Arkansas Highway 112
Highway 112 is a north–south state highway in Northwest Arkansas. The route of 25.84 miles runs from Highway 265 north through Fayetteville, across Interstate 49/US 62/US 71 to Highway 12 in Bentonville. The route serves the University of Arkansas, thus a portion is named Razorback Road; the route begins at the northern end of Cato Springs Road under the I-49 overpass in south Fayetteville. The route runs north with access to U. S. Highway 71 with AR 265 before AR 265 continues east. AR 112 continues north as Razorback Road and runs north to run concurrently with AR 16, starting near Baum Stadium and continuing until AR 180. AR 112 continues through the University of Arkansas campus, passing John McDonnell Field and Donald W. Reynolds Razorback Stadium. After the stadium, AR 112 turns east and becomes West Maple Street and passes Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural and Life Sciences and the Pat Walker Health Center; the highway turns north and becomes Garland Avenue, a median-divided highway until Highway 112S/Wedington Drive/North Street.
The medians were added in 2009 after contention from the City of residents. It was decided to have one continuous median that becomes a turn lane, with separate bike lanes on both sides. AR 112 continues north through Fayetteville; the route continues as an important artery through the city, crossing I-49/US 62/US 71 south of the Fayetteville Teardrop. AR 112 runs north from the expressway to Tontitown as Maestri Road, intersecting US 412 in Tontitown. Continuning north through Elm Springs as Elm St. the route enters Benton County. AR 112 runs north in a brief concurrency with AR 264 in Cave Springs before entering Bentonville and terminating at AR 12 near the Bentonville Municipal Airport. Arkansas Highway 112 was one of the original 1926 state highways; the original AR 112 was unpaved and ran 2.2 miles from Arkansas Highway 16 in Fayetteville north to an area south of Johnson. The route was paved in 1948, extended north to Bentonville in 1951; the Cave Springs to AR 12 segment was paved at the time of addition, with the entire length becoming paved by 1956.
Arkansas Highway 112S was created in 1971 from a segment of Arkansas Highway 16. The route was truncated to its current northern terminus in February 2012, the route continued along Highway 12 and US 71B to terminate at Highway 72 in Bentonville; the route follows the same path it did during the Civil War and is designated as part of the Arkansas Civil War Trail. AR 112 is designated as part of the Arkansas Trail of Tears northern route. Plans are underway to expand AR 112 to four lanes through the University of Arkansas campus; the project would be completed in summer sections when the student population has decreased, with the first portion for completion being widening from AR 180 north to Leroy Pond Drive. Right of way has been obtained from the University for this part of the project; the segment of Highway 112 between Wedington Drive and Melmar Street is in the process of being widened to four lanes via transportation bond program funds. Highway 112 Spur is a 1.46-mile-long highway in Fayetteville.
Locally known as Wedington Drive, its western terminus is at Interstate 49 with the road continuing west as Highway 16 towards Siloam Springs. Its eastern terminus is at Highway 112 with the road continuing east as North Street in Fayetteville, which intersects Highway 45; the route was listed in the 2006 AHTD needs study as needing to be widened to four lanes. The highway is now four lane. List of state highways in Arkansas Media related to Arkansas Highway 112 at Wikimedia Commons
Rogers is located in Northwest Arkansas, United States, one of the fastest growing metro areas in the country. Rogers was the location of the first Walmart store, whose corporate headquarters is located in neighboring Bentonville. Rogers is a city in the Ozarks in Benton County. Daisy Outdoor Products, known for its air rifles, has both its headquarters and its Airgun Museum in Rogers; as of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 55,964. In 2017 the estimated population was 66,430. Rogers is part of the Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers Metropolitan Area, one of the fastest growing in the nation; the Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers Metropolitan Area, more known as Northwest Arkansas, is ranked 109th in terms of population in the United States, with 465,776 inhabitants as of the 2010 U. S. Census. Rogers was named after Captain Charles Warrington Rogers, vice-president and general manager of the St. Louis and San Francisco Railway known as the Frisco; the town was established in 1881, the year.
The community was incorporated on June 6, 1881. In June 2007, BusinessWeek magazine ranked Rogers as 18th in its list of the 25 best affordable suburbs in the American South, and in 2010, CNN Money ranked Rogers #10 on their list of 100 Best Places to Live. The first retail business owned by the Stroud family was a store in Pea Ridge, co-owned by Allen Bryant Stroud and his son Harlan Lafayette Stroud; that business was established prior to 1879 and Allen Stroud served as postmaster at Pea Ridge for a time. In 1884, H. L. Stroud sold his interest in the Stroud store in Pea Ridge and purchased a dry goods store at the corner of First and Walnut Streets in Rogers which he named Stroud's Mercantile. In 1887 he brought in his brother Evan Giesen. In 1891 H. L. Stroud moved his business into a storefront on the north side of the 100 block of Walnut Street. Stroud's continued to prosper, in 1899 H. L. built the brick building at 114–116 West Walnut Street. Stroud's continued to be the leading retail business in Rogers up into the 1960s, when in 1962 Sam Walton opened the first location of what would become the retail giant Walmart just seven blocks away.
Walton's new store combined with the nationwide movement of retail centers from aged downtowns to malls and shopping centers eroded Stroud's customer base, leading the locally beloved retailer to permanently close in 1993 after 109 years in business. In 1912 the city council formed a commission of local businessmen to facilitate the paving of downtown Rogers. Despite the constant complaints of dusty and muddy streets, the enthusiastic support of prominent citizens such as Coin Harvey, bickering over the cost and method of paving delayed the start of the project until July 1924; the downtown area was paved with concrete and overlaid with bricks in rows, changing to a basket weave pattern at the intersections of streets. The work was completed in December 1924, the brick pavement remains today, with renovations done to the streets in 2010. Rogers is located at 36°19′46″N 94°8′29″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 33.6 square miles, of which 33.5 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water.
The climate in this area is characterized by warm, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Rogers has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps; as of 2010 Rogers had a population of 55,964. The racial and ethnic composition of the population was 62.0% non-Hispanic white, 1.3% non-Hispanic black, 1.0% Native American, 2.5% Asian, 0.3% Pacific Islander, 0.1% non-Hispanics of some other race, 3.0% from two or more races and 31.5% Hispanic or Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 38,829 people, 14,005 households, 10,209 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,158.0 people per square mile. There were 14,836 housing units at an average density of 442.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 90.75% White, 0.47% Black or African American, 1.05% Native American, 1.43% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 9.43% from other races, 1.80% from two or more races. 19.29% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 14,005 households out of which 39.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.4% were married couples living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.1% were non-families. 22.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.74 and the average family size was 3.21. In the city, the population was spread out with 29.4% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 31.5% from 25 to 44, 18.3% from 45 to 64, 11.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $40,474, the median income for a family was $45,876. Males had a median income of $30,911 versus $22,020 for females; the per capita income for the city was $19,761. About 9.4% of families and 12.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.6% of those under age 18 and 10.1% of those age 65 or over.
In addition to the Rogers Commercial Historic District, Rogers has numerous properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places, with the oldest being the Pea Ridge National Military Park. Ro
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
Fayetteville is the third-largest city in Arkansas and county seat of Washington County. The city is centrally located within the county and has been home of the University of Arkansas since the institution's founding in 1871. Fayetteville is on the outskirts of the Boston Mountains, deep within the Ozarks. Known as Washington until 1829, the city was named after Fayetteville, from which many of the settlers had come, it was incorporated on November 3, 1836 and was rechartered in 1867. The four-county Northwest Arkansas Metropolitan Statistical Area is ranked 105th in terms of population in the United States with 463,204 in 2010 according to the United States Census Bureau; the city had a population of 73,580 at the 2010 Census. Fayetteville is home to the University of the state's largest university; when classes are in session, thousands of students on campus change the city's demographics. Thousands of Arkansas Razorbacks alumni and fans travel to Fayetteville to attend football and baseball games.
The University's men's track and field program has won 41 national championships to date. Fayetteville was named the third best place to live in the United States in the 2016 U. S. News Best Places To Live Rankings, one of the best places to retire in the South. Forbes ranked Fayetteville as the 24th-best city for business and careers in 2016. Lonely Planet named Fayetteville among its top 20 places to visit in the South in 2016; the city hosts the Walmart Shareholders Meetings each year at the Bud Walton Arena. In 1828, George McGarrah settled at Big Spring with his family on the modern day corner of Spring and Willow, founding the town of Washington, starting work on the courthouse. On October 17, Washington County was established, Washington chosen as the county seat; the Washington Courthouse was finished in 1829, contained the post office. In the year Postmaster Larkin Newton changed the name to the Fayetteville Courthouse, to avoid confusing with Washington, Hempstead County. Two councilmen selected to name the city were from Fayetteville, itself named for Fayetteville, North Carolina.
That original Fayetteville was named for General Lafayette, a French general who helped the colonies gain independence in the American Revolutionary War. The first store in Fayetteville was opened by John Nye in a small building constructed by James Holmsley. In 1832 David Walker, Chief Justice of the Arkansas supreme court, built a double log cabin on what is now Center Street. In 1822 Archibald Yell, the second Governor of Arkansas, built a house and called it "Waxhaw" after his home in North Carolina; this was on the outskirts of town but now is a street named after him that connects College and School streets. The first hotels were the Onstott House. Fayetteville was incorporated as a town on November 3, 1836. In 1859, a city charter was obtained from the Legislature. During the Civil War the municipal government was suspended and was not reinstated until 1867. P. V. Rhea was the president of the town trustees in 1836. W. Walker was the first mayor under the charter of 1859, M. L. Harrison was the first mayor when the government was reorganized in 1867.
The telegraph came to Fayetteville in 1860, strung along the Military Road from St. Louis, Missouri to Little Rock. During the American Civil War, the Union General Samuel Ryan Curtis occupied Fayetteville on February 18, 1862 and the following week, the Battle of Pea Ridge took place northeast of Fayetteville; the city housed wounded soldiers from the Battle of Prairie Grove in December 1862, housed injured troops on Dickson Street. Confederate troops besieged Union soldiers in Fayetteville on April 18, 1863 at the present-day intersection of College Avenue and Dickson Street, at their headquarters. Union soldiers held the city against cannon fire and cavalry attacks, although their headquarters sustained damage; the building was restored and is operated as the Headquarters House, a museum of the Washington County Historical Society. Fayetteville was occupied from December 1862 until May 1865 by the First Arkansas Union Cavalry, a regiment of Union men from Northwest Arkansas. Union forces repelled a Confederate attack in October 1864.
After the war, the United States government established the Fayetteville National Cemetery in 1867. A cemetery for Confederate dead was founded in 1873. Newspapers were established early; the Fayetteville Weekly Democrat began publishing in 1868. It developed as the Northwest Arkansas Times, is still in print today; the Fayetteville Schools District was founded on March 20, 1871 as the first independent school district in Arkansas. The public school system was established by the Reconstruction era legislature. Arkansas had struggled with a state banking crisis, resulting in the illegality of banking until 1868. Following the reinstatement, the Stark Bank became the first bank in the state in 1872, becoming the William McIlroy Bank four years later; this institution remains today as Arvest Bank. In 1954, a few days after Charleston, Fayetteville was the second school district in the southern United States to implement school integration in response to Brown v. Board of Education. Fayetteville is located in the Boston Mountains, a subset of The Ozarks which run through Northwest Arkansas, southern Missouri, Eastern Oklahoma.
The rocks of the Boston Mountains were formed when sandstones and shales were deposited on top of the Springfield Plateau during the Pennsylvanian Period. In the Fayettevill
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Arkansas is a state in the southern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2018. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the Quapaw Indians; the state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U. S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta. Arkansas is the 33rd most populous of the 50 United States; the capital and most populous city is Little Rock, located in the central portion of the state, a hub for transportation, business and government. The northwestern corner of the state, such as the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area and Fort Smith metropolitan area, is a population and economic center; the largest city in the state's eastern part is Jonesboro. The largest city in the state's southeastern part is Pine Bluff.
The Territory of Arkansas was admitted to the Union as the 25th state on June 15, 1836. In 1861, Arkansas withdrew from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. On returning to the Union in 1868, the state continued to suffer due to its earlier reliance on slavery and the plantation economy, causing the state to fall behind economically and socially. White rural interests continued to dominate the state's politics until the civil rights movement. Arkansas began to diversify its economy following World War II and relies on its service industry, poultry, tourism and rice; the culture of Arkansas is observable in museums, novels, television shows and athletic venues across the state. People such as politician and educational advocate William Fulbright; the name Arkansas was applied to the Arkansas River and derives from a French term, the plural term for Quapaws, a Dhegiha Siouan-speaking Native American people who settled in Arkansas around the 13th century.
This comes from an Algonquian term, /akansa/, for the Quapaws, is also the root term for Kansas. The name has been spelled in a variety of fashions. In 1881, the pronunciation of Arkansas with the final "s" being silent was made official by an act of the state legislature after a dispute arose between Arkansas's two U. S. senators as one favored the pronunciation as AR-kən-saw while the other favored ar-KAN-zəs. In 2007, the state legislature passed a non-binding resolution declaring that the possessive form of the state's name is Arkansas's, followed by the state government. Arkansas borders Louisiana to the south, Texas to the southwest, Oklahoma to the west, Missouri to the north, Tennessee and Mississippi to the east; the United States Census Bureau classifies Arkansas as a southern state, sub-categorized among the West South Central States. The Mississippi River forms most of Arkansas's eastern border, except in Clay and Greene, counties where the St. Francis River forms the western boundary of the Missouri Bootheel, in many places where the channel of the Mississippi has meandered from its original 1836 course.
Arkansas can be split into two halves, the highlands in the northwest half and the lowlands of the southeastern half. The highlands are part of the Southern Interior Highlands, including The Ozarks and the Ouachita Mountains; the southern lowlands include the Arkansas Delta. This dual split can yield to general regions named northwest, northeast, southeast, or central Arkansas; these directionally named regions are broad and not defined along county lines. Arkansas has seven distinct natural regions: the Ozark Mountains, Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas River Valley, Gulf Coastal Plain, Crowley's Ridge, the Arkansas Delta, with Central Arkansas sometimes included as a blend of multiple regions; the southeastern part of Arkansas along the Mississippi Alluvial Plain is sometimes called the Arkansas Delta. This region is a flat landscape of rich alluvial soils formed by repeated flooding of the adjacent Mississippi. Farther away from the river, in the southeast portion of the state, the Grand Prairie consists of a more undulating landscape.
Both are fertile agricultural areas. The Delta region is bisected by a geological formation known as Crowley's Ridge. A narrow band of rolling hills, Crowley's Ridge rises from 250 to 500 feet above the surrounding alluvial plain and underlies many of the major towns of eastern Arkansas. Northwest Arkansas is part of the Ozark Plateau including the Ozark Mountains, to the south are the Ouachita Mountains, these regions are divided by the Arkansas River; these mountain ranges are part of the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains; the highest point in the state is Mount Magazine in the Ouachita Mountains, which rises to 2,753 feet above sea level. Arkansas has many rivers and reservoirs within or along its borders. Major tributaries of the Mississippi River include the Arkansas River, the White River, the St. Francis River; the Arkansas is fed by the Mulberry River and the Fou
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif