Galician language toponymy Pontevedra, "the old bridge", in reference to an old Roman bridge across the Lérez River, located near the 12th century Burgo Bridge that remains in place today. A local legend relates the foundation of Pontevedra to Teucer, hero of the Trojan War, a legend, reinforced with the suspicion that Greek traders might have arrived to the Rias Baixas area in ancient times.
However and archaeologists tend to agree that the initial settlement was formed during the integration of Gallaecia into the Roman Empire. The current name of the city is a Latin composite, derived from Pons/Pontis and Veteris/Vetera, hence PonteVetera, thence Galician language Ponte-Vedra, "the old bridge", in reference to the old Roman bridge across Lérez River. Well-connected since Roman times, Pontevedra consolidated itself as an intermediate town during the Suebic period. During the 12th century Pontevedra rose as an important commercial centre. Pontevedra was the main Galician urban centre. In fact, Pontevedra has the second largest "old town" in Galicia, only after Santiago de Compostela. Pontevedra was on the route of the Way of Saint James, namely its southern or "Portuguese" branch; the "Igrexa da Virxe Peregrina", with its distinctive scallop-shaped floor plan, is a destination for tourists and pilgrims. In the 16th century it still was a commercial city, with an increase in fishing.
At that time, Pontevedra was the largest Galician port. One of Christopher Columbus' ships, the carrack Santa Maria named La Gallega, was built in Pontevedra, it was in centuries that the sedimentation caused by river Lérez rendered the harbour unsuitable for large-scale navigation. The end of the 16th century marked the beginning of the decline of the city, a decline which had started for the rest of Galicia from the end of the 15th century; the situation would worsen during the 18th centuries. The port drastically reduced its activity due to the mentioned geographical causes. Furthermore, political decisions and dynastic conflicts provoked a general decay in trade, thus resulting in the depopulation of the city. In the beginning of the 19th century Pontevedra was little more than a small backward town. Fishing and crafts kept the economy going. Yet, with the establishment of new provincial divisions in 1833 Pontevedra saw itself transformed into a provincial capital. Pontevedra grew and became an administrative centre.
The introduction of the railway reconnected the city with the rest of the country, after having lost its harbour. All in all, Pontevedra sees in this century a cultural and urban revival, it is in Pontevedra when, in 1853, Xoán Manuel Pintos publishes the first book in modern Galician, "A gaita gallega". Pontevedra entered the 20th century with great prospects; the city was at the heart of Galician culture and politics. Galicianists - such as Alexandre Bóveda and Castelao - took up residence in the city, where in 1931 they founded the Partido Galeguista, the origin of contemporary Galician nationalism. However, the Spanish Civil War and subsequent Francoist dictatorship ended Pontevedra's progression. Political repression and economic hardships forced many to emigrate; the recovery of the local economy only began in the 1960s, with the introduction of some industrial activity. However, these ve
Soria is a municipality and a Spanish city, located on the Douro river in the east of the autonomous community of Castile and León and capital of the province of Soria. Its population is 43.7 % of the provincial population. The municipality has a surface area of 271,77 km2, with a density of 144.13 inhabitants/km2. Situated at about 1063 metres above sea level, Soria is the second highest provincial capital in Spain. Although there are remains of settlements from the Iron Age and Celtiberian times, Soria itself enters history with its repopulation between 1109 and 1114, by the Aragonese king Alfonso I the Battler. A strategic enclave due to the struggles for territory between the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon, Soria became part of Castile definitively in 1134, during the reign of Alfonso VII. In Soria was born Alfonso VIII, Alfonso X had his court established when he received the offer to the throne of the Holy Roman Empire. In Soria, the deposed king James IV of Mallorca died, John I of Castile married.
Booming during the Late Middle Ages thanks to its border location and its control over the bovine industry, Soria went into a slow decline over the next few centuries. It was damaged during the Peninsular War; the city is home to the Numantine Museum. Today, its population of 38,881 makes Soria the least populated provincial capital of Castile and León and the second least populated in Spain. Important in its economy is the agri-food industry, while an increasing number of tourists are attracted by its cultural heritage. Soria was mentioned by UNESCO as a good example when including the Mediterranean diet in its Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity, it is claimed that in Roman times there was a castle called Oria, purportedly named after a Greek knight called Doricus. Based on this folk etymology, some historians guessed that the first inhabitants of this city might have been the Dorians. Archaeology has not confirmed that story. Instead it has suggested that the first inhabitants were the Suebi, whose kings established one of their courts there.
These two hypotheses have been abandoned because of lack of evidence. It seems more that the name Soria may have its origin in the word dauria from the river Durius; the shield of Soria has the following heraldic description: In a field of gules, a castle, of argent, crenellated with three battlements, lined up and marbled with sabre, rinsed with azure and a king's bust crowned with gold and with its attributes coming out of his homage, in its colour. The king in the coat of arms is Alfonso VIII, born in Soria, the red field represents the blood shed by the Sorians in the battles of Alarcos, Navas de Tolosa and Aljubarrota; the oldest preserved example of the coat of arms is found in the high-medieval bell of San Gil, today the church of Santa María de la Mayor, which reflected the city's motto. Unlike the current official coat of arms, the king who now appears on the bust of the castle's keep on the castle's bell tower, is represented in the bell of San Gil with his entire body at the foot of the castle, leaving through its door.
The area of Soria was inhabited by the Iberians, who merged with the Celts to form the Celtiberians around the 4th century BC. During the Roman conquest of Iberia, Soria was besieged and its population committed a collective suicide in order to escape slavery. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the rebuilt city was occupied by the Suebi. After the Arab conquest of Spain, it grew in importance due to its proximity to the border of the Christian lands, which in the 8th century had settled along the Duero river. In 869 Soria was the centre of the rebellion of Suleyman ibn-Abus against the emir of Córdoba, who sent his son Hakan to quench it. In the early 12th century the city was conquered by Alfonso I the Battler, being absorbed into the Kingdom of León in 1134. Due to its strategic placement at the borders of the Kingdoms of Castile, Navarre and León, Soria in the Middle Ages was at the centre of several conflicts between them. Alfonso VIII of Castile, in reward for its support, gave the city several privileges which it maintained until modern times.
In 1195 the town was stormed by Sancho VII of Navarre, but recovered and continued to develop its splendour and trades held by a community of Jews. Soria lost most of its importance after the unification of Aragón and Castile in 1479, above all after the decree of exile issued against the Jews in 1492. In the War of Spanish Succession, Soria sided for Philip V. In 1808 it was set on fire by the French troops; the economical and social crisis of Spain in the early 20th century, the Spanish Civil War with Francisco Franco's dictatorship which followed, had negative effects on Soria and its neighborhood, which became depopulated due to strong emigration. The policy of the current authorities aims to strengthen the local economy pivoting on Soria's tourism potential, has launched a programme of reconstruction for the neighbouring villages; the poet Antonio Machado spent five years in Soria teaching French in a secondary school, before moving to the neighbouring town of Segovia. These years proved significant in his literary development.
He married and lost his wife there and discovered much ab
Palencia is a city south of Tierra de Campos, in north-northwest Spain, the capital of the province of Palencia in the autonomous community of Castile and León. The municipality had a population of 78,892 in 2017. Palencia lies in the north of the central Spanish plateau, the Meseta Central, in the middle of the Carrión river valley, near the river's confluence with the Pisuerga, which flows through the town and creating four small islands, Dos Aguas and Sotillo being the largest. Palencia is located 190 km north of Madrid, some 40 km north of Valladolid, capital of Castile and León. Two hills surround the city in its north-east area. On the closest stands the 30-metre high statue of Christ known as the Cristo del Otero, the fourth-tallest statue of Christ in the world. Palencia has a substantial forest of 1,438 hectares 6 km away on a plateau above the city, known locally as the "Monte el Viejo"; this park is a popular amusement area for the locals. The Canal de Castilla runs close to the city.
Palencia's municipality includes the village of Paredes de Monte, 14 km away. The region of Palencia has a Continental Mediterranean climate with cool winters, due to altitude and isolation from maritime influences, chilly winds, including some days of snow in the winter and minimum temperatures below 0 °C. Fogs are frequent because of the Carrion river. Summer tends to be warm with temperatures that surpass 30 °C in July and that can reach 38 °C. Due to Palencia's altitude, nightly temperatures tend to be cooler, leading to a lower average in the summer months. Precipitation levels are moderated. Summer and winter are the driest seasons, with most rainfall occurring in the spring. Light rains are frequent in winter, with infrequent rain and heavy thunderstorms in the summer. Snow is an infrequent occurrence, with only a few days of snowfall each year in December and February, snowfall can occur in November or March; the fortified Celtiberian settlement is mentioned as Pallantia by Strabo and Ptolemy, a version of an Indo-European root pala.
It was the chief town of the Vaccaei. The city was starved into submission by the Romans in the 2nd century BC and incorporated into the province of Hispania Tarraconensis, in the jurisdiction of Colonia Clunia Sulpicia. Though the little Roman garrison city was an active mint, it was insignificant compared to the Roman villas of Late Antiquity in the surrounding territory. Archeologists have uncovered the remains of Roman villas at La Olmeda and at the "Quintanilla de la Cueza", where the fragments of mosaic floors are spectacularly refined. According to the 5th-century Galician chronicler Idatius, the city of Palencia was all but destroyed in the Visigothic wars against the Suevi: the date falls in the reign of Theodoric II, whose power centre still lay far to the east, in Aquitania; when the Visigoths conquered the territory, they retained the Roman rural villa system in establishing the Campos Góticos. The Catholic bishopric of Palencia was founded in the 3rd century or earlier, assuming that its bishop was among those assembled in the 3rd century to depose Basilides, bishop of Astorga.
The Priscillianists which originated in Egypt but came to Spain was declared a heresy by the emperor Gratian. It was mix of Gnostic/Montanist teachings. Priscillian was ordained priest and consecrated bishop of Avila. The'heresy' was strongest in northwestern Spain; the declaration of it as a heresy was a political move by the Catholic usurper emperor Maximus to curry favor with the Catholic emperors Valentinian II and Theodosius I. After the establishment of effective Visigothic power Catholics disputed the bishopric of Palencia with the Arian Visigoths. Maurila, an Arian bishop established in Palencia by Leovigild, followed King Reccared's conversion to Catholicism, in 589 he assisted at the Third Council of Toledo. Bishop Conantius, the biographer of Saint Ildephonsus, assisted at synods and councils in Toledo and composed music and a book of prayers from the Psalms; when the Moors arrived in the early 8th century, resistance was fragmented among bishops in control of the small walled towns and the territorial magnates in their fortified villas.
A concerted resistance seems to have been ineffective, the fragmented system crumbled villa by villa. Palencia was insignificant: Moorish writers only once cite the border city in the division of the provinces previous to the Umayyad dynasty; the diocese of Palencia was but a name— a "titular see"— until Froila, Count of Villafruela, succeeded in retaking the area of the see in 921, but the true restorer of Christian power was Sancho III of Navarre. At Palencia El Cid The first prelate of the restored see is said to have been Bernardo, whom Sancho gave feudal command over the city and its lands, with the various castles and the few abbeys. Bernardo was born in France or Navarre, devoted himself to the reconstruction of the original cathedral built over the crypt of the local Saint Antolín, the patron saint of Palencia, venerated here alone, with his Ferias, a moveable feast in September; the cathedral was rebuilt again three centuries later. Its principal treasures were relics of Antoninus venerated in Aquitania, whence they had been brought.
Alfonso VI conferred many privileges on Raimundo. Pedro of Agen in France
Battle of Aljubarrota
The Battle of Aljubarrota was a battle fought between the Kingdom of Portugal and the Crown of Castile on 14 August 1385. Forces commanded by King John I of Portugal and his general Nuno Álvares Pereira, with the support of English allies, opposed the army of King John I of Castile with its Aragonese and French allies at São Jorge, between the towns of Leiria and Alcobaça, in central Portugal; the result was a decisive victory for the Portuguese, ruling out Castilian ambitions to the Portuguese throne, ending the 1383–85 Crisis and assuring John as King of Portugal. Portuguese independence was confirmed and a new dynasty, the House of Aviz, was established. Scattered border confrontations with Castilian troops would persist until the death of John I of Castile in 1390, but these posed no real threat to the new dynasty. To celebrate his victory and acknowledge divine help, John I of Portugal ordered the construction of the monastery of Santa Maria da Vitória na Batalha and the founding of the town of Batalha, close to the site where the battle was fought.
The king, his wife Philippa of Lancaster, several of his sons are buried in this monastery, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The end of the 14th century in Europe was a time of revolution and crisis, with the Hundred Years' War between the English and the French for Western France, the Black Death devastating the continent, famine afflicting the poor. Portugal was no exception. In October 1383, King Ferdinand I of Portugal died with no son to inherit the crown; the only child of his marriage with Leonor Telles de Meneses was a girl, Princess Beatrice of Portugal. In April of that same year the King had signed the Treaty of Salvaterra de Magos with King Juan I of Castile; the treaty determined that Princess Beatrice was to marry Juan I, king of Castile, the Crown of Portugal would belong to the descendants of this union. This situation left the majority of the Portuguese discontent, the Portuguese nobility was unwilling to support the claim of the princess because that could mean the incorporation of Portugal into Castile.
The powerful merchants of the capital, were enraged at being excluded from the negotiations. Without an undisputed option, Portugal remained without a king from 1383–85, in an interregnum known as the 1383–85 Crisis; the first clear act of hostility was carried out in December 1383 by the faction of John, the Grand Master of the Aviz Order, with the murder of Count Andeiro. This prompted the Lisbon merchants to name him "rector and defender of the realm". However, the Castilian king would not relinquish his wife's claims to the throne. In an effort to normalize the situation and secure the crown for himself or Beatrice, he forced Leonor to abdicate from the regency. In April 1384, in Alentejo, a punitive expedition was promptly defeated by Nuno Álvares Pereira, leading a much smaller Portuguese army at the Battle of Atoleiros; this was an example of the use of the defensive tactic of forming an infantry square to repel cavalry without any casualties to the Portuguese. A larger second expedition led by the Castilian king himself reached and besieged Lisbon for four months in the summer of 1384, before being forced to retreat by a shortage of food supplies due to harassment from Nuno Álvares Pereira, the bubonic plague.
In order to secure his claim, John of Aviz engaged in politics and intense diplomatic negotiations with both the Holy See and England. In October 1384, Richard II wrote to John, regent of Portugal, reporting on negotiations, conducted in England, with John's envoys - Dom Fernando, master of the order of Santiago, Laurence Fogaça, chancellor of Portugal saying that an agreement had been reached under which a small English contingent was to be sent to Portugal, to help defend the kingdom against its Castilian neighbor. On 6 April 1385, the Council of the kingdom assembled in Coimbra and declared him King John I of Portugal. After his accession to the throne, John I of Portugal proceeded to annex the cities whose military commanders supported Princess Beatrice and her husband's claims, namely Caminha and Guimarães among others. Enraged by this "rebellion", Juan I ordered a host of 31,000 men to engage in a two-pronged invasion in May; the smaller Northern force sacked and burnt towns along the border, a common practice at the time and similar to what the English were doing in Scotland, before being defeated by local Portuguese nobles in the battle of Trancoso, in the first week of June.
On the news of the invasion by the Castilians, John I of Portugal's army met with Nuno Álvares Pereira, the Constable of Portugal, in the town of Tomar. There they decided to face the Castilians before they could get close to Lisbon and lay siege to it again. English allies arrived at Easter of 1385, consisting of a company of about 100 English longbowmen, veterans from the Hundred Years' War, sent to honor the Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1373; the Portuguese set out to intercept the invading army near the town of Leiria. Nuno Álvares Pereira took on the task of choosing the ground for the battle. Russell notes that the two Portuguese leaders had shown themselves masters of the new developments in methods of warfare, i.e. the use of archers and dismounted men-at-arms. The chosen location was São Jorge near Aljubarrota suitable for the chosen military tactic, being a small flattened hill surrounded by creeks, with the small settlement of Chão da Feira (Fair's
Alcázar of Segovia
The Alcázar of Segovia is a medieval alcázar located in the city of Segovia, a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Rising out on a rocky crag above the confluence of two rivers near the Guadarrama mountains, it is one of the most distinctive castle-palaces in Spain by virtue of its shape – like the bow of a ship; the Alcázar was built as a fortress but has served as a royal palace, a state prison, a Royal Artillery College and a military academy since then. It is used as a museum and a military archives building; the Alcázar of Segovia, like many fortifications in Spain, started off as Roman fort, but apart from the foundations, little of the original structure remains. A Muslim era fort, itself replaced by the present structure, was built by the Berber Almoravid dynasty; the first reference to this particular "alcázar" was in 1120, around 32 years after the city of Segovia returned to Christian hands. The shape and form of the Alcázar was not known until the reign of King Alfonso VIII, however early documentation mentioned a wooden stockade fence.
It can be concluded that prior to Alfonso VIII's reign, the Muslim era structure was no more than a wooden fort built over the old Roman foundations. Alfonso VIII and his wife, Eleanor of England, made this alcázar their principal residence and much work was carried out to erect the beginnings of the stone fortification we see today; the Alcázar of Segovia was one of the favorite residences of the monarchs of Castile in the Middle Ages, a key fortress in the defence of the kingdom. It was during this period that most of the current building was constructed by the Trastámara dynasty. In 1258, parts of the Alcázar had to be rebuilt by King Alfonso X after a cave-in and the Hall of Kings was built to house Parliament soon after. However, the single largest contributor to the continuing construction of the Alcázar is King John II who built the "New Tower". In 1474, the Alcázar played a major role in the rise of Queen Isabella I. On 12 December news of the King Henry IV's death in Madrid reached Segovia and Isabella took refuge within the walls of the Alcázar where she received the support of Andres Cabrera and Segovia's council.
She was enthroned the next day as Queen of León. The next major renovation at the Alcázar was conducted by King Philip II after his marriage to Anna of Austria, he added. In 1587, architect Francisco de Morar completed the main garden and the School of Honor areas of the castle; the royal court moved to Madrid and the Alcázar served as a state prison for two centuries before King Charles III founded the Royal Artillery School in 1762. It served this function for a hundred years until March 6, 1862 where a fire badly damaged most of the roofs, it was only in 1882 that the damaged roofs of the building were restored to its original state, thanks to the existence of engravings made by José María Avrial in 1839. In 1896, King Alfonso XIII ordered the Alcázar to be handed over to the Ministry of War as a military college; the distribution of the castle is divided into two areas: the exterior, with a Herrerian courtyard, moat and the keep, the interior rooms that include a chapel and several noble rooms that can be visited today.
Its plant is irregular and adapts to the hill on which it rises. Highlights the beautiful keep, square with four towers, hall covered with pointed barrel and twin windows, it was raised being the king John II of Castile and at first served as a Weapons room. In the interior, the halls and rooms were decorated with great luxury and beauty by Mudéjar painters and artists, it houses an Armory Museum and the General Military Archive of Segovia, the oldest historical archive of the Spanish Armed Forces. The tower of John II of Castile culminates in a large panoramic terrace. From it you can appreciate a great view of the city; the neighborhood of las Canonjías, the cathedral and the Jewish quarter. The two stairs that have to be saved to reach the top add 156 steps, most of them on a rather narrow and inclined spiral staircase; when crossing the gate that gives access to the first staircase, notice the considerable thickness of the walls. When the first section ends, you will reach the guard room. Attached to the front wall is the bed where the watchman of the tower slept.
Above there are four floors. Its most usual use was as a prison, it was impossible to escape from here. Their tenants used to be characters of high condition, reason why they enjoyed certain comforts in their cells such as tapestries and furniture; the last State prisoner was the Cuban General Dámaso Berenguer in the thirties of the last century. According to The Illustrated Magazine of Art The interior of the Castle of Segovia is in perfect accordance with the magnificence of its exterior. Many apartments are decorated with delicate traceries and pendant ornaments, in the style of the Alhambra, like those of the Alcazar of Seville, were executed by Arabian workmen during the Christian dominion of the fourteenth century, for in many places the crowns of the kings of Castille may be seen, surrounded by Latin mottoes and extracts from the Koran, its construction corresponds to the reign of Alfonso VIII of Castile. In it the twinned windows that gave light to the palace are conserved, since the wall in which they were was the exterior wall of the old palace.
The Mudéjar-style socles located between the windo