Clock towers are a specific type of building which houses a turret clock and has one or more clock faces on the upper exterior walls. Many clock towers are freestanding structures but they can adjoin or be located on top of another building. Clock towers are a common sight in many parts of the world with some being iconic buildings. One example is the Elizabeth Tower in London. There are many structures which may have clocks or clock faces attached to them and some structures have had clocks added to an existing structure. According to the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat a building is defined as a building if at least fifty percent of its height is made up of floor plates containing habitable floor area. Structures that do not meet this criterion, are defined as towers. A clock tower fits this definition of a tower and therefore can be defined as any tower built with one or more clock faces and that can be either freestanding or part of a church or municipal building such as a town hall.
Not all clocks on buildings therefore make the building into a clock tower. The mechanism inside the tower is known as a turret clock, it marks the hour by sounding large bells or chimes, sometimes playing simple musical phrases or tunes. Although clock towers are today admired for their aesthetics, they once served an important purpose. Before the middle of the twentieth century, most people did not have watches, prior to the 18th century home clocks were rare; the first clocks didn't have faces, but were striking clocks, which sounded bells to call the surrounding community to work or to prayer. They were therefore placed in towers. Clock towers were placed near the centres of towns and were the tallest structures there; as clock towers became more common, the designers realized that a dial on the outside of the tower would allow the townspeople to read the time whenever they wanted. The use of clock towers dates back to the antiquity; the earliest clock tower was the Tower of the Winds in Athens.
In its interior, there was a water clock, driven by water coming down from the Acropolis. In Song China, an astronomical clock tower was designed by Su Song and erected at Kaifeng in 1088, featuring a liquid escapement mechanism. In England, a clock was put up in a clock tower, the medieval precursor to Big Ben, at Westminster, in 1288; the oldest surviving turret clock part of a clock tower in Europe is the Salisbury cathedral clock, completed in 1306. Al-Jazari constructed an elaborate clock and described it in his Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices in 1206, it was about 3.3 metres high, had multiple functions alongside timekeeping. It included a display of the zodiac and the solar and lunar paths, a pointer in the shape of the crescent moon which travelled across the top of a gateway, moved by a hidden cart and causing automatic doors to open, each revealing a mannequin, every hour, it was possible to re-program the length of day and night daily in order to account for the changing lengths of day and night throughout the year, it featured five robotic musicians who automatically play music when moved by levers operated by a hidden camshaft attached to a water wheel.
Other components of the castle clock included a main reservoir with a float, a float chamber and flow regulator and valve trough, two pulleys, crescent disc displaying the zodiac, two falcon automata dropping balls into vases. Line synchronous tower clocks were introduced in the United States in the 1920s; some clock towers have become famous landmarks. Prominent examples include Elizabeth Tower built in 1859, which houses the Great Bell in London, the tower of Philadelphia City Hall, the Rajabai Tower in Mumbai, the Spasskaya Tower of the Moscow Kremlin, the Torre dell'Orologio in the Piazza San Marco in Venice and the Zytglogge clock tower in the Old City of Bern, Switzerland; the tallest freestanding clock tower in the world is the Joseph Chamberlain Memorial Clock Tower at the University of Birmingham in Birmingham, United Kingdom. The tower stands at 100 metres tall and was completed in 1908; the clock tower of Philadelphia City Hall was part of the tallest building in the world from 1894, when the tower was topped out and the building occupied, until 1908.
Taller buildings have had clock faces added to their existing structure such as the Palace of Culture and Science in Warsaw, with a clock added in 2000. The building has a roof height of 187.68 m, an antenna height of 237 m. The NTT Docomo Yoyogi Building in Tokyo, with a clock added in 2002, has a roof height of 240 m, an antenna height of 272 m; the Abraj Al Bait, a hotel complex in Mecca constructed in 2012, has the largest and highest clock face on a building in the world, with its Makkah Royal Clock Tower having an occupied height of 494.4 m, a tip height of 601 m. The tower has four clock faces. List of clock towers Bell tower Minaret Street clock Thirteenth stroke of the clock Towerclocks.org - Tower clocks database Railway Station Clock Towers Architecture of time
An arboretum in a general sense is a botanical collection composed of trees. More a modern arboretum is a botanical garden containing living collections of woody plants and is intended at least in part for scientific study. An arboretum specializing in growing conifers is known as a pinetum. Other specialist arboreta include saliceta and querceta; the term arboretum was first used in an English publication by John Claudius Loudon in 1833 in The Gardener's Magazine but the concept was long-established by then. Related collections include a viticetum. Egyptian Pharaohs cared for them. Hatshepsut's expedition to Punt returned bearing thirty-one live frankincense trees, the roots of which were kept in baskets for the duration of the voyage, it is reported that Hatshepsut had these trees planted in the courts of her Deir el Bahri mortuary temple complex. Arboreta are special places for the cultivation and display of a wide variety of different kinds of trees and shrubs. Many tree collections have been claimed as the first arboretum, in most cases, the term has been applied retrospectively as it did not come into use until the eighteenth century.
Arboreta differ from pieces of woodland or plantations because they are botanically significant collections with a variety of examples rather than just a few kinds. Of course there are many tree collections that are much older than the eighteenth century in different parts of the world; the most important early proponent of the arboretum in the English-speaking transatlantic world was the prolific landscape gardener and writer, John Claudius Loudon who undertook many gardening commissions and published the Gardener's Magazine, Encyclopaedia of Gardening and other major works. Loudon's Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum, 8 vols. is the most significant work on the subject in British history and included an account of all trees and shrubs that were hardy in the British climate, an international history of arboriculture, an assessment of the cultural and industrial value of trees and four volumes of plates. Loudon urged that a national arboretum be created and called for arboreta and other systematic collections to be established in public parks, private gardens, country estates and other places.
He regarded the Derby Arboretum as the most important landscape-gardening commission of the latter part of his career because it demonstrated the benefits of a public arboretum. Commenting on Loddiges' famous Hackney Botanic Garden arboretum, begun in 1816, a commercial nursery that subsequently opened free to the public, for educational benefit, every Sunday, Loudon wrote: "The arboretum looks better this season than it has done since it was planted... The more lofty trees suffered from the late high winds, but not materially. We walked round the two outer spirals of this coil of shrubs. There is no garden scene about London so interesting". A plan of Loddiges' arboretum was included in The Encyclopaedia of 1834 edition. Leaves from Loddiges' arboretum and in some instances entire trees, were studiously drawn to illustrate Loudon's encyclopaedic book Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum which incorporated drawings from other early botanic gardens and parklands throughout the United Kingdom. One example of an early European tree collection is the Trsteno Arboretum, near Dubrovnik in Croatia.
The date of its founding is unknown, but it was in existence by 1492, when a 15 m span aqueduct to irrigate the arboretum was constructed. The garden was created by the prominent local Gučetić/Gozze family, it suffered two major disasters in the 1990s but its two unique and ancient Oriental Planes remained standing. Udhagamandalam Arboretum, The Nilgiris, IndiaThe arboretum at Ooty was established in 1992 with an aim of conserving native and indigenous trees, it was established during the year 1992 and maintained by Department of Horticulture with Hill Area Development Programme funds. The micro watershed area leading to Ooty lake where the arboretum is now located, had been neglected and the feeder line feeding water to Ooty was contaminated with urban waste and agricultural chemicals; the area is the natural habitats of both indigenous and migratory birds. During the year 2005-2006, it was rehabilated with funds provided by the Hill Area Development Programme by providing permanent fencing, a footpath, other infrastructure facilities.
Both indigenous and exotic tree species are included. The following tree species were planted: Celtis tetrandra, Dillenia pentagyna, Elaeocarpus ferrugineus, Elaeocarpus oblongus, Evodia lunuankenda, Glochidion neilgherrense, Ligustrum perrotetti, Litsaea ligustrina, Litsaea wightiana, Meliosma arnotiana, Meliosma wightii, Michelia champaca, Michelia nilagirica, Pygeum gardneri, Syzygium amothanum, Syzygium montanum, Alnus nepalensis, Viburnum erubescens, Podocarpus wallichianus, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa, Rapanea wightiana, Ternstroemia japonica, Microtropis microc
32nd Indiana Monument
The 32nd Indiana Monument known as the August Bloedner Monument, honors the Union soldiers of the 32nd Indiana Volunteer Infantry Regiment known as Indiana's "1st German" regiment, who died in the Battle of Rowlett's Station on December 17, 1861, near Munfordville, Kentucky. Placed at Fort Willich, near Munfordville, in January 1862, the monument was moved to Cave Hill National Cemetery at Louisville, Kentucky, in June 1867. Due to its fragile condition, the monument was removed from the national cemetery in 2008. After undergoing conservation treatment at the University of Louisville, it was placed on display at the Frazier History Museum lobby in August 2010. Although it is no longer in its original location, the 32nd Indiana Monument is considered to be the oldest surviving memorial to the American Civil War. A replacement monument at Cave Hill National Cemetery was dedicated in December 2011. On December 17, 1861, the 32nd Indiana Volunteer Infantry Regiment experienced its first major action during the American Civil War at the Battle of Rowlett's Station, south of Munfordville, Kentucky.
Its efforts to defend a crucial bridge received national recognition in the newspapers for its stand against Confederate forces. The battle became notable as one of the few occasions during the war when the Union infantry defended itself in the open against repeated Confederate cavalry assaults; the 32nd Indiana's battle casualties were 46. Shortly after the battle, Christian Friedrich August Bloedner of Cincinnati, who served as a Union private in the 32nd Indiana, carved a limestone memorial to honor his comrades who had died; the monument was placed at the Union soldiers' gravesite at Fort Willich, near Munfordville, Kentucky, in mid-January 1862. In June 1867, after Cave Hill National Cemetery was established at Louisville, the monument and the remains of 21 Union soldiers, 14 of them from the 32nd Indiana, were moved from the Cemetery at Fort Willich to the national cemetery. On July 17, 1997, the 32nd Indiana Monument was added to the National Register of Historic Places; the porous limestone monument has been damaged over time by artificial pollutants and natural weathering, most of the original inscription has faded away.
A wooden structure was erected to protect the monument from further decay. Due to its deteriorating condition, the monument was removed from the national cemetery in December 2008 for conservation treatment at the University of Louisville. Conservation Solutions, Inc. who treated the monument, recommended that it should be removed to an indoor display. Conservation methods included "cleaning, re-attaching flaking and spalled stone surfaces, removal of inappropriate patch materials and patching". Due to its fragile condition, one plan to preserve the monument suggested that it be moved indoors to the Hart County Historical Society Museum in Munfordville, with granite copies placed at Cave Hill National Cemetery and at its original location at Fort Willich. In addition to the Hart County museum, the Frazier History Museum at Louisville and the Patton Museum at Fort Knox, vied to display the monument after conservation efforts were completed; the Frazier History Museum was selected to house the monument on long-term loan from the National Cemetery Administration.
In August 2010 the refurbished monument was installed in the museum's lobby, where visitors need not pay to see it. On November 19, 2010, the monument was removed from the National Register of Historic Places. A new monument to the 32nd Indiana that contains German and English inscriptions was dedicated at Cave Hill National Cemetery on December 16, 2011; the monument was intended to lie flat on the ground. The base measured 16 inches wide, 67 inches long, 8 inches above ground; the monument weighs 3,500 pounds. On the front of the monument, near the top, a relief carving of an eagle clutches a brace of cannon with two stacks of cannonballs paired below. Olive and oak branches border American flags on each side. Below the frieze a stone-carved tablet bears a German inscription and the names of 13 soldiers from the 32nd Indiana who died at the Battle of Rowlett's Station, along with their ranks and birth years. Although the German inscription is no longer legible, the National Cemetery records inscription, transcribed into English, reads as follows:HERE REST THE FIRST HEROES OF THE 32ND INDIANA GERMAN REGIMENT WHO LAID DOWN THEIR LIVES FOR PRESERVATION OF THE FREE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF NORTH AMERICA.
THEY WERE KILLED DECEMBER 17, 1861. IN A FIGHT WITH THE REBELS AT ROWLETT'S STATION, KENTUCKY, IN WHICH ONE REGIMENT TEXAS RANGERS, TWO REGIMENTS OF INFANTRY, AND A BATTERY OF SIX CANNON, OVER 3,000 STRONG, WERE DEFEATED BY 500 GERMAN SOLDIERS. An English inscription on the monument's base reads:IN MEMORY OF THE FIRST VICTIMS OF THE 32 REG. INDIANA VOL. WHO FELL AT THE BATTLE OF ROWLETT'S STATION DECEMBER 17, 1861 Although the 32nd Indiana Monument has been moved from its original location, it is considered to be the oldest surviving memorial to the American Civil War; the National Park Service considers the Hazen Brigade Monument at Stones River National Battlefield, placed in 1863, a year after the 32nd Indiana Monument's installation at Fort Willich, the oldest intact Civil War monument in the United States. An earlier monument erected. Union Monument in Louisville Confederate Monument in Louisville List of American Civil War monuments in Kentucky Indiana in the American Civil War Lou
Barbed tape or razor wire is a mesh of metal strips with sharp edges whose purpose is to prevent passage by humans. The term "razor wire", through long usage, has been used to describe barbed tape products. Razor wire is much sharper than the standard barbed wire; the points are sharp and made to rip and snag clothing and flesh. The multiple blades of a razor wire fence are designed to inflict serious cuts on anyone attempting to climb through and therefore have a strong psychological deterrent effect. Razor wire is used in many high-security applications because, although it can be circumvented quickly by humans with tools, penetrating a razor wire barrier without tools is slow and difficult, giving security forces more time to respond. Starting in the late 1960s, barbed tape was found in prisons and secure mental hospitals, where the increased breaching time for a poorly equipped potential escapee was a definite advantage; until the development of reinforced barbed tape in the early 1980s, it was used for military purposes or genuine high security facilities because, with the correct tools, it was easier to breach than barbed wire.
Since some military forces have replaced barbed wire with barbed tape for many applications because it is lighter for the same effective coverage and it takes up little space compared to barbed wire or reinforced barbed tape when stored on drums. More barbed tape has been used in more commercial and residential security applications; this is primarily a visual deterrent since a well-prepared burglar can breach barbed wire and barbed tape barriers in similar amounts of time, using simple techniques such as cutting the wire or throwing a piece of carpet over its strands. Due to its dangerous nature, razor wire/barbed tape and similar fencing/barrier materials is prohibited in some locales. Norway prohibits any barbed wire except in combination with other fencing, in order to protect domesticated animals from exposure. Razor wire has a central strand of high tensile strength wire, a steel tape punched into a shape with barbs; the steel tape is cold-crimped to the wire everywhere except for the barbs.
Flat barbed tape is similar, but has no central reinforcement wire. The process of combining the two is called roll forming. Like barbed wire, razor wire is available as either straight wire, spiral coils, concertina coils, flat wrapped panels or welded mesh panels. Unlike barbed wire, available only as plain steel or galvanized, barbed tape razor wire is manufactured in stainless steel, to reduce corrosion from rusting; the core wire can be galvanized and the tape stainless, although stainless barbed tape is used for permanent installations in harsh climatic environments or under water. Barbed tape is characterized by the shape of the barbs. Although there are no formal definitions short barb barbed tape has barbs from 10 mm to 12 mm long, medium barb tape has barbs 20 mm to 22 mm long, long barb tape has barbs from 60 to 66 mm long. Helical type. Helical type razor wire is the most simple pattern. There are no concertina attachments and each spiral loop is left, it shows a natural spiral freely.
Concertina type. It is the most used type in the security defense applications; the adjacent loops of helical coils are attached by clips at specified points on the circumference. It shows an accordion-like configuration condition. Blade type; the razor wire are produced in straight lines and cut into certain length to be welded onto the galvanized or powder coated frame. It can be used individually as security barrier. Flat type. A popular razor wire type with flat and smooth configuration. According to different technology, it can be welded type. Welded type; the razor wire tape are welded into panels the panels are connected by clips or tie wires to form a continuous razor wire fence. Flattened type, it is an transformation of single coil concertina razor wire. Flatten the concertina wire to form the flat type razor wire. Single coil. Seen and used type, available in both helical and concertina types. Double coil. A complex razor wire type to supply higher security grade. A smaller diameter coil is placed inside of the larger diameter coil.
It is available in both helical and concertina types. Access control Environmental design Physical security Wire obstacle Concertina wire Media related to Barbed tapes at Wikimedia Commons
Beargrass Creek (Kentucky)
Beargrass Creek is the name given to several forks of a creek in Jefferson County, Kentucky. The Beargrass Creek watershed is the largest in the county, draining over 60 square miles; as the forks wind through the area that has become Louisville's East End, they have contributed to the geography that has shaped the area. The origin of the name "Beargrass" is not clear, though local stories abound and it was written as "Bear Grass Creek" in early maps. Lyndon Lore states, "The name Beargrass was Bear Grasse, because the bears came to the creek for water and for salt from the salt licks which were located near Salt River."The earliest settlements by Europeans in the area were built in the form of stations, or forts, along the banks of the creek. The three forks drain about 70 square miles of land, flood. Following the construction of the U. S. Army base at Bowman Field in 1940, it was found that the area's limestone was causing septic tanks in Seneca Gardens to malfunction and wash raw waste into the creek.
Wartime rationing and price disputes with Louisville delayed correcting the problem until 1946. The three main branches are the South and Muddy Forks, they separate just east of Downtown Louisville. The South Fork runs through Butchertown and Germantown to west of Tyler Park, through the Poplar Level area and the Fern Creek neighborhood. Eleven Jones Cave is located along this fork; the south fork ran through downtown, but was rerouted in the 1850s. The original route was turned into a sewer. In the 1920s, the stretch near Germantown was placed into a concrete channel; the current channelized state of the creek bed and Louisville's continued problems with Combined Sewer Overflows leads to poor water quality in the creek. Following heavy rain events one should avoid contact with the creek; the Beargrass Creek Alliance, a local volunteer watershed group of the Kentucky Waterways Alliance does outreach and projects to improve the quality of Beargrass Creek. The middle fork has two branches, called the Sinking Fork.
Weicher Creek flows from the Hurstborne Area, the Sinking Fork has its headwaters near Anchorage, Kentucky. They join in St. Matthews and flow through Cherokee Park until it meets the South Fork near the Bourbon Stockyards; the Muddy Fork rises at a stone springhouse in Windy Hills and runs parallel to the Ohio River and was rerouted during the construction of Interstate 71. Although used just for drainage and as a scenic feature by the 20th century, in pioneer days it was navigable and used for that purpose. List of rivers of Kentucky Geography of Louisville, Kentucky Beargrass Creek State Nature Preserve Beargrass Creek State Nature Preserve Watershed information for Jefferson County Courier-Journal Special Report — "Beargrass Creek: Troubled streams of neglect, abuse"
Kentucky Monthly is a general interest regional magazine about the U. S. state of Kentucky and Kentuckians. Founded in 1998 by Stephen M. Vest, Michael Embry and business manager Kay Vest, it featured actor George Clooney on its first cover and has featured such Kentucky notables as Ashley Judd, Molly Sims, Wendell Berry, Silas House, Annie Potts, former Miss USA Tara Conner and numerous others. Based in Frankfort, Kentucky's capital, the magazine features all aspects of contemporary Kentucky culture and presents an annual Kentuckian of the Year award. In 2005 Kentucky Monthly was presented the Governor's Award in the Arts for media, the Commonwealth's highest prize in the arts. In 2005, Kentucky Monthly was featured in the Stu Pollard film Keep Your Distance in a scene where the main character is named Kentuckian of the Year. Kentucky Monthly was named the official state magazine for The Cup Experience, a series of events held in conjunction with the 2008 Ryder Cup in Louisville in September 2008.
Team USA won the Ryder Cup, led by Kentuckians Kenny Perry and J. B. Holmes, who were named Kentuckians of the Year. In March 2008, Kentucky Monthly was selected as the "Official Kentucky Magazine" for the 2010 Alltech FEI World Equestrian Games. In 2008, celebrating its 10th anniversary, Kentucky Monthly published Another Serving: Kentucky Monthly's 10th Anniversary Cookbook and THAT Kind of Journalist, a collection of Vest's back-page columns; the magazine has since published: Sacred Places of Kentucky. Goode, which includes such writers as Wendell Berry, Robert Penn Warren, Irvin S. Cobb, Harriette Simpson Arnow. In 2016 Kentucky Monthly released the Kentucky Monthly Coloring Book in conjunction with Danville artist Robert Powell. Winners of Kentucky Monthly's Kentuckian of the Year award include: Miss America 2000 Heather French Henry, school-shooting survivor Missy Jenkins, Drs. Layman Gray and Robert Dowling, First Lady Judi Patton, Kentucky's military, KCTCS President Michael McCall, author Wendell Berry, Drs. A. Bennett Jenson and Shin-je Ghim, 11-year-old Michala Riggle, who raised $200,000 for autism research selling beaded bracelets.
On December 26, 2008, Kentucky Monthly presented the Kentuckian of the Year Award to Riggle at a University of Louisville basketball game. In attendance was Muhammad Ali, who made a contribution to Riggle's charity; as of March 1, 2008, Riggle had raised nearly $500,000 and was a guest on The Ellen DeGeneres Show. Academy Award-winning actor George Clooney took the honor in 2009 and Medal of Honor recipient Dakota Meyer was named Kentuckian of the Year for 2011. University of Louisville athletics director Tom Jurich received the award in 2013 after guiding 10 different Cardinal teams to Top-25 rankings in 2013, including the men's basketball team, which won the NCAA Championship, the women's basketball team, which played in the championship game. Harlan's Jordan Smith won the honor for 2015 following his championship on NBC's The Voice. Kentucky Afield Kentucky Life Official website
KFC known as Kentucky Fried Chicken, is an American fast food restaurant chain headquartered in Louisville, Kentucky that specializes in fried chicken. It is the world's second-largest restaurant chain after McDonald's, with 22,621 locations globally in 136 countries as of December 2018; the chain is a subsidiary of Yum! Brands, a restaurant company that owns the Pizza Hut, Taco Bell, WingStreet chains. KFC was founded by Colonel Harland Sanders, an entrepreneur who began selling fried chicken from his roadside restaurant in Corbin, during the Great Depression. Sanders identified the potential of the restaurant franchising concept, the first "Kentucky Fried Chicken" franchise opened in Utah in 1952. KFC popularized chicken in the fast food industry, diversifying the market by challenging the established dominance of the hamburger. By branding himself as "Colonel Sanders", Harland became a prominent figure of American cultural history, his image remains used in KFC advertising to this day. However, the company's rapid expansion overwhelmed the aging Sanders, he sold it to a group of investors led by John Y. Brown Jr. and Jack C.
Massey in 1964. KFC was one of the first American fast food chains to expand internationally, opening outlets in Canada, the United Kingdom and Jamaica by the mid-1960s. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, it experienced mixed fortunes domestically, as it went through a series of changes in corporate ownership with little or no experience in the restaurant business. In the early 1970s, KFC was sold to the spirits distributor Heublein, taken over by the R. J. Reynolds food and tobacco conglomerate; the chain continued to expand overseas, in 1987, it became the first Western restaurant chain to open in China. It has since expanded in China, now the company's single largest market. PepsiCo spun off its restaurants division as Tricon Global Restaurants, which changed its name to Yum! Brands. KFC's original product is pressure-fried chicken pieces, seasoned with Sanders' recipe of 11 herbs and spices; the constituents of the recipe represent a notable trade secret. Larger portions of fried chicken are served in a cardboard "bucket", which has become a well-known feature of the chain since it was first introduced by franchisee Pete Harman in 1957.
Since the early 1990s, KFC has expanded its menu to offer other chicken products such as chicken fillet sandwiches and wraps, as well as salads and side dishes such as French fries and coleslaw and soft drinks. KFC is known for its slogans "It's Finger Lickin' Good!", "Nobody does chicken like KFC", "So good". Harland Sanders was raised on a farm outside Henryville, Indiana; when Sanders was five years old, his father died. This left Sanders, as the eldest son. After he reached seven years of age, his mother taught him. After leaving the family home at the age of 13, Sanders passed through several professions, with mixed success. In 1930, he took over a Shell filling station on US Route 25 just outside North Corbin, Kentucky, a small town on the edge of the Appalachian Mountains, it was here that he first served to travelers the recipes that he had learned as a child: fried chicken and other dishes such as steaks and country ham. After four years of serving from his own dining room table, Sanders purchased the larger filling station on the other side of the road and expanded to six tables.
By 1936, this had proven successful enough for Sanders to be given the honorary title of Kentucky colonel by Governor Ruby Laffoon. In 1937 he expanded his restaurant to 142 seats, added a motel he purchased across the street, naming it Sanders Court & Café. Sanders was unhappy with the 35 minutes it took to prepare his chicken in an iron frying pan, but he refused to deep fry the chicken, which he believed lowered the quality of the product. If he pre-cooked the chicken in advance of orders, there was sometimes wastage at day's end. In 1939, the first commercial pressure cookers were released onto the market designed for steaming vegetables. Sanders bought one, modified it into a pressure fryer, which he used to fry chicken; the new method reduced production time to be comparable with deep frying, while, in the opinion of Sanders, retaining the quality of pan-fried chicken. In July 1940, Sanders finalised what came to be known as his "Original Recipe" of 11 herbs and spices. Although he never publicly revealed the recipe, he admitted to the use of salt and pepper, claimed that the ingredients "stand on everybody's shelf".
After being recommissioned as a Kentucky colonel in 1950 by Governor Lawrence Wetherby, Sanders began to dress the part, growing a goatee and wearing a black frock coat, a string tie, referring to himself as "Colonel". His associates went along with the title change, "jokingly at first and in earnest", according to biographer Josh Ozersky; the Sanders Court & Café served travelers, so when the route planned in 1955 for Interstate 75 bypassed Corbin, Sanders sold his properties and traveled the US to franchise his chicken recipe to restaurant owners. Independent restaurants would pay four cents on each chicken as a franchise fee, in exchange for Sanders' "secret blend of herbs and spices" and the right to feature his recipe on their menus and use his name and likeness for promotional purposes. In 1952 he had successfully franchised his recipe to his friend Pete Harman of South Salt Lake, the operator of one of the city's largest restaurants. Don Anderson, a sign painter hired by