Eurycea is a genus of salamanders native to North America. These salamanders are commonly referred to as brook salamanders, the genus Eurycea was first described by Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz in 1822, with a specimen of the spotted-tail salamander, Eurycea lucifuga, from Kentucky. The taxonomy of the genus is confusing, as many of the species within it are poorly studied and are only found in very restricted ranges. Several species have even been described several times by different researchers, a recent taxonomic revision moved the Georgia blind salamander to this genus, which makes Haideotriton a synonym of Eurycea. Most species are very isolated localities, so bear the name of the place the first specimen was found. This genus is composed of these 27 species, Darrel R.2007, amphibian Species of the World, an Online Reference. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA, amphibiaWeb, Information on amphibian biology and conservation
Speleomantes, the European cave salamanders, is a genus of salamanders in the family Plethodontidae, commonly known as the lungless salamanders. It is one of two genera in the family to inhabit the Old World, with the remaining 250 or so species being found in North and this genus is endemic to Italy and a few nearby areas. Until recently, Speleomantes was combined with the salamander genus Hydromantes from the Sierra Nevada range of California. They lack lungs, respiration takes place through the skin, which must be kept moist, the head is broad and distinct with prominent eyes. There are characteristic deep nasolabial grooves between the nostrils and the edge of the lips, the tongue has a broad tip and is extensible, being shot forward to catch prey. The tail is short, less than half the length of the body, the toes often have blunt tips and are partially webbed. European cave salamanders are found not only in caverns but on the ground among leaf litter, usually near streams, in the open air these salamanders are nocturnal, emerging in wet weather to forage but retreating in dry weather into caves and crevices or hiding beneath stones or logs.
When underground they are active at any time of day and they are agile and can climb on rock outcrops or vertical cave walls, using their tails as props. The skin secretes toxic substances, which may deter predators, as may their habit of rolling their tail upwards, males are a little smaller than females. They mate on land after a courtship routine. The young emerge as adults about 2 cm without an intervening tadpole phase
Lexington, consolidated with Fayette County, is the second-largest city in Kentucky and the 61st largest in the United States. Known as the Horse Capital of the World, it is the heart of the states Bluegrass region, with a mayor-alderman form of government, it is one of two cities in Kentucky designated by the state as first-class, the other is the states largest city of Louisville. In the 2016 U. S. Census Estimate, the population was 318,449, anchoring a metropolitan area of 506,751 people. Lexington ranks tenth among US cities in college education rate, with 39. 5% of residents having at least a bachelors degree and this area of fertile soil and abundant wildlife was long occupied by varying tribes of Native Americans. European explorers began to trade with them but settlers did not come in force until the late 18th century, Lexington was founded by European Americans in June 1775, in what was considered Fincastle County, Virginia,17 years before Kentucky became a state. A party of frontiersmen, led by William McConnell, camped on the Middle Fork of Elkhorn Creek at the site of the present-day McConnell Springs, upon hearing of the colonists victory in the Battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19,1775, they named their campsite Lexington.
It was the first of what would be many American places to be named after the Massachusetts town, the risk of Indian attacks delayed permanent settlement for four years. In 1779, during the American Revolutionary War, Col. Robert Patterson and 25 companions came from Fort Harrod and they built cabins and a stockade, establishing a settlement known as Bryan Station. In 1780, Lexington was made the seat of Virginias newly organized Fayette County, colonists defended it against a British and allied Shawnee attack in 1782, during the last part of the American Revolutionary War. The town was chartered on May 6,1782, by an act of the Virginia General Assembly, the First African Baptist Church was founded c. 1790 by Peter Durrett, a Baptist preacher and slave held by Joseph Craig. Durrett helped guide The Travelling Church, a migration of several hundred pioneers led by the preacher Lewis Craig and Captain William Ellis from Orange County. It is the oldest black Baptist congregation in Kentucky and the third oldest in the United States, I would suppose it contains about five hundred dwelling houses, many of them elegant and three stories high.
The country around Lexington for many miles in every direction, is equal in beauty and fertility to anything the imagination can paint and is already in a state of cultivation. Residents have fondly continued to refer to Lexington as The Athens of the West since Espys poem dedicated to the city, in the early 19th century, planter John Wesley Hunt became the first millionaire west of the Alleghenies. London Ferrill, second preacher of First African Baptist, was one of three clergy who stayed in the city to serve the suffering victims, additional cholera outbreaks occurred in 1848–49 and the early 1850s. Cholera was spread by using contaminated water supplies, but its transmission was not understood in those years. Often the wealthier people would flee town for outlying areas to try to avoid the spread of disease, planters held slaves for use as field hands, laborers and domestic servants. In the city, slaves worked primarily as servants and artisans, although they worked with merchants, shippers
Texas blind salamander
The Texas blind salamander is a rare cave-dwelling troglobite amphibian native to San Marcos, Hays County, specifically the San Marcos Pool of the Edwards Aquifer. The salamander has blood-red external gills for absorbing oxygen from the water, the salamanders mature length is 13 cm. Its diet varies by what flows into its cave, including shrimp, snails. Specimens have been collected at seven localities in the Purgatory Creek system and along the San Marcos Fault near San Marcos and immature larvae are well-adapted for living in underground streams in caves, and many probably inhabit deep recesses that are not accessible to collectors. Specimens have been taken in deep pools with minimal current and nearly constant 21-22 °C temperatures, the first specimens of this species were collected in 1895 from a newly constructed well that drew water from 58 m below the surface. The time of breeding is poorly documented, dunn noted a specimen maintained in the laboratory laid a few eggs on March 15 and a specimen collected in early fall had the spermatheca packed with spermatozoa.
Very small juveniles have been throughout the year, suggesting a seasonal breeding pattern. Bechler observed one complete and two partial courtship bouts in captive specimens in which the female initiated courtship and the male remained passive initially, courtship begins when the female approaches the male and rubs her chin on his dorsum. The female may rub her cloaca on nearby rocks while rocking to, if the male does not respond, the female may nip the male along the sides or engage in kicking behavior in which gravel is scratched with the hind limbs. The female eventually straddles the tail of the male and rubs her snout above the tail base, the male responds by arching his pelvic region and fanning his tail between her legs. The female rubs her snout more rapidly over the base of the tail, the male may lead the female forward and repeat the same cycle while slowly vibrating the anterior third of the tail. The male eventually bends the body laterally and moves the tail laterally at an angle to the body while the female continues rubbing the base of the tail.
The male leads the female forward, bends his body into an S-shaped pattern and he next leads the female forward with the tail extended laterally until she picks up the spermatophore cap with her cloacal lips. The spermatophore consists of a white sperm cap over a clear. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology
Monte Albo cave salamander
The Monte Albo cave salamander or Stefanis salamander is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae, endemic to Sardinia. Its natural habitats are forests, rocky areas, caves. The preferred habitat often has a covering of damp moss. It reproduces through the development of a few terrestrial eggs It is threatened by habitat loss. Lecis, R. Andreone, F. Edgar, P. & Corti,2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Tennessee cave salamander
The Tennessee cave salamander is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae, endemic to the United States. Its natural habitats are streams in caves and it is threatened by habitat destruction. The Tennessee cave salamander inhabits the southern Cumberland Plateau in the Appalachian Mountains in the United States and its range includes south-central Tennessee, western North Carolina, northeastern Alabama, northwestern Alabama and northwestern Georgia. The salamander lives underground in cave systems, and is present in some systems as yet unexplored. The salamanders diet consists of amphipods and other aquatic invertebrates that live in caves. It occurs on sand, mud or rock, in streams, in rimstone pools and it prefers clear water without sediment. It is occasionally seen outside caves but it is thought that occurs when it has been accidentally washed out by floodwater. This means it remains in the state for all of its life. Paedomorphic individuals breed as larvae, but some continue to develop. G. palleucus lives in caves and is dependent on the quality of the water in the streams flow through them.
Threats it faces include pollution, flooding, increased water flow and this salamander is known from about two dozen sites but probably occurs in other cave systems. Its total area of occupancy is less than 2,000 km2, optomotor response and eye structure in the troglobitic salamander Gyrinophilus palleucus. NewScientist. com, Salamanders formed new species despite interbreeding Distribution and relative abundance of Tennessee cave salamanders with an emphasis on Tennessee populations
Johann Weikhard von Valvasor
He is known as a pioneer of study of karst phenomena. Valvasor was born in the town of Ljubljana, Duchy of Carniola, in the 16th century, It was Johann Baptist Valvasor who established the family Valvasor in the Duchy of Carniola in central Europe in a part of Austria that is now the Republic of Slovenia. In medieval Latin Valvasor or Valvasore held the meaning the carrier of the feud, in western Europe its use can be traced back to the 11th century. Neither the exact day nor the place of Valvasors birth are known. He was the child born to Bartholomäus and Anna Maria Freiin von Rauber. His godparents were Freiherr Konrad Ruess von Ruessenstein from the Strmol Castle, Valvasors father died when the boy was ten years old. His mother died when he was 16, at the time he was attending the Jesuit school in Ljubljana. Graduating in 1659 at the age of seventeen, he did not choose to continue his studies at a university and this journey lasted fourteen years and it even took him to northern Africa. During this period, he joined the army in the Austrian-Turkish War, shortly after marrying Anna Rosina Grafenweger in 1672, Valvasor acquired the Bogenšperk Castle near Litija, where he arranged a writing and printing workshop.
Valvasor spent a fortune on the publishing of his books, towards the end of his life, his debts forced him to sell Bogenšperk Castle, his vast library, Valvasor died in September 1693 in Krško. He recorded the first written document on vampires when he wrote on the legend of a vampire in Istria named Jure Grando, from 2009 until 2012, it was translated into Slovene by Doris, Primož and Božidar Debenjak. The initiator, project manager and technical editor of this publishing project was Tomaž Čeč. Valvasor was a pioneer of study of karst phenomena. org - Life and work of Johann Weichard Freiherr von Valvasor J. W. F
The grotto salamander — called the Ozark blind salamander — is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is now considered a member of the genus Eurycea, but was described as Typhlotriton speleus. It is endemic to the United States, specifically the karst regions beneath the Springfield and Salem Plateaus of the Ozark Mountains part of Arkansas, Kansas and its natural habitats are freshwater springs, inland karsts, and caves. It is not currently threatened, but vulnerable to changes in groundwater quality, the grotto salamander was discovered in 1891 on the Ozark Plateau, and described by Leonhard Hess Stejneger in 1892. This plateau remains the area in which grotto salamanders have been found. The larvae of this salamander are bold in coloration, brownish or purplish gray, adults can grow up to 13.5 cm and larvae tend to be between 10 and 30mm. They have a distinctive high tail fin and external gills, the larvae have functional eyes and may live outside of caves in brooks or streams.
The grotto salamander is the cave salamander which undergoes metamorphosis. The adult form is white, sometimes with traces of orange on its tail and sides. The grotto salamander is found in caves and caverns throughout the Ozarks and they are known from at least 120 individual sites in Arkansas,43 in Oklahoma and 25 in Missouri. As larvae the grotto salamander lives in springs and streams near cave entrances, as adults, They migrate deep into the caves themselves and live out their lives underground. They prefer waters between 5.5 and 16.5 °C, and feed on small, cave-dwelling invertebrates such as Gammarus, though they are known to eat guano as well
Supramonte cave salamander
The Supramonte cave salamander is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae, endemic to the island of Sardinia. Its natural habitats are forests, rocky areas, caves. It is threatened by habitat loss, andreone, F. Lecis, R. & Edgar, P.2004. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
A cave is a hollow place in the ground, specifically a natural underground space large enough for a human to enter. Caves form naturally by the weathering of rock and often extend deep underground, the word cave can refer to much smaller openings such as sea caves, rock shelters, and grottos. A cavern is a type of cave, naturally formed in soluble rock with the ability to grow speleothems. Speleology is the science of exploration and study of all aspects of caves, visiting or exploring caves for recreation may be called caving, potholing, or spelunking. The formation and development of caves is known as speleogenesis, which can occur over the course of millions of years, caves are formed by various geologic processes and can be variable sizes. These may involve a combination of processes, erosion from water, tectonic forces, pressure. Isotopic dating techniques can be applied to cave sediments, in order to determine the timescale when geologic events may have occurred to help form and it is estimated that the maximum depth of a cave cannot be more than 3,000 metres due to the pressure of overlying rocks.
For karst caves the maximum depth is determined on the basis of the limit of karst forming processes. Most caves are formed in limestone by dissolution, solutional caves or karst caves are the most frequently occurring caves and such caves form in rock that is soluble. Most occur in limestone, but they can form in other rocks including chalk, marble, salt. Rock is dissolved by acid in groundwater that seeps through bedding planes, joints. Over geological epochs cracks expand to become caves and cave systems, the largest and most abundant solutional caves are located in limestone. Limestone dissolves under the action of rainwater and groundwater charged with H2CO3, the dissolution process produces a distinctive landform known as karst, characterized by sinkholes and underground drainage. Limestone caves are often adorned with calcium carbonate formations produced through slow precipitation and these include flowstones, stalagmites, soda straws and columns. These secondary mineral deposits in caves are called speleothems, the portions of a solutional cave that are below the water table or the local level of the groundwater will be flooded.
Lechuguilla Cave in New Mexico and nearby Carlsbad Cavern are now believed to be examples of type of solutional cave. They were formed by H2S gas rising from below, where reservoirs of oil give off sulfurous fumes and this gas mixes with ground water and forms H2SO4. The acid dissolves the limestone from below, rather than from above, caves formed at the same time as the surrounding rock are called primary caves