Catwoman is a fictional character created by Bill Finger and Bob Kane who appears in American comic books published by DC Comics in association with superhero Batman. The character made her debut as "the Cat" in Batman #1, her real name is Selina Kyle, she is Batman's most enduring love interest and is known for her complex love-hate relationship with him. Catwoman is a Gotham City burglar who wears a tight, one-piece outfit and uses a bullwhip for a weapon, she was characterized as a supervillain and adversary of Batman, but she has been featured in a series since the 1990s which portrays her as an antiheroine doing the wrong things for the right reasons. The character thrived since her earliest appearances, but she took an extended hiatus from September 1954 to November 1966 due to the developing Comics Code Authority in 1954; these issues involved the rules regarding the development and portrayal of female characters that were in violation of the Comics Code, a code, no longer in use. In the comics, Holly Robinson and Eiko Hasigawa have both adopted the Catwoman identity, apart from Selina Kyle.
Catwoman has been featured in many media adaptations related to Batman. Actresses Julie Newmar, Lee Meriwether, Eartha Kitt introduced her to a large audience on the 1960s Batman television series and the 1966 Batman film. Michelle Pfeiffer portrayed the character in 1992's Batman Returns. Halle Berry starred in 2004's Catwoman. Anne Hathaway portrayed Selina Kyle in the 2012 film The Dark Knight Rises. A young version of Kyle was played by Camren Bicondova on the 2014 television series Gotham although Lili Simmons portrayed an older Kyle in the series finale. Zoë Kravitz will portray the character in the 2021 film The Batman. Catwoman was ranked 11th on IGN's list of the "Top 100 Comic Book Villains of All Time", 51st on Wizard magazine's "100 Greatest Villains of All Time" list. Conversely, she was ranked 20th on IGN's "Top 100 Comic Book Heroes of All Time" list. Batman co-creator Bob Kane was a great movie fan and his love for film provided the impetus for several Batman characters, among them, Catwoman.
Kane's inspiration for Catwoman was drawn from multiple sources to include actresses Jean Harlow, Hedy Lamarr, his cousin, Ruth Steele. Kane and Finger wanted to give their comic book sex appeal, as well as a character who could appeal to female readers. Catwoman was meant to be a love interest and to engage Batman in a chess game, with him trying to reform her. At the same time, this character was meant to be different from other Batman villains like the Joker in that she was never a killer or evil; as for using cat imagery with the character, Kane stated that he and Finger saw cats as "kind of the antithesis of bats". Catwoman called "the Cat", first appeared in Batman #1 as a mysterious burglar and jewel thief, revealed at the end of the story to be a young, attractive woman, having disguised herself as an old woman during the story and been hired to commit a burglary. Although she does not wear her iconic cat-suit, the story establishes her core personality as a femme fatale who both antagonizes and attracts Batman.
It is implied Batman may have deliberately let her get away by blocking Robin as he tried to leap after her. She next appears in Batman #2 in a story involving the Joker but escapes Batman in the end. In Batman # 3 she again succeeds in escaping Batman. Batman #62 reveals that Catwoman was an amnesiac flight attendant who turned to crime after suffering a prior blow to the head during a plane crash she survived, she reveals this in the Batcave after being hit on the head by a piece of rubble while saving Batman while he was chasing her. However, in issue #197 of The Brave and the Bold, she admits that she made up the amnesia story because she wanted a way out of the past life of crime, she reforms for several years, helping out Batman in Batman #65 and #69, until she decides to return to a life of crime in Detective Comics #203, after a newspaper publishes stories of Batman's past adventures and some crooks mock her about it. However, Catwoman prevents her thugs from murdering Batman once he is found knocked out, but claims she wants him as a hostage.
Catwoman appears again as a criminal in Batman #84 and Detective Comics #211 for her final appearance until 1966. This was due to her possible violation of the developing Comics Code Authority's rules for portrayal of female characters that started in 1954. In the 1970s comics, a series of stories taking place on Earth-Two reveal that on that world, Selina reformed in the 1950s and had married Bruce Wayne; the Brave and the Bold #197 elaborates upon the Golden Age origin of Catwoman given in Batman #62, after Selina reveals that she never suffered from amnesia. It is revealed that Selina Kyle had been in an bad marriage, decided to leave her husband. However, her husband kept her jewelry in his private vault, she had to break into it to retrieve it. Selina enjoyed this experience so much she decided to become a professional costumed cat burglar, thus began a career that leads to her encountering Batman; the Earth-Two/Golden Age Selina Kyle dies in the late 1970s after being blackmailed by a crimina
Maryland Route 578 is a state highway in the U. S. state of Maryland. Known as Bethlehem Road, the state highway runs 4.24 miles from MD 331 at Bethlehem east to MD 16 at Harmony. The first segment of MD 578 was completed in the mid-1930s. MD 578 begins at an intersection with MD 331 in Bethlehem. Bethlehem Road continues south as a county highway. MD 578 heads northeast as a two-lane road through farmland. After passing Newton Road, the state highway crosses Hog Creek. MD 578 meets its eastern terminus at MD 16 in the unincorporated village of Harmony. MD 578 was paved by 1935 from Bethlehem to Newton Road; the remainder of the highway to Harmony, including the bridge over Hog Creek, was completed in 1941. The entire route is in Caroline County. Maryland Roads portal MDRoads: MD 578
The LC Linked Data Service is an initiative of the Library of Congress that publishes authority data as linked data. It is referred to by its URI: id.loc.gov. The first offering of the LC Linked Data Service was the Library of Congress Subject Headings dataset, released in April 2009. Library of Congress Subject Headings Library of Congress Name authorities Library of Congress Classification—because LC Classification uses a different MARC format than LC Authorities, mapping LC Classification to MADS/RDF was more difficult than mapping LCSH or LC Name authorities. Library of Congress Thesaurus for Graphic Materials Various MARC codes Various preservation vocabularies The service presents data in MADS/RDF and SKOS where appropriate, but uses its own ontology to describe classification resources and relationships more accurately. All records are available individually via content negotiation as XHTML/RDFa, RDF/XML, N-Triples, JSON; each vocabulary is available to download in its entirety. Id.loc.gov does not provide a SPARQL endpoint.
All of LCSH are cross linked with RAMEAU, an authority file from the Bibliothèque nationale de France. The id.loc.gov site used a lightweight Python program to serve linked data. Authority control BIBFRAME Virtual International Authority File LC Linked Data Service