Rochers de Naye
The Rochers de Naye are a mountain of the Swiss Alps, overlooking Lake Geneva near Montreux and Villeneuve, in the canton of Vaud. They lie on the range separating the basin of Lake Geneva from the valley of the Sarine, the mountain is partially located in the canton of Fribourg, the border between the two cantons culminating on a lower summit named Grande Chaux de Naye. The Rochers de Naye are easily accessible from Montreux, where the highest railway in the canton, from the summit station, only a short walk is necessary to reach the summit. In addition, it is possible to access the summit by driving to Col de Jaman. The Rochers de Naye are known for the Rochers de Naye Via Ferrata considered to be difficult, the Grottes de Naye. List of mountains of Switzerland accessible by public transport Montreux-Rochers de Naye railway Rochers de Naye on Hikr
Bruges is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium, in the northwest of the country. The area of the whole city amounts to more than 13,840 hectares, including 1,075 hectares off the coast, the historic city centre is a prominent World Heritage Site of UNESCO. It is oval and about 430 hectares in size, the citys total population is 117,073, of whom around 20,000 live in the city centre. The metropolitan area, including the commuter zone, covers an area of 616 km2 and has a total of 255,844 inhabitants as of 1 January 2008. Along with a few other canal-based northern cities, such as Amsterdam and Stockholm, Bruges has a significant economic importance thanks to its port and was once one of the worlds chief commercial cities. Bruges is well known as the seat of the College of Europe, the name probably derives from the Old Dutch for bridge, brugga. Also compare Middle Dutch brucge and modern Dutch bruggehoofd, the form brugghe would be a southern Dutch variant.
The Dutch word and the English bridge both derive from Proto-Germanic *brugjō-, Bruges was a location of coastal settlement during prehistory. This Bronze Age and Iron Age settlement is unrelated to medieval city development, in the Bruges area, the first fortifications were built after Julius Caesars conquest of the Menapii in the first century BC, to protect the coastal area against pirates. The Franks took over the region from the Gallo-Romans around the 4th century. The Viking incursions of the century prompted Count Baldwin I of Flanders to reinforce the Roman fortifications, trade soon resumed with England. Bruges received its city charter on 27 July 1128, and new walls and canals were built, in 1089 Bruges became the capital of the County of Flanders. Since about 1050, gradual silting had caused the city to lose its access to the sea. A storm in 1134, however, re-established this access, through the creation of a channel at the Zwin. The new sea arm stretched all the way to Damme, a city became the commercial outpost for Bruges.
Bruges had a location at the crossroads of the northern Hanseatic League trade. They developed, or borrowed from Italy, new forms of merchant capitalism, whereby several merchants would share the risks and profits and they employed new forms of economic exchange, including bills of exchange and letters of credit. The city eagerly welcomed foreign traders, most notably the Portuguese traders selling pepper and other spices, the citys entrepreneurs reached out to make economic colonies of England and Scotlands wool-producing districts
Richard Horatio Edgar Wallace was an English writer. Born into poverty as an illegitimate London child, Wallace left school at age 12 and he joined the army at age 21 and was a war correspondent during the Second Boer War, for Reuters and the Daily Mail. Struggling with debt, he left South Africa, returned to London and he signed with Hodder and Stoughton in 1921 and became an internationally recognised author. After an unsuccessful bid to stand as Liberal MP for Blackpool in the 1931 general election, Wallace moved to Hollywood and he died suddenly from undiagnosed diabetes, during the initial drafting of King Kong. Wallace was such a writer that one of his publishers claimed that a quarter of all books in England were written by him. As well as journalism, Wallace wrote screen plays, historical non-fiction,18 stage plays,957 short stories, more than 160 films have been made of Wallaces work. He is remembered for the creation of King Kong, as a writer of the imagination, for the J. G. Reeder detective stories.
Wallace was born at 7 Ashburnham Grove, Greenwich, to actors Richard Horatio Edgar and Mary Jane Polly Richards, Wallaces mother was born in 1843, in Liverpool, to an Irish Catholic family. Marys family had been in business, and she worked in the theatre as a stagehand, usherette. Marys husband, Captain Joseph Richards, was born in Liverpool, in 1838. He and his father John Richards were both Merchant Navy captains, and his mother Catherine Richards came from a mariner family, when Mary was eight months pregnant, in January 1868, her husband died at sea. After the birth, Mary took to the stage, Richard Horatio Edgar and Polly had a broom cupboard style sexual encounter during an after-show party. During her confinement she had asked her midwife to find a couple to foster the child, the midwife introduced Polly to her close friend, Mrs Freeman, a mother of ten children, whose husband George Freeman was a Billingsgate fishmonger. On 9 April 1875, Polly took Edgar to the semi-literate Freeman family, pollys young son Wallace, known as Richard Horatio Edgar Freeman, had a happy childhood and a close bond with 20-year-old Clara Freeman, who became a second mother to him.
By 1878, Polly could no longer afford the small sum she had been paying the Freemans to care for her son and, instead of placing the boy in the workhouse, Polly never visited Wallace again as a child. By his early teens, Wallace had held numerous jobs such as newspaper-seller at Ludgate Circus near Fleet Street, milk-delivery boy, rubber factory worker, shoe shop assistant. A plaque at Ludgate Circus commemorates Wallaces first encounter with the newspaper business and he was dismissed from his job on the milk run for stealing money. In 1894, he engaged to a local Deptford girl, Edith Anstree
Alexandre-Pierre Georges Sacha Guitry was a French stage actor, film actor, director and playwright of the Boulevard theatre. He was the son of a leading French actor, Lucien Guitry and he became known for his stage performances, often in boulevardier roles, in the many plays he wrote, of which there were more than 120. He was married five times, always to rising actresses whose careers he furthered, probably his best-known wife was Yvonne Printemps to whom he was married between 1919 and 1932. Guitrys plays range from historical dramas to contemporary light comedies, some have musical scores, by composers including André Messager and Reynaldo Hahn. When silent films became popular Guitry avoided them, finding the lack of spoken dialogue fatal to dramatic impact, from the 1930s to the end of his life he enthusiastically embraced the cinema, making as many as five films in a single year. The years of Guitrys career were overshadowed by accusations of collaborating with the occupying Germans after the capitulation of France in the Second World War, the charges were dismissed, but Guitry, a strongly patriotic man, was disillusioned by the vilification by some of his compatriots.
By the time of his death his popular esteem had been restored to the extent that 12,000 people filed past his coffin before his burial in Paris. Guitry was born at No 12 Nevsky Prospect, Saint Petersburg, the couple had eloped, in the face of family disapproval, and were married at St Martin in the Fields, London, in 1882. They moved to the Russian capital, where Lucien ran the French theatre company, Guitry senior was a persistent adulterer, and his wife instituted divorce proceedings in 1888. Two of their sons died in infancy, the surviving son, Jean became an actor. The familys Russian nurse habitually shortened Alexandre-Pierres name to the Russian diminutive Sacha, the young Sacha made his stage debut in his fathers company at the age of five. Lucien Guitry, considered the most distinguished actor in France since Coquelin, was immensely successful, when he returned to Paris he lived in a flat in a prestigious spot, overlooking the Place Vendôme. and the Rue de la Paix. The young Sacha lived there, and for his schooling he was first sent to the well-known Lycée Janson de Sailly in the fashionable Sixteenth arrondissement.
He did not stay there, and went to a succession of other schools. After giving up school Guitry embarked on a career as a playwright with a musical piece called Le Page, with a score by Ludo Ratz. Eighteen months he joined his fathers company at the Théâtre de la Renaissance, at first he appeared under the stage name Lorcey, the pseudonym deceived no-one, as the press immediately announced the debutants real identity. His first role was in LEscalier, by Maurice Donnay in November 1904 and he fell out with his father over what the latter saw as Guitrys lack of professionalism. In the aftermath of their quarrel they neither saw nor spoke to one another, a member of Lucien Guitrys company was a young actress, Charlotte-Augustine-Hortense Lejeune, whose stage name was Charlotte Lysès
The Kastner train consisted of 35 cattle trucks that left Budapest on 30 June 1944, during the German occupation of Hungary, carrying over 1,600 Jews to safety in Switzerland. The train was organized during the deportations to Auschwitz in May–July 1944 of 437,000 Hungarian Jews and its passengers were chosen from a wide range of social classes and included around 273 children, many of them orphaned. The wealthiest 150 passengers paid $1,000 each to cover their own, after a journey of several weeks, including a diversion to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in Germany,1,670 passengers reached Switzerland in August and December 1944. Kastner emigrated to Israel in 1947 and he was a spokesman for the Minister of Trade and Industry when his negotiations with Eichmann became the subject of controversy. Kastner had been told in April or May 1944 of the murder that was taking place inside Auschwitz. Allegations spread after the war that he had nothing to warn the wider community. The inclusion on the train of his family, as well as 388 people from the ghetto in his town of Kolozsvár.
The allegations culminated in Kastner being accused in a newsletter of having been a Nazi collaborator, the government sued for libel on his behalf, and the defendants lawyer turned the trial into an indictment of the Mapai leadership and its alleged failure to help Europes Jews. The judge found against the government, ruling that Kastner had sold his soul to the devil by negotiating with Eichmann, Kastner was assassinated in Tel Aviv in March 1957. Nine months the Supreme Court of Israel overturned most of the courts ruling, stating in a 4–1 decision that the judge had erred seriously. Rudolf Kastner, known as Israel Rezső Kasztner, was born in Kolozsvár, Kastner attended law school, worked as a journalist for Új Kelet as a sports reporter and political commentator. He became an assistant to Dr. József Fischer, a member of the Romanian parliament and leading member of the National Jewish Party, Kastner gained a reputation as a political fixer and joined the Ihud party, known as Mapai, a left-wing Zionist party.
According to Jeno Kölb, a passenger who kept a diary, there were 972 female and 712 male passengers in all, the oldest was 82, several women threw their young children on board at the last minute. What is known is that 1,684 passengers were registered when the reached the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp near Hannover on 9 July. There were scholars, housewives, farmers and bankers, journalists and nurses. The writer Béla Zsolt was on board, as was the psychiatrist Léopold Szondi, the opera singer Dezső Ernster, the artist István Irsai, and Peter Munk, there were 388 people from Kastners home town of Cluj, including family members. His mother, Helen Kastner, was given a place, as was his brother Ernő, his pregnant wife Bogyó, along with her father József Fischer, and Bogyós other relatives. Erno Szilagyi of the Aid and Rescue Committee was on board, as were Joel Brands mother and niece Margit, porter writes that each passenger was allowed to bring two changes of clothing, six sets of underwear, and food for 10 days
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
Montreux is a municipality in the district of Riviera-Pays-dEnhaut in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland. It is located on Lake Geneva shoreline at the foot of the Alps and has a population, as of December 2015, of 26,433, the earliest settlement was a Late Bronze Age village at Baugy. This made it an important settlement in the Roman era, a Roman villa from the 2nd-4th centuries and a 6th–7th century cemetery have been discovered. In the 12th century, viticulture was introduced to the region, Montreux is first mentioned in 1215 as Mustruel. In 1295, the Bishop of Sion sold the parish of Montreux to Girard of Oron, in 1317, it was split between the Lords of Oron and the Counts of Savoy. A Brotherhood of the Holy Spirit administered estates and a hospital in Montreux starting in about 1309, the region was subject to various princes, most notably the princes of Savoy from the south side of the lake. They unified the territory comprises the present canton of Vaud and were generally popular sovereigns.
After the Burgundian Wars in the 15th century, the Swiss in Bern occupied the region without resistance, under Bernese rule it belonged to the bailiwick of Chillon. The Reformation made the region around Montreux and Vevey an attractive haven for Huguenots from Italy, the abbey of Les Echarpes blanches was founded in 1626. In 1798, Napoleon liberated the region from the Bernese, in the 19th century, the tourist industry became a major commercial outlet, with the grand hotels of Montreux attracting the rich and cultured from Europe and America. Starting in the 19th Century there were three independent municipalities that shared a central authority and this county council was made up of four deputies from Le Châtelard, two from Les Planches and one from Veytaux. The church, the hall of La Rouvenaz, the secondary school. Each municipality had its own taxes and a mayor, in 1962, the municipalities of Le Châtelard and Les Planches merged, while Veytaux remained independent. Montreux has an area, as of 2009, of 33.4 square kilometers, of this area,8.47 km2 or 25. 4% is used for agricultural purposes, while 16.93 km2 or 50. 7% is forested.
Of the rest of the land,6.37 km2 or 19. 1% is settled,0.08 km2 or 0. 2% is either rivers or lakes and 1.59 km2 or 4. 8% is unproductive land. Of the built up area and buildings made up 10. 9%, out of the forested land,47. 0% of the total land area is heavily forested and 3. 1% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land,0. 4% is used for growing crops and 8. 8% is pastures, all the water in the municipality is flowing water. The municipality was part of the Vevey District until it was dissolved on 31 August 2006, the municipality stretches from Lake Geneva to the foothills of the Swiss Alps
World War I
World War I, known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors.
During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary and Germany
He reconquered his familys ancestral home city of Riyadh in 1902, starting three decades of conquests that made him the ruler of nearly all of central Arabia. He consolidated his control over the Najd in 1922, conquered the Hejaz in 1925 and he extended his dominions into, what became, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932. As King, he presided over the discovery of petroleum in Saudi Arabia in 1938 and he fathered many children, including 45 sons, and all of the subsequent kings of Saudi Arabia. Ibn Saud was born on 15 January 1875 in Riyadh in the region of Najd in central Arabia and he was the son of Abdul Rahman bin Faisal, last ruler of the Emirate of Nejd, the Second Saudi State, a tribal sheikhdom centered on Riyadh. His family, the House of Saud, had been a power in central Arabia for the previous 130 years, Ibn Sauds mother was a member of the Sudairi family, Sarah Al Sudairi. In 1890, the House of Sauds long-term regional rivals, the Rashidis, Ibn Saud was 15 at the time. He and his family took refuge with the Al Murrah.
Later, the Al Sauds moved to Qatar and stayed there for two months and their next stop was Bahrain, where they stayed briefly. Their final destination was Kuwait, where lived for nearly a decade. As the raid proved profitable, it attracted more participants, the raiders numbers peaked at over 200, but numbers dwindled over the ensuing months. In the autumn, the made camp in the Yabrin oasis. While observing Ramadan, he decided to attack Riyadh and retake it from the Al Rashid, on the night of 15 January 1902, he led 40 men over the walls of the city on tilted palm trees and took the city. The Rashidi governor of the city, was killed in front of his own fortress, the Saudi recapture of the city marked the beginning of the Third Saudi State. Following the capture of Riyadh, many supporters of the House of Saud rallied to Ibn Sauds call to arms. He was a leader and kept his men supplied with arms. Over the next two years, he and his forces recaptured almost half of the Najd from the Rashidis, in 1904, Abdulaziz of Al Rashid appealed to the Ottoman Empire for military protection and assistance.
The Ottomans responded by sending troops into Arabia, on 15 June 1904, Ibn Sauds forces suffered a major defeat at the hands of the combined Ottoman and Rashidi forces. His forces regrouped and began to wage guerrilla warfare against the Ottomans, over the next two years, he was able to disrupt their supply routes, forcing them to retreat