Catherine of Siena, a laywoman associated with the Dominican Order, was a mystic and author who had a great influence on Italian literature and the Catholic Church. Canonized in 1461, she is a Doctor of the Church, she was born and raised in Siena, at an early age wanted to devote herself to God, against the will of her parents. She joined the Dominican tertiaries, she made herself known quickly by being marked by mystical phenomena such as invisible stigmata and a mystical marriage. Her influence with Pope Gregory XI played a role in his decision to leave Avignon for Rome, she was sent by him to negotiate peace with Florence. After Gregory XI's death and peace concluded, she returned to Siena, she dictated to secretaries her set of spiritual treatises The Dialogue of Divine Providence. The Great Schism of the West led Catherine of Siena to go to Rome with the pope, she sent numerous letters to princes and cardinals to promote obedience to Pope Urban VI and defend what she calls the "vessel of the Church."
She died on 29 April 1380. Urban VI celebrated her burial in the Basilica of Santa Maria sopra Minerva in Rome; the devotion around Catherine of Siena developed after her death. She was canonized in 1461, declared patron saint of Rome in 1866, of Italy in 1939, she was the first woman to be declared a "doctor of the Church," on 4 October 1970 by Pope Paul VI. She was proclaimed patron saint of Europe in 1999 by Pope John Paul II. Catherine of Siena is one of the outstanding figures of medieval Catholicism, by the strong influence she has had in the history of the papacy and her extensive authorship, she was behind the return of the Pope from Avignon to Rome, carried out many missions entrusted by the pope, something quite rare for a woman in the Middle Ages. Her Dialogue, hundreds of letters, dozens of prayers give her a prominent place in the history of Italian literature. Caterina di Giacomo di Benincasa was born on 25 March 1347 in Siena, Republic of Siena, to Lapa Piagenti, the daughter of a local poet, Giacomo di Benincasa, a cloth dyer who ran his enterprise with the help of his sons.
The house where Catherine grew up in still exists. Lapa was about forty years old when she gave premature birth to twin daughters Catherine and Giovanna, she had borne 22 children, but half of them had died. Giovanna died soon after. Catherine was developed into a healthy child, she was two years old when Lapa had her 25th child, another daughter named Giovanna. As a child Catherine was so merry that the family gave her the pet name of "Euphrosyne", Greek for "joy" and the name of an Euphrosyne of Alexandria. Catherine is said by her confessor and biographer Raymond of Capua O. P.'s Life to have had her first vision of Christ when she was five or six years old: she and a brother were on the way home from visiting a married sister when she is said to have experienced a vision of Christ seated in glory with the Apostles Peter and John. Raymond continues; when Catherine was sixteen, her older sister Bonaventura died in childbirth. She was opposed and started a strict fast, she had learned this from Bonaventura, whose husband had been far from considerate but his wife had changed his attitude by refusing to eat until he showed better manners.
Besides fasting, Catherine further disappointed her mother by cutting off her long hair as a protest against being overly encouraged to improve her appearance to attract a husband. Catherine would advise Raymond of Capua to do during times of trouble what she did now as a teenager: "Build a cell inside your mind, from which you can never flee." In this inner cell she made her father into a representation of Christ, her mother into the Blessed Virgin Mary, her brothers into the apostles. Serving them humbly became an opportunity for spiritual growth. Catherine resisted the accepted course of marriage and motherhood on the one hand, or a nun's veil on the other, she chose to live an active and prayerful life outside a convent's walls following the model of the Dominicans. Her father gave up and permitted her to live as she pleased. A vision of Saint Dominic gave strength to Catherine, but her wish to join his Order was no comfort to Lapa, who took her daughter with her to the baths in Bagno Vignoni to improve her health.
Catherine fell ill with a violent rash and pain, which conveniently made her mother accept her wish to join the "Mantellate", the local association of Dominican tertiaries. Lapa persuaded them to take in her daughter. Within days, Catherine seemed restored, rose from bed and donned the black and white habit of the Third Order of Saint Dominic. Catherine received the habit of a Dominican tertiary from the friars of the order after vigorous protests from the tertiaries themselves, who up to that point had been only widows; as a tertiary, she lived outside the convent, at home with her family like before. The Mantellate taught Catherine how to read, she lived in total silence and solitude in the family home, her custom of giving away clothing and food without asking anyone's permission cost her family but she requested nothing for herself. By staying in their midst, she could live out her rejection of them more strongly, she did not want their food. Accord
Dum Dum Park is a locality in South Dumdum Municipality of North 24 Parganas district in the Indian state of West Bengal. It forms part of the Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority area. Dum Dum Park is a planned area with straight and wide roads, multiple water tanks have become a coveted neighbourhood in greater Kolkata. In recent years, the multiple high budget pandals draw several visitors to the area during the Durga Puja. Dum Dum Park is surrounded by Bangur Avenue in the South, Prafulla Kanan in the east and Amarpally in the north. Jessore Road is on the west side of the Dum Dum Park; the Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport is at a distance of about 5.5 kilometres from Dum Dum Park. Diamond Plaza Mall/PVR Diamond Plaza Multiplex in Shyamnagar-Amarpally is at a distance of 1-1.5 km from Dum Dum Park. Patipukur Railway Station, Bidhannagar Road and Dum Dum railway station, Kolkata Railway Station are railway stations close to Dum Dum Park. Howrah railway station is the major railway station, at a distance of 11 km from Dum Dum Park.
Sealdah Railway Station is another major railway station, at a distance of 8.5 km from Dum Dum Park. AC40-Howrah Maidan to Airport via Jessore Road AC39-Howrah Station to Airport via VIP Road VS-1-Esplanade to Airport VS-2-Howrah Station to Airport 12C/2=Dum Dum Park-Howrah station 3C/1=Nagerbazar-Bosepukur 3C/2=Nagerbazar-Anandapur 221=Nagerbazar-Golpark 223=Golfgreen-B. T. College DN-8=Karunamoyee-Barasat KB-16=Bangur Avenue-Sapurji Housing Complex 44 =Howrah station-Baguiati 30C/1=Babughat-Hatiara 219 =Nagerbazar-Howrah Station 227 =Bangur Avenue-B. N. R 30D =Esplanade-Dum Dum Cantt, it was earlier known as Krishnapur Refugee Colony, which started as a refugee colony to settle the migrants who came to India after the Independence of India. The neighbourhood was developed in a planned manner
Beauty and the Geek is a reality television series, an international franchise, the U. S version is shown on The CW, it has been advertised as "The Ultimate Social Experiment" and is produced by Ashton Kutcher, Jason Goldberg and J. D. Roth; the show's title is a parody of the Beast. The premise of the show consists of a group of "Beauties" and a group of "Geeks" who are paired up to compete as couples for a shared $250,000 and other prizes; each beauty lives together in a room with her geek during the course of the competition. There are challenges shown each episode, one testing the beauties on a academic subject, another that has the geeks competing in a more popular/social realm; the winners of the challenges select two teams to compete against each other in a pure "quiz show" type question and answer session: the team with fewer correct answers gets eliminated. By the end of the competition, many of the contestants say that they have learned much about interacting with people from a different social group, positive things about themselves and their own character, something about human nature in general.
After the airing of season 5 in 2008, production stopped and the show was cancelled. The theme song, "Opportunities" by the Pet Shop Boys, is used on the British and Belgian-Dutch versions. Commercial promos for the show featured a different theme song, "The Geeks Get the Girls" by American Hi-Fi. Following the second season, the American version moved to The CW, the new network formed when both The WB and UPN ceased operations in September 2006; the two-hour season premiere for the third season aired Wednesday, January 3, 2007 at 8:00 p.m. EST on The CW; the fourth season premiered on September 18, making BATG the first series to premiere for the CW for the 2007-08 television season. Beauty and the Geek was renewed for a fifth season, which premiered on March 12, 2008. After the fifth season, the show was put on indefinite hiatus in order to stoke renewed interest in the show, the addition of innovative twists to the format. In October 2008, casting began for a sixth season, scheduled to air on MTV, with minor celebrities as the beauties.
However, a sixth season never materialized. ^1 Richard's title evolved throughout the show as he kissed Krystal and Mindi over the show's course, hence being at first "Has never kissed a girl" "Has kissed one/two/three girl". Mindi promised Richard. On the aftermath show, Lauren attempted to make out with Richard. After the host asked Richard the question that Richard lost with, feeling confident of Richard not knowing the answer again, promised a make out session. Mindi was struggling with the notion, but stood up and made out with Richard, it was a quick French kiss with some tongue action. The contestants won the competition; the contestant won their pair was safe from elimination. The contestant's partner won the challenge and they were safe from elimination; the contestant did not win the challenge but their pair was safe from elimination. The contestant and their partner survived elimination; the contestant and their partner was eliminated. The contestant or their partner won the challenge and were eliminated.
Note: Original partners Chris and Amanda won the first week's quiz challenge and were given the power to switch the partner of one team with another team or they themselves can switch partners. They broke up the team of Brandon and Tristin; the contestants won the competition. The contestant won their pair was safe from elimination; the contestant's partner won the challenge and they were safe from elimination. The contestant did not win the challenge but their pair was safe from elimination; the contestant and their partner survived elimination. The contestant and their partner was eliminated; the contestants won the competition. The contestant won their pair was safe from elimination; the contestant's partner won the challenge and they were safe from elimination. The contestant did not win the challenge but their pair was safe from elimination; the contestant and their partner survived elimination. The contestant and their partner was eliminated. First aired January 3, 2007 Beauty Challenge Winner: Cecille Geek Challenge Winner: Nate Teams at Risk: None Eliminated: None First aired January 3, 2007 Beauty Challenge Winner: Sheree Geek Challenge Winner: Nate Teams at Risk: Erin & Drew, Tori & Sanjay Eliminated: Tori & Sanjay First aired January 10, 2007 Beauty Challenge Winner: Nadia Geek Challenge Winner: Mario Teams at Risk: Andrea & Matt, Sheree & Piao Eliminated: Sheree & Piao First aired January 17, 2007 Challenge Winners: Jennylee & Niels Teams at Risk: Andrea & Matt, Cecille & Nate Eliminated: Andrea & Matt First aired January 24, 2007 Beauty Challenge Winner: Cecille Geek Challenge Winner: Scooter Teams at Risk: Erin & Drew