Catholic Church in the United States

The Catholic Church in the United States is composed of ecclesiastical communities in full communion with the Holy See. With 23% of the United States population as of 2018, the Catholic Church is the country's second largest religious grouping, after Protestantism, the country's largest Church or religious denomination; the United States has the fourth largest Catholic population in the world, after Brazil and the Philippines. In the colonial era, the Spanish established missions that had permanent results in New Mexico and California; the French set up Catholic villages in the Mississippi River region, notably, St. Louis and New Orleans; some English Catholics settled in Maryland. In 1789 the Archdiocese of Baltimore was the first diocese in the newly independent nation. John Carroll became the first American bishop, his brother Daniel Carroll was the leading Catholic among the Founding Fathers of the United States. George Washington in the army and as president set a standard for religious toleration.

No religious test was allowed for holding national office, colonial legal restrictions on Catholics holding office were abolished by the States. However, in the mid-19th century there was political anti-Catholicism in the United States, sponsored by pietistic Protestants fearful of the pope. In the 20th century anti-Catholicism appeared except when a Catholic was running for president as in 1928 and 1960; the number of Catholics grew in the 19th century through high fertility and immigration from Ireland and after 1880, Eastern Europe and Italy. Large scale Catholic immigration from Mexico began after 1910 and in 2019 Latinos comprise 37 percent of American Catholics. By 1900 it was the largest denomination. Parishes set up parochial schools, over a hundred Jesuit and other colleges were established. Nuns were active in teaching and hospital work. Since 1960 the percentage of Americans who are Catholic has fallen from about 25% to 22%. In absolute numbers, Catholics have increased from 45 million to 72 million.

About 10% of the United States' population as of 2010 are former Catholics or non-practicing 30 million people. People have left for a number of reasons, factors which have affected other denominations: loss of belief, disaffiliation for another religious group or for none, indifference. Compared with other religious groups, Catholics are evenly dispersed throughout the country, but they remain scarce in the deep South; as of 2019, Catholics are well represented in local and national politics, a result of the long heritage of Irish Catholic activism in urban politics. Roman Catholics gather as local communities called parishes, headed by a priest, meet at a permanent church building for liturgies every Sunday, weekdays and on holy days. Within the 196 geographical dioceses and archdioceses, there were 17,007 local Catholic parishes in the United States in 2018; the Catholic Church has the third highest total number of local congregations in the US behind Southern Baptists and United Methodists.

However, the average Catholic parish is larger than the average Baptist or Methodist congregation. In the United States, there are 197 ecclesiastical jurisdictions: 177 Western Catholic dioceses including 32 Latin Catholic archdioceses 18 Eastern Catholic dioceses including 2 Eastern Catholic archdioceses including 1 Eparchy 2 personal ordinariates one for former Anglicans who came into full Catholic communion one for members of the military Eastern Catholic Churches are churches with origins in Eastern Europe and Africa that have their own distinctive liturgical and organizational systems and are identified by the national or ethnic character of their region of origin; each is considered equal to the Latin tradition within the Church. In the United States, there are 15 Eastern Church dioceses and two Eastern Church archdioceses, the Byzantine Catholic Archeparchy of Pittsburgh and the Ukrainian Catholic Archeparchy of Philadelphia; the apostolic exarchate for the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church in the United States is headed by a bishop, a member of the U.

S. Conference of Catholic Bishops. An apostolic exarchate is the Eastern Catholic Church equivalent of an apostolic vicariate, it is not a full-fledged diocese/eparchy, but is established by the Holy See for the pastoral care of Eastern Catholics in an area outside the territory of the Eastern Catholic Church to which they belong. It is headed by a priest with the title of exarch; the Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter was established January 1, 2012, to serve former Anglican groups and clergy in the United States who sought to become Catholic. Similar to a diocese though national in scope, the ordinariate is based in Houston and includes parishes and communities across the United States that are Catholic, while retaining elements of their Anglican heritage and traditions; as of 2017, 8 dioceses out of 195 are vacant. None of the current bishops or archbishops are past the retirement age of 75; the central leadership body of the Catholic Church in the United States is the U. S. Conference of Catholic Bishops, made up of the hierarchy of bishops of the United States and the U.

S. Virgin Islands, although each bishop is independent in his own diocese, answerable only to the Holy See; the USCC

Yellow Tail (wine)

Yellow Tail is an Australian brand of wine produced by Casella Family Brands. Yellow Tail as well as Casella Family Brands as a whole are both based in New South Wales. In 1957 the Casella family, headed by Filippo Casella and his wife Maria, emigrated from Sicily to Australia for a better life. Yellow Tail was developed for the Casella family winery to enter into the bottled wine market—having supplied bulk wine to other wineries. Yellow Tail was developed in 2000 and was marketed to export countries, it became the number one imported wine to the United States by 2011. The namesake of the brand, Yellow Tail, is the yellow-footed rock wallaby, a relative of kangaroos; the vineyard produces three percent of all wine and is around 540 acres, located in the Riverina, New South Wales, Australia. A third of the grapes that are harvested by Yellow Tail are from their vineyard in Riverina, Australia; the rest are from other vineyards in South Eastern Australia. All Yellow Tail wines have their own specific label color.

In addition to sparkling wines, Yellow Tail makes varietal wine from the following grape varieties: Moscato, Semillon, Sauvignon blanc, Pinot gris, Pinot noir, Grenache and Cabernet Sauvignon in addition to some blended wine and Rosé. Each wine has different colours, for example Merlot is Orange, Shiraz is yellow, etc. In 2000, the Casellas joined with W. J. Deutsch & Sons, a family-owned marketing and distribution firm, in order to distribute Yellow Tail wines in the United States. In 2001, it sold a number that jumped to 2.2 million the next year. Yellow Tail has enjoyed similar success in the UK which, in 2000, began importing more wine from Australia than from France for the first time in history. In 2005, Yellow Tail sold more wine in the US than all the French producers combined. Australian wine Globalization of wine Official website

Alpine A110

The Alpine A110 is a sports car produced by French automobile manufacturer Alpine from 1961 to 1977. The car was styled as a "Berlinette", which in the post-WWII era refers to a small enclosed two-door Berline, better-known as a coupé; the Alpine A110 succeeded the earlier A108. The car was powered by a succession of Renault engines. A modern iteration of the A110 was introduced in 2017 developed under Renault-Nissan partnership. Launched in 1961 the A110, like previous road-going Alpines, used many Renault parts, including engines. While its predecessor the A108 was designed around Dauphine components, the A110 was updated to use R8 parts. Unlike the A108, available first as a cabriolet and only as a coupé, the A110 was available first as a Berlinette and as a cabriolet; the most obvious external difference with the A108 coupé was restyled rear bodywork. Done to accommodate the A110's larger engine, this change gave the car a more aggressive look. Like the A108, the A110 featured a fiberglass body.

The A110 was offered with 1.1 L R8 Major or R8 Gordini engines. The Gordini engine has a power output of 95 hp SAE at 6,500 rpm; the A110 achieved most of its fame in the early 1970s as a successful rally car. After winning several rallies in France in the late 1960s with the cast-iron R8 Gordini Cléon-Fonte engines the car was fitted with the aluminium-block Cléon-Alu from the Renault 16 TS. With two twin-venturi Weber 45 carburetors, the TS engine has a power output of 125 hp DIN at 6,000 rpm; this allowed the production 1600S to attain a top speed of 210 km/h. The long-wheelbase Alpine A108 2+2 Coupé was replaced with the new, restyled 2+2 Coupé based on the A110 mechanicals called the A110 GT4; the car achieved international fame during the 1970–1972 seasons competing in the newly created International Championship for Manufacturers, winning several events around Europe, earning a reputation as one of the strongest rally cars of its time. Notable performances included a victory in the 1971 Monte Carlo Rally with Swedish driver Ove Andersson.

With the buy-out of Alpine by Renault complete, the International Championship was replaced by the World Rally Championship for 1973, at which time Renault elected to compete with the A110. With a team featuring Bernard Darniche, Jean-Pierre Nicolas and Jean-Luc Thérier as permanent drivers and "guest stars" like Jean-Claude Andruet the A110 won most of the races where the works team was entered, making Alpine the first World Rally Champion. Competition-spec A110s received engines of up to 1.8 litres. As well as being built at Alpine's own Dieppe factory, versions of the A110 were built under license by various other vehicle manufacturers around the world. From 1965 to 1974 the car was produced in Mexico under the name "Dinalpin" by Diesel Nacional, who produced Renault vehicles. From 1967 to 1969, the A110 was produced in Bulgaria under the name "Bulgaralpine" by a partnership formed between SPC Metalhim and ETO Bulet, whose collaboration resulted in the production of the Bulgarrenault. In Spain, Alpine A110 were produced by FASA in Valladolid between 1967 and a 1978.

FASA manufactured version A110 1100 with 1108 cc engines, version A110 1300 with 1289 cc engines, version A110 1400 with 1397 cc engines. In 1974, the mid-engine Lancia Stratos, the first car designed for rally racing, was operational and homologated. At the same time it was obvious that the rear-engine A110 was nearing the limits of its development potential; the adoption of fuel injection brought no performance increase. On some cars, a DOHC 16-valve head was fitted to the engine. Chassis modifications, such as the usage of the A310's double wishbone rear suspension, homologated with the A110 1600SC failed to increase performance. On the international stage the Stratos proved to be the "ultimate weapon", making the A110, as well as many other rally cars, soon obsolete; the A110 is still seen in events such as Rallye Monte-Carlo Historique. In 2012, to mark the 50th anniversary of the A110, Renault produced a concept car called the A110-50; the modern version of the A110 was introduced by Renault in 2017.

The A110 was fitted with a variety of engine over its production life-span. Engines used on production cars included the following: Engine Engine: Renault 1.1 L Straight-4 Power output: 73 kW SAE Compression ratio: 9.6 Chassis/Body Overall length: 3,851 mm Overall width: 1,471 mm Height: 1,130 mm Turning circle: 9,246 mm Wheelbase: 2,099 mm Front track: 1,250 mm Rear track: 1,219 mm Dry weight: 544 kg Performance:Top speed: 219 km/h Unique characteristics:Due to the rear-mounted engine there was no air-intake grille on the front of the body. Air was scooped from below the chassis and exhausted through near-horizontal openings on the rear fenders above and aft of the rear wheels for cooling. Engine Type: Renault 1.6 L Electronic fuel injected Inline-four engine Bore x stroke: 78 mm × 84 mm Power output: 103 kW SAE 93 kW DIN at 6,250 rpm Torque: 159 N⋅m 149 N⋅m at 5,450 rpm. Gearbox 5-speed manual Chassis/Body Chassis: Steel backbone Body Panels: Fiberglass Curb weight: 770 kg Length: 3,850 mm Width: 1,550 mm Wheelbase: 2,100 mm Track: 1,315 mm / 1,345 mm Height: 1,130 mm Performance Top speed: 210 km/h