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Cavalry

Cavalry or horsemen are soldiers or warriors who fight mounted on horseback. Cavalry were the most mobile of the combat arms. An individual soldier in the cavalry is known by a number of designations such as cavalryman, dragoon, or trooper; the designation of cavalry was not given to any military forces that used other animals, such as camels, mules or elephants. Infantry who moved on horseback, but dismounted to fight on foot, were known in the 17th and early 18th centuries as dragoons, a class of mounted infantry which evolved into cavalry proper while retaining their historic title. Cavalry had the advantage of improved mobility, a man fighting from horseback had the advantages of greater height and inertial mass over an opponent on foot. Another element of horse mounted warfare is the psychological impact a mounted soldier can inflict on an opponent; the speed and shock value of cavalry was appreciated and exploited in armed forces in the Ancient and Middle Ages. In Europe cavalry became armoured, evolving into the mounted knights of the medieval period.

During the 17th century cavalry in Europe lost most of its armor, ineffective against the muskets and cannon which were coming into use, by the mid-19th century armor had fallen into disuse, although some regiments retained a small thickened cuirass that offered protection against lances and sabres and some protection against shot. In the period between the World Wars, many cavalry units were converted into motorized infantry and mechanized infantry units, or reformed as tank troops. However, some cavalry still served during World War II, notably in the Red Army, the Mongolian People's Army, the Royal Italian Army, the Romanian Army, the Polish Land Forces, light reconnaissance units within the Waffen SS. Most cavalry units that are horse-mounted in modern armies serve in purely ceremonial roles, or as mounted infantry in difficult terrain such as mountains or forested areas. Modern usage of the term refers to units performing the role of reconnaissance and target acquisition. In many modern armies, the term cavalry is still used to refer to units that are a combat arm of the armed forces which in the past filled the traditional horse-borne land combat light cavalry roles.

These include scouting, skirmishing with enemy reconnaissance elements to deny them knowledge of the disposition of the main body of troops, forward security, offensive reconnaissance by combat, defensive screening of friendly forces during retrograde movement, restoration of command and control, battle handover and passage of lines, relief in place, breakout operations, raiding. The shock role, traditionally filled by heavy cavalry, is filled by units with the "armored" designation. Before the Iron Age, the role of cavalry on the battlefield was performed by light chariots; the chariot originated with the Sintashta-Petrovka culture in Central Asia and spread by nomadic or semi-nomadic Indo-Iranians. The chariot was adopted by settled peoples both as a military technology and an object of ceremonial status by the pharaohs of the New Kingdom of Egypt from 1550 BC as well as the Assyrian army and Babylonian royalty; the power of mobility given by mounted units was recognized early on, but was offset by the difficulty of raising large forces and by the inability of horses to carry heavy armor.

Nonetheless, there are indications that, from the 15th century BC onwards, horseback riding was practiced amongst the military elites of the great states of the ancient Near East, most notably those in Egypt, the Hittite Empire, Mycenaean Greece. Cavalry techniques, the rise of true cavalry, were an innovation of equestrian nomads of the Central Asian and Iranian steppe and pastoralist tribes such as the Iranic Parthians and Sarmatians; the photograph above left shows Assyrian cavalry from reliefs of 865–860 BC. At this time, the men had no spurs, saddle cloths, or stirrups. Fighting from the back of a horse was much more difficult than mere riding; the cavalry acted in pairs. At this early time, cavalry used swords and bows; the sculpture implies two types of cavalry. Images of Assyrian cavalry show saddle cloths as primitive saddles, allowing each archer to control his own horse; as early as 490 BC a breed of large horses was bred in the Nisaean plain in Media to carry men with increasing amounts of armour, but large horses were still exceptional at this time.

By the fourth century BC the Chinese during the Warring States period began to use cavalry against rival states, by 331 BC when Alexander the Great defeated the Persians the use of chariots in battle was obsolete in most nations. The last recorded use of chariots as a shock force in continental Europe was during the Battle of Telamon in 225 BC. However, chariots remained in use for ceremonial purposes such as carrying the victorious general in a Roman triumph, or for racing. Outside of mainland Europe, the southern Britons met Julius Caesar with chariots in 55 and 54 BC, but by the time of the Roman conquest of Britain a century chariots were obsolete in Britannia; the last mention of chariot use in Britain was by the Caledonians at the Mons Graupius, in 84 AD. During the classical Greek period cavalry we

Patna, East Ayrshire

Patna is a village in East Ayrshire, straddling the traditional districts of Carrick and Kyle. It was established in 1802 by William Fullarton to provide housing for workers on the coalfields of his estate. Fullarton's father had worked as an employee of the British East India Company, the town is named after the city of Patna in India. Patna lies southeast of Ayr on the A713 to Castle Douglas at its junction with the road to Kirkmichael just north of Dalmellington. Patna lies between the villages of Polnessan and Waterside, the River Doon flows through it. Patna Primary School is a non-denominational school. St Xavier's Primary School, a Catholic primary school, was in Waterside but has been moved into Patna Primary School, is attended by pupils from Dalmellington and Maybole. A secondary school, Doon Academy, is located in the nearby village of Dalmellington. Patna has a small library, a doctor's surgery, some shops, a football field, access to numerous country walks, an orange lodge and a golf club.

The River Doon is popular with local anglers. There are two bridges within the village, used as vehicle and pedestrian crossing points over the River Doon; these bridges are known locally as the'ol brig' and'new brig'. The village was served until 1964 by Patna railway station, the railway however remains open for coal freight traffic; the platforms have been demolished and nothing remains of the station. Sir David Campbell MC FRSE was raised in Patna. Media related to Patna, East Ayrshire at Wikimedia Commons A tale of two Patnas, thousands of miles apart, BBC News

Rhonda Jo Petty

Rhonda Jo Petty is an American pornographic actress. She is a member of the XRCO Hall of Fame. Petty was raised in California, her first lead role was in Disco Lady, released in 1978, due to her physical resemblance to the at-the-time popular mainstream actress Farrah Fawcett. Suitably, another of her stage names, "Sarah Dawcett," traded off on that resemblance. However, Petty had larger breasts than did the real Fawcett—a physical aspect the "look-alike" promotion glossed over. Petty was popular, she performed in numerous films with early porn icon John Holmes, in addition to performing in lesbian scenes. Her career was at its height in the early to middle 1980s. Petty starred in the film which debuted Holmes's future wife, Laurie Rose, using the stage name Misty Dawn. Petty "became one of favorite actresses for the longest time."The Internet Adult Film Database notes that Petty brought her adult-film career to a close in 1991. Conversations with Rhonda Jo Petty Rhonda Jo Petty on IMDb Rhonda Jo Petty at the Internet Adult Film Database Rhonda Jo Petty at the Adult Film Database