Catherine Astrid Salome Freeman, is an Australian former sprinter, who specialised in the 400 metres event. She would compete in other track events, but 400m was her main event, her personal best of 48.63 ranks her as the eighth-fastest woman of all time, set while finishing second to Marie-José Pérec's number-three time at the 1996 Olympics. She became the Olympic champion for the women's 400 metres at the 2000 Summer Olympics, at which she lit the Olympic Flame. Freeman was the first Australian Indigenous person to become a Commonwealth Games gold medallist at age 16 in 1990; the year of 1994 was her breakthrough season. At the 1994 Commonwealth Games in Canada, Freeman won gold in both 400 m, she won the silver medal in the 1996 Olympics and came first at the 1997 World Championships, in the 400 m event. In 1998, Freeman took a break from running due to injury, she returned from injury in form with a first place in the 400 m at the 1999 World Championships. She announced her retirement from athletics in 2003.
In 2007, she founded the Cathy Freeman Foundation. Cathy Freeman began athletics at the age of 5, her first coach was Bruce Barber. By her early teens she had a collection of regional and national titles, having competed in the 100 m, 200 m, high jump and long jump. In 1987, Freeman moved on to Kooralbyn International School to be coached professionally by Romanian Mike Danila, who became her first coach and a key influence throughout her career. In 1988, she was awarded a scholarship to an exclusive girls' school, Fairholme College in Toowoomba. In a competition in 1989, Freeman ran 11.67s in the 100 metres and Danila began to think about entering her in the Commonwealth Games Trials in Sydney. In 1990, Freeman was chosen as a member of Australia's 4 × 100 m relay team for the 1990 Commonwealth Games in Auckland, New Zealand; the team won the gold medal, making Freeman the first-ever Aboriginal Commonwealth Games gold medallist, as well as one of the youngest, at 16 years old. She moved to Melbourne in 1990 after the Auckland Commonwealth Games.
Shortly after moving to Melbourne, her manager Nic Bideau introduced Freeman to athletics coach Peter Fortune, who would become Freeman's coach for the rest of her career. She was selected to represent Australia at the 1990 World Junior Championships in Athletics in Plovdiv, Bulgaria. There, she reached the semi-finals of the 100 m and placed fifth in the final of the 400 m. Freeman competed in her second World Junior Championships in Seoul, South Korea, she competed only in the 200 m. In 1992 she travelled to her first Olympic Games, reaching the second round of her new specialty event. At the 1993 World Championships in Athletics Freeman competed in the 200 m, reaching the semi-finals. 1994 was Freeman's breakthrough season. Competing at the 1994 Commonwealth Games in Canada, Freeman won gold in both the 200 m and 400 m, she competed as a member of Australia's 4 × 100 m squad, winning the silver medal and as a member of the 4 × 400 m team, who finished first but were disqualified. During the 1994 season, Freeman took 1.3 seconds from her 400 m personal best, achieving 50.04 seconds.
She set all-time personal bests in the 100 m and 200 m. Although a medal favourite at the 1995 World Championships in Athletics in Sweden, Freeman finished fourth, she reached the semi-finals of the 200 m. Freeman made more progress during the 1996 season, setting many personal bests and Australian records. By this stage, she was the biggest challenger to France's Marie-José Pérec at the 1996 Olympics, she took the silver medal behind Pérec, in an Australian record of 48.63 seconds. This is still the sixth-fastest time and the second-fastest since the world record was set in Canberra, Australia, in 1985. Only Sanya Richards-Ross has come within a quarter of a second of Freeman's time since. Pérec's winning time of 48.25 is the third-fastest ever. In 1997, Freeman won the 400 m at the World Championships with a time of 49.77 seconds. Her only loss in the 400 m that season was in Oslo. Freeman took a break for the 1998 season, due to injury. Upon her return to the track in 1999, Freeman did not lose a single 400 m race, including at the World Championships.
Freeman lit the torch in the 2000 Olympic Games in Sydney. Her winning streak continued despite Pérec's return to the track. Freeman was the home favourite for the 400 m title at the 2000 Olympics in Sydney, where she was expected to face-off with rival Pérec; this showdown never happened, as Pérec left the Games after what she describes as harassment from strangers. Freeman won the Olympic title in a time of 49.11 seconds, becoming only the second Australian Aboriginal Olympic champion. After the race, Freeman took a victory lap; this was despite the fact that unofficial flags are banned at the Olympic Games and the Aboriginal flag, while recognised as official in Australia, is not a national flag, nor recognised by the International Olympic Committee. Freeman made the final of the 200 m, coming sixth. In honour of her gold medal win in Sydney, she represented Oceania in carrying the Olympic flag at the opening ceremonies of the next Olympics, in Salt Lake City, joining Archbishop Desmond Tutu, John Glenn, Kazuyoshi Funaki, Lech Wałęsa, Jean-Michel Cousteau, Jean-Claude
Imminent peril, or imminent danger, is an American legal concept where Imminent peril is "certain danger and impending. In many states in the USA, a mere necessity for quick action does not constitute an emergency within the doctrine of imminent peril, where the situation calling for the action is one which should reasonably have been anticipated and which the person whose action is called for should have been prepared to meet. In California, legislation authorizes a person to use deadly force to defend against death or serious injury if they believe they are in imminent peril. Raymond L. Middleton, Warden v. Sally Marie McNeil is a California case; the 2012 Florida Statutes lay measurable conditions to determine if the "fear of imminent peril" is reasonable under the law. Both the International Court of Justice and the International Law Commission have recognized the profound motivations of one's lawful fear of imminent peril and have adopted measures to define consequences, of self-defense against such peril, as reasonable.
Peril lacks the suddenness of the "imminent" qualifier. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulates safety standards for workplaces in the United States, its charter obligation is to identify dangerous conditions in the workplace with a potential for sudden peril, to require employers to mitigate the risks. Castle doctrine Good Samaritan law Emergency Doctrine Emergency Exception Exigent Circumstance Landlord's Right to Enter Dwelling Necessity in Canadian law Sudden Peril Doctrine Rescue Doctrine
The Magok-i-Kurpa Mosque is a historical mosque in the Uzbek city of Bukhara. It was built in 1637; the mosque is located in the historical center of Bukhara, about 250 meters southwest of Po-i-Kalyan and 10 meters west of Toqi-Telpak-Furushon trading dome. It is a part of UNESCO World Heritage Site Historic Centre of Bukhara; the Magok-i-Kurpa mosque has a rectangular ground plan of 15 × 24 square meters. It has two storeys, with the lower storey, down a staircase entirely below the surface of the earth. Therefore, the mosque has its name addition "Magok-i" which means "in the hole" or "in the subsoil". Another "subsoil" mosque is the Magok-i-Attari Mosque located about 150 meters southeast; the roof carries twelve domes. The main dome rises 20m above the ground. List of mosques in Uzbekistan