The Cave of Altamira is located near the historic town of Santillana del Mar in Cantabria, Spain. It is renowned for prehistoric parietal cave art featuring charcoal drawings and polychrome paintings of contemporary local fauna and human hands; the earliest paintings were applied during the Upper Paleolithic, around 36,000 years ago. The site was only discovered in 1868 by Modesto Cubillas. Aside from the striking quality of its polychromatic art, Altamira's fame stems from the fact that its paintings were the first European cave paintings for which a prehistoric origin was suggested and promoted. Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola published his research with the support of Juan de Vilanova y Piera in 1880 to initial public acclaim. However, the publication of Sanz de Sautuola's research led to a bitter public controversy among experts, some of whom rejected the prehistoric origin of the paintings on the grounds that prehistoric human beings lacked sufficient ability for abstract thought; the controversy continued until 1902, by which time reports of similar findings of prehistoric paintings in the Franco-Cantabrian region had accumulated and the evidence could no longer be rejected.
Altamira is located in the Franco-Cantabrian region and in 1985 was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO as a key location of the Cave of Altamira and Paleolithic Cave Art of Northern Spain. The cave is 1,000 m long and consists of a series of twisting passages and chambers; the main passage varies from two to six meters in height. The cave was formed through collapses following early karst phenomena in the calcareous rock of Mount Vispieres. Archaeological excavations in the cave floor found rich deposits of artifacts from the Upper Solutrean and Lower Magdalenian. Both periods belong to the Old Stone Age. In the two millennia between these two occupations, the cave was evidently inhabited only by wild animals. Human occupants of the site were well-positioned to take advantage of the rich wildlife that grazed in the valleys of the surrounding mountains as well as the marine life available in nearby coastal areas. Around 13,000 years ago a rockfall sealed the cave's entrance, preserving its contents until its eventual discovery, which occurred after a nearby tree fell and disturbed the fallen rocks.
Human occupation was limited to the cave mouth, although paintings were created throughout the length of the cave. The artists used charcoal and ochre or hematite to create the images diluting these pigments to produce variations in intensity and creating an impression of chiaroscuro, they exploited the natural contours of the cave walls to give their subjects a three-dimensional effect. The Polychrome Ceiling is the most impressive feature of the cave, depicting a herd of extinct steppe bison in different poses, two horses, a large doe, a wild boar. Dated to the Magdalenian occupation, these paintings include abstract shapes in addition to animal subjects. Solutrean paintings include images of horses and goats, as well as handprints that were created when artists placed their hands on the cave wall and blew pigment over them to leave a negative image. Numerous other caves in northern Spain contain Paleolithic art, but none is as complex or well-populated as Altamira. In 1879, amateur archaeologist Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola was led by his eight-year-old daughter María to discover the cave's drawings.
The cave was excavated by Sautuola and archaeologist Juan Vilanova y Piera from the University of Madrid, resulting in a much acclaimed publication in 1880 which interpreted the paintings as Paleolithic in origin. The French specialists, led by Gabriel de Mortillet and Emile Cartailhac, were adamant in rejecting the hypothesis of Sautuola and Piera, whose findings were loudly ridiculed at the 1880 Prehistorical Congress in Lisbon. Due to the supreme artistic quality, the exceptional state of conservation of the paintings, Sautuola was accused of forgery, as he was unable to answer why there were no soot marks on the walls and ceilings of the cave. A fellow countryman maintained that the paintings had been produced by a contemporary artist, on Sautuola's orders. Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola found out the artist could have used marrow fat as oil for the lamp, producing much less soot than any other combustibles, it was not until 1902, when several other findings of prehistoric paintings had served to render the hypothesis of the extreme antiquity of the Altamira paintings less offensive, that the scientific society retracted their opposition to the Spaniards.
That year, Emile Cartailhac emphatically admitted his mistake in the famous article, "Mea culpa d'un sceptique", published in the journal L'Anthropologie. Sautuola, having died 14 years earlier, did not live to witness his rehabilitation. Further excavation work on the cave was done by Hermilio Alcalde del Río between 1902–04, the German Hugo Obermaier between 1924–25 and by Joaquín González Echegaray in 1968. There is no scientific agreement on the dating of the archeological artifacts found in the cave, nor the drawings and paintings, scientists continue to evaluate the age of the cave art at Altamira. In 2008, researchers using uranium-thorium dating found that the paintings were completed over a period of up to 20,000 years rather than during a comparatively brief period. A study published in 2012 based on data obtained from further uranium-thorium dating research, dated some paintings in several caves in North Spain, including some of the claviform signs in the "Gran sala" of Altamira.
The oldest sign found, a "large red claviform-like symbol of Techo de los Polícromos", was dated to 36.16±0.61 ka (c
The Mangaldai Assembly constituency is number 67 out of 126 total constituency of Assam and is reserved for the Scheduled Castes. This constituency is known as "67 number Mangaldai LOK SABHA" under Darrang District; this seat is a mix from villages. The assembly constituency comes under the Mangoldoi Lok Sabha constituency. Total voter Number as on 1 January 2016 are 186,789; the assembly constituency still needs much more development. The 2016 Lok Sabha Election will be held on 67 Mangaldai Constituency on 11 April, 2016 as declared by ECI on Friday, 4 March 2016. 1951: Purandar Sarma, Indian National Congress 1957: Dandi Ram Dutta, Indian National Congress 1962: Dandi Ram Dutta, Indian National Congress 1967: Md. Matlibuddin, Independent 1972: Syed Anwara Taimur, Indian National Congress 1978: Anil Das, Janata Party 1983: Kartik Sarkar, Indian National Congress 1985: Nilamoni Das, Independent 1991: Nakul Chandra Das, Indian National Congress 1996: Hiren Kumar Das, Asom Gana Parishad 2001: Basanta Das, Indian National Congress 2006: Hiren Kumar Das, Asom Gana Parishad 2011: Basanta Das, Indian National Congress 2016: Gurujyoti Das, Bharatiya Janata Party
Niklas Hult is a Swedish professional footballer who plays as a left-back for Greek club AEK Athens and the Sweden national team. In May 2014 Niklas Hult was signed by OGC Nice for a fee around €1 million, the French Ligue 1 club as they looked to strengthen for the 2014–15 season, he was described as a midfield workhorse with attacking and defensive qualities. On 30 June 2016, he signed a three-years contract with Greek Super League club Panathinaikos for a transfer fee of €300,000, his contract, which ran until 2019, was worth €250,000 per year. During the summer of 2017, the Swedish international rejected a suggestion from Standard Liège, at the same time he filed an appeal claiming his late payment from Panathinaikos. In the summer, the player's side claimed that the international left-back could leave as free from the club, either for Konyaspor or Standard Liège, once again interested in his acquisition. Hult had no trouble withdrawing his appeal as long as he had a raise in his annual salary and extending his contract for another year.
The greens put all the odds down, as they figured that the player was one of the best player in the roster, on 21 July 2017, took the decision to table a new proposal for co-operation and increase his annual earnings by more than €100,000 while expanding his contract by 2020, that make the player's side to respond positively. During the 2017–18 season the financial problems of the club remained unresolved with Hult looking his next step in his career. On 30 January 2018, after his first appeal, Hult took again legal actions against Panathinaikos because of the money the Greens owe to him, he had not received his December's fee and in order to ensure his money decided to sue financially struggling greens. Between two sides there are negotiations in order to find a mutual solution and Panathinaikos receive money from his possible transfer in January's window. On 31 January 2018, Hult signed a two-and-half-year contract with rivals AEK Athens for an estimated amount of €200,000; as of 16 February 2020 Elfsborg Allsvenskan: 2012AEK Athens Superleague: 2017–18 Niklas Hult at SvFF Elite Prospects profile