A caucus is a meeting of supporters or members of a specific political party or movement. The term originated in the United States, but has spread to Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Nepal; as the use of the term has expanded, the exact definition has come to vary between political cultures. The origin of the word caucus is debated, but it is agreed that it first came into use in the British colonies of North America. A February 1763 entry in the diary of John Adams of Braintree, Massachusetts, is one of the earliest appearances of Caucas with its modern connotations of a "smoke-filled room" where candidates for public election are pre-selected in private: This day learned that the Caucas Clubb meets at certain Times in the Garret of Tom Daws, the Adjutant of the Boston Regiment, he has a large House, he has a moveable Partition in his Garret, which he takes down and the whole Clubb meets in one Room. There they smoke tobacco. There they drink Phlip I suppose, there they choose a Moderator, who puts Questions to the Vote and Selectman, Collectors, Fire Wards, Representatives are Regularly chosen before they are chosen in the Town...

An article in Great Leaders and National Issues of 1896, surveying famous presidential campaigns of the past, begins with an unsourced popular etymology of the origin of the caucus: The Origin of the "Caucus" The presidential nominating convention is a modern institution. In the early days of the Republic a different method was pursued in order to place the candidates for the highest office in the land before the people. In the first place, as to the origin of the "caucus." In the early part of the eighteenth century a number of caulkers connected with the shipping business in the North End of Boston held a meeting for consultation. That meeting was the germ of the political caucuses which have formed so prominent a feature of our government since its organization; the anti-Britain episode happened on March 5, 1770 and on that occasion five Bostonians were killed by the English musketry. More than fifty years ago, Mr. Samuel Adams's father, twenty others, one or two from the north end of the town, where all the ship business is carried on, used to meet, make a caucus, lay their plan for introducing certain persons into places' of trust and power...

No wholly satisfactory etymology has been documented. James Hammond Trumbull suggested to the American Philological Association that it comes from an Algonquian word for "counsel",'cau´-cau-as´u'; the word might derive from the Algonquian cawaassough, meaning an advisor, talker, or orator. This explanation was favoured by Charles Dudley Warner; the American Heritage Dictionary suggests that it derived from medieval Latin caucus, meaning "drinking vessel", such as might have been used for the flip drunk at Caucus Club of colonial Boston. In fact, the appearance of the term coincides with the spreading in England - and therefore in America - of the inns they called cocues because they were places to drink the new cheap liquor called ‘gin’ or ‘cuckoo liquor’ since it was obtained from the distillation of the so-called'cuckoo barley', namely the one sown late in the spring and therefore unsuitable for the distillation of beer And that those were places where they drank abundantly is testified by Benjamin Franklin in his biography: Richard had set out hospitably A caucus had been accordingly held by these worthies, it was resolved nem. con. that they should first make a drunkard of him, pluck him, aye of the last feather...

An analogical Latin-type plural "cauci" is used. The term caucus is used in mediation and other forms of alternate dispute resolution to describe circumstances wherein, rather than meeting at a common table, the disputants retreat to a more private setting to process information, agree on negotiation strategy, confer with counsel or with the mediator, or gain "breathing room" after the emotionally difficult interactions that can occur in the common area where all parties are present; the degree to which caucuses are used can be a key defining element, an identifier, of the mediation model being used. For example, "facilitative mediation" tends to discourage the use of caucuses and tries to keep the parties talking at a single table, while "evaluative mediation" may allow parties to separate more and rely on the mediator to shuttle information and offers back and forth. In United States politics and government, caucus has several related meanings. Members of a political party or subgroup may meet to coordinate members' actions, choose group policy, or nominate candidates for various offices.

There is no provision for the role of political parties in the United States Constitution. In the first two presidential elections, the Electoral College handled nominations and elections in 1789 and 1792 which selected George Washington. After that, Congressional party or a state legislature party caucus selected the party's presidential candidates. Nationally, these caucuses were replaced by the party convention starting in 1832 following the lead of the Anti-Masonic Party 1831 convention; the term caucus is used to discuss the procedures used by some states to select presidential nominees such as the Iowa caucuses, the first of the modern presidential electio

Dan Hodge Trophy

The Dan Hodge Trophy is awarded each year to the nation's best college wrestler. The trophy is presented at the end of the season by W. I. N. Magazine and Culture House, it is the wrestling equivalent to the Heisman Trophy. The Hodge Trophy was created by Mike Chapman, founder of WIN magazine and Culture House, a company that produces books and posters. Chapman wrote the 2010 biography of Hodge called "Oklahoma Shooter: The Dan Hodge Story"; the first winner was T. J. Jaworsky of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1995; the Hodge Trophy is named after Danny Hodge, an outstanding wrestler for the University of Oklahoma from 1955 to 1957. Hodge was a three-time NCAA champion who went undefeated, with a record of 46-0, in intercollegiate competition. There have been four multiple winners of the Hodge Trophy; the first was Cael Sanderson, who won the award three times, the second was Ben Askren, who won the award two times, the third was David Taylor, who won the award two times, the fourth was Zain Retherford, who won the award two times.

The trophy is awarded based on seven criteria: 1. Record 2. Number of pins 3. Dominance 4. Past credentials 5. Quality of competition 6. Sportsmanship/citizenship 7. Heart * Number of first place ballot votes from the Hodge Committee is indicated in parentheses ** In 2001, the Dan Hodge Trophy was shared by two co-winners National Wrestling Hall of Fame and Museum "Dan Hodge Trophy". WIN Magazine. Retrieved 2011-02-17. Dan Hodge Trophy Website at Win Magazine "Bing Images" of the Dan Hodge Trophy National Wrestling Hall of Fame Dan Gable Museum website

Wrestling at the 1948 Summer Olympics – Men's freestyle lightweight

The men's freestyle lightweight competition at the 1948 Summer Olympics in London took place from 29 July to 31 July at the Empress Hall, Earls Court Exhibition Centre. Nations were limited to one competitor; this freestyle wrestling competition continued to use the "bad points" elimination system introduced at the 1928 Summer Olympics for Greco-Roman and at the 1932 Summer Olympics for freestyle wrestling, with the slight modification introduced in 1936. Each round featured all wrestlers wrestling one bout; the loser received 3 points if the loss was by fall or unanimous decision and 2 points if the decision was 2-1. The winner received 1 point 0 points if the win was by fall. At the end of each round, any wrestler with at least 5 points was eliminated. Bechara withdrew during his bout. Pérez withdrew after his loss. BoutsPoints BoutsPoints BoutsPoints BoutsPoints BoutsPoints Baumann and Nizzola had each finished round 5 with 7 points and were eliminated, but faced off in a bronze medal bout won by Baumann.

Atik defeated Frändfors to take the gold medal. BoutsPoints