Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria. They first appeared during the Triassic period, between 243 and 233.23 million years ago, although the exact origin and timing of the evolution of dinosaurs is the subject of active research. They became the dominant terrestrial vertebrates after the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event 201 million years ago. Reverse genetic engineering and the fossil record both demonstrate that birds are modern feathered dinosaurs, having evolved from earlier theropods during the late Jurassic Period; as such, birds were the only dinosaur lineage to survive the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event 66 million years ago. Dinosaurs can therefore be divided into birds; this article deals with non-avian dinosaurs. Dinosaurs are a varied group of animals from taxonomic and ecological standpoints. Birds, at over 10,000 living species, are the most diverse group of vertebrates besides perciform fish. Using fossil evidence, paleontologists have identified over 500 distinct genera and more than 1,000 different species of non-avian dinosaurs.
Dinosaurs are represented on every continent by fossil remains. Through the first half of the 20th century, before birds were recognized to be dinosaurs, most of the scientific community believed dinosaurs to have been sluggish and cold-blooded. Most research conducted since the 1970s, has indicated that all dinosaurs were active animals with elevated metabolisms and numerous adaptations for social interaction; some were herbivorous, others carnivorous. Evidence suggests that egg-laying and nest-building are additional traits shared by all dinosaurs and non-avian alike. While dinosaurs were ancestrally bipedal, many extinct groups included quadrupedal species, some were able to shift between these stances. Elaborate display structures such as horns or crests are common to all dinosaur groups, some extinct groups developed skeletal modifications such as bony armor and spines. While the dinosaurs' modern-day surviving avian lineage are small due to the constraints of flight, many prehistoric dinosaurs were large-bodied—the largest sauropod dinosaurs are estimated to have reached lengths of 39.7 meters and heights of 18 meters and were the largest land animals of all time.
Still, the idea that non-avian dinosaurs were uniformly gigantic is a misconception based in part on preservation bias, as large, sturdy bones are more to last until they are fossilized. Many dinosaurs were quite small: Xixianykus, for example, was only about 50 cm long. Since the first dinosaur fossils were recognized in the early 19th century, mounted fossil dinosaur skeletons have been major attractions at museums around the world, dinosaurs have become an enduring part of world culture; the large sizes of some dinosaur groups, as well as their monstrous and fantastic nature, have ensured dinosaurs' regular appearance in best-selling books and films, such as Jurassic Park. Persistent public enthusiasm for the animals has resulted in significant funding for dinosaur science, new discoveries are covered by the media; the taxon'Dinosauria' was formally named in 1841 by paleontologist Sir Richard Owen, who used it to refer to the "distinct tribe or sub-order of Saurian Reptiles" that were being recognized in England and around the world.
The term is derived from Ancient Greek δεινός, meaning'terrible, potent or fearfully great', σαῦρος, meaning'lizard or reptile'. Though the taxonomic name has been interpreted as a reference to dinosaurs' teeth and other fearsome characteristics, Owen intended it to evoke their size and majesty. Other prehistoric animals, including pterosaurs, ichthyosaurs and Dimetrodon, while popularly conceived of as dinosaurs, are not taxonomically classified as dinosaurs. Pterosaurs are distantly related to dinosaurs; the other groups mentioned are, like dinosaurs and pterosaurs, members of Sauropsida, except Dimetrodon. Under phylogenetic nomenclature, dinosaurs are defined as the group consisting of the most recent common ancestor of Triceratops and Neornithes, all its descendants, it has been suggested that Dinosauria be defined with respect to the MRCA of Megalosaurus and Iguanodon, because these were two of the three genera cited by Richard Owen when he recognized the Dinosauria. Both definitions result in the same set of animals being defined as dinosaurs: "Dinosauria = Ornithischia + Saurischia", encompassing ankylosaurians, ceratopsians, ornithopods and sauropodomorphs.
Birds are now recognized as being the sole surviving lineage of theropod dinosaurs. In traditional taxonomy, birds were considered a separate class that had evolved from dinosaurs, a distinct superorder. However, a majority of contemporary paleontologists concerned with dinosaurs reject the traditional style of classification in favor of phylogenetic taxonomy. Birds are thus considered to be dinosaurs and dinosaurs are, not extinct. Birds are classified as belonging to the subgroup M
The brown bear is a bear, found across much of northern Eurasia and North America. In North America the population of brown bears are called grizzly bears, it is one of the largest living terrestrial members of the order Carnivora, rivaled in size only by its closest relative, the polar bear, much less variable in size and larger on average. The brown bear's principal range includes parts of Russia, Central Asia, Canada, the United States and the Carpathian region Romania and the Caucasus; the brown bear is recognized as a national and state animal in several European countries. While the brown bear's range has shrunk and it has faced local extinctions, it remains listed as a least concern species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature with a total population of 200,000; as of 2012, this and the American black bear are the only bear species not classified as threatened by the IUCN. However, the California, North African and Mexican subspecies were hunted to extinction in the 19th and early 20th centuries and many of the southern Asian subspecies are endangered.
One of the smaller-bodied subspecies, the Himalayan brown bear, is critically endangered, occupying only 2% of its former range and threatened by uncontrolled poaching for its body parts. The Marsican brown bear of central Italy is one of several isolated populations of the Eurasian brown bear, believed to have a population of just 40 to 50 bears; the brown bear is sometimes referred to from Middle English. This name originated in the fable, History of Reynard the Fox, translated by William Caxton, from Middle Dutch bruun or bruyn, meaning brown. In the mid-19th century United States, the brown bear was termed "Old Ephraim" and sometimes as "Moccasin Joe"; the scientific name of the brown bear, Ursus arctos, comes from the Latin "ursus", meaning "bear", Άρκτος "arctos", from the Greek word for bear. Brown bears are thought to have evolved from Ursus etruscus in Asia; the brown bear, per Kurten, has been stated as "clearly derived from the Asian population of Ursus savini about 800,000 years ago.
A genetic analysis indicated that the brown bear lineage diverged from the cave bear species complex 1.2–1.4 million years ago, but did not clarify if U. savini persisted as a paraspecies for the brown bear before perishing. The oldest fossils positively identified as from this species occur in China from about 0.5 million years ago. Brown bears entered North Africa shortly after. Brown bear remains from the Pleistocene period are common in the British Isles, where it is thought they might have outcompeted giant cave bears; the species entered Alaska 100,000 years ago. It is speculated that brown bears were unable to migrate south until the extinction of the much larger giant short-faced bear. Several paleontologists suggest the possibility of two separate brown bear migrations: inland brown bears known as grizzlies, are thought to stem from narrow-skulled bears which migrated from northern Siberia to central Alaska and the rest of the continent, while Kodiak bears descend from broad-skulled bears from Kamchatka, which colonized the Alaskan peninsula.
Brown bear fossils discovered in Ontario, Ohio and Labrador show the species occurred farther east than indicated in historic records. In North America, two types of the subspecies Ursus arctos horribilis are recognized—the coastal brown bear and the inland grizzly bear. There are many methods used by scientists to define bear species and subspecies as no one method is always effective. Brown bear taxonomy and subspecies classification has been described as "formidable and confusing" with few authorities listing the same specific set of subspecies. Genetic testing is now the most important way to scientifically define brown bear relationships and names. Genetic testing uses the word clade rather than species because a genetic test alone cannot define a biological species. Most genetic studies report on how related the bears are. There are hundreds of obsolete brown bear subspecies, each with its own name, this can become confusing. However, recent DNA analysis has identified as few as five main clades which contain all extant brown bears, while a 2017 phylogenetic study revealed nine clades, including one representing polar bears.
As of 2005, 15 extant or extinct subspecies were recognized by the general scientific community. As well as the exact number of overall brown bear subspecies, its precise relationship to the polar bear remains in debate; the polar bear is a recent offshoot of the brown bear. The point at which the polar bear diverged from the brown bear is unclear, with estimations based on genetics and fossils ranging from 400,000 to 70,000 years ago, but most recent analysis has indicated that the polar bear split somewhere between 250,000 and 130,000 years ago. Under some definitions, the brown bear can be construed as the paraspecies for the polar bear. DNA analysis shows that, apart from recent human-caused population fragmentation, brown bears in North America are part of a single interconnected population system, with the exception of the population in the Kodiak Archipelago, isolated since the end of the last ice age; these data demonstrate that U. a. gyas, U. a. horribilis, U. a. sitkensis and U. a. stikeene
Carl Linnaeus known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, was a Swedish botanist and zoologist who formalised binomial nomenclature, the modern system of naming organisms. He is known as the "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin, his name is rendered in Latin as Carolus Linnæus. Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland in southern Sweden, he received most of his higher education at Uppsala University and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and published the first edition of his Systema Naturae in the Netherlands, he returned to Sweden where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala. In the 1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants and animals. In the 1750s and 1760s, he continued to collect and classify animals and minerals, while publishing several volumes, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe at the time of his death. Philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau sent him the message: "Tell him I know no greater man on earth."
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote: "With the exception of Shakespeare and Spinoza, I know no one among the no longer living who has influenced me more strongly." Swedish author August Strindberg wrote: "Linnaeus was in reality a poet who happened to become a naturalist." Linnaeus has been called Princeps botanicorum and "The Pliny of the North". He is considered as one of the founders of modern ecology. In botany and zoology, the abbreviation L. is used to indicate Linnaeus as the authority for a species' name. In older publications, the abbreviation "Linn." is found. Linnaeus's remains comprise the type specimen for the species Homo sapiens following the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, since the sole specimen that he is known to have examined was himself. Linnaeus was born in the village of Råshult in Småland, Sweden, on 23 May 1707, he was the first child of Christina Brodersonia. His siblings were Anna Maria Linnæa, Sofia Juliana Linnæa, Samuel Linnæus, Emerentia Linnæa, his father taught him Latin as a small child.
One of a long line of peasants and priests, Nils was an amateur botanist, a Lutheran minister, the curate of the small village of Stenbrohult in Småland. Christina was the daughter of the rector of Samuel Brodersonius. A year after Linnaeus's birth, his grandfather Samuel Brodersonius died, his father Nils became the rector of Stenbrohult; the family moved into the rectory from the curate's house. In his early years, Linnaeus seemed to have a liking for plants, flowers in particular. Whenever he was upset, he was given a flower, which calmed him. Nils spent much time in his garden and showed flowers to Linnaeus and told him their names. Soon Linnaeus was given his own patch of earth. Carl's father was the first in his ancestry to adopt a permanent surname. Before that, ancestors had used the patronymic naming system of Scandinavian countries: his father was named Ingemarsson after his father Ingemar Bengtsson; when Nils was admitted to the University of Lund, he had to take on a family name. He adopted the Latinate name Linnæus after a giant linden tree, lind in Swedish, that grew on the family homestead.
This name was spelled with the æ ligature. When Carl was born, he was named Carl Linnæus, with his father's family name; the son always spelled it with the æ ligature, both in handwritten documents and in publications. Carl's patronymic would have been Nilsson, as in Carl Nilsson Linnæus. Linnaeus's father began teaching him basic Latin and geography at an early age; when Linnaeus was seven, Nils decided to hire a tutor for him. The parents picked a son of a local yeoman. Linnaeus did not like him, writing in his autobiography that Telander "was better calculated to extinguish a child's talents than develop them". Two years after his tutoring had begun, he was sent to the Lower Grammar School at Växjö in 1717. Linnaeus studied going to the countryside to look for plants, he reached the last year of the Lower School when he was fifteen, taught by the headmaster, Daniel Lannerus, interested in botany. Lannerus gave him the run of his garden, he introduced him to Johan Rothman, the state doctor of Småland and a teacher at Katedralskolan in Växjö.
A botanist, Rothman broadened Linnaeus's interest in botany and helped him develop an interest in medicine. By the age of 17, Linnaeus had become well acquainted with the existing botanical literature, he remarks in his journal that he "read day and night, knowing like the back of my hand, Arvidh Månsson's Rydaholm Book of Herbs, Tillandz's Flora Åboensis, Palmberg's Serta Florea Suecana, Bromelii Chloros Gothica and Rudbeckii Hortus Upsaliensis...."Linnaeus entered the Växjö Katedralskola in 1724, where he studied Greek, Hebrew and mathematics, a curriculum designed for boys preparing for the priesthood. In the last year at the gymnasium, Linnaeus's father visited to ask the professors how his son's studies were progressing. Rothman believed otherwise; the doctor offered to have Linnaeus live with his family in Växjö and to teach him physiology and botany. Nils accepted this offer. Rothman showed Linnaeus that botany was a serious sub
The Mousterian is a techno-complex of flint lithic tools associated with the earliest anatomically modern humans in North Africa and West Asia, as well as with the Neanderthals in Europe. The Mousterian defines the latter part of the Middle Paleolithic, the middle of the West Eurasian Old Stone Age, it lasted from 160,000 to 40,000 BP. If its predecessor, known as Levallois or "Levallois-Mousterian" is included, the range is extended to as early as c. 300,000–200,000 BP. The culture was named after the type site of Le Moustier, three superimposed rock shelters in the Dordogne region of France. Similar flintwork has been found all over unglaciated Europe and the Near East and North Africa. Handaxes and points constitute the industry; the European Mousterian is the product of Neanderthals. It existed from 160,000 to 40,000 BP; some assemblages, namely those from Pech de l'Aze, include exceptionally small points prepared using the Levallois technique among other prepared core types, causing some researchers to suggest that these flakes take advantage of greater grip strength possessed by Neanderthals.
In North Africa and the Near East, Mousterian tools were produced by anatomically modern humans. In the Levant, for example, assemblages produced by Neanderthals are indistinguishable from those made by Qafzeh type modern humans; the Mousterian industry in North Africa is estimated to be 315,000 years old. Possible variants are Denticulate, Charentian named after the Charente region and the Acheulean Tradition - Type-A and Type-B; the industry continued alongside the new Châtelperronian industry during the 45,000-40,000 BP period. Mousterian artifacts have been found in Haua Fteah in Cyrenaica and other sites in Northwest Africa, as well as in Bambata cave, Zimbabwe, in Southern Africa. Contained within a cave in the Syria region, along with a Neanderthaloid skeleton. Located in the Haibak valley of Afghanistan. Zagros and Central Iran The archaeological site of Atapuerca, contains Mousterian objects. Gorham's Cave in Gibraltar contains Mousterian objects. Uzbekistan has sites including Teshik-Tash.
Turkmenistan has Mousterian relics. Siberia has many sites with eg Denisova Cave. Israel is one of the places where remains of both Neandertals and Homo sapiens sapiens have been found in association with Mousterian artifacts. Lynford Quarry near near Mundford, England has yielded Mousterian tools The archaeological cave site of Azykh contains Mousterian relics in the overlying strata. In this cave low jaw of hominid named “Azykhantrop” has been found, it is supposed that this finding belongs to “pre-neanderthal” species Neanderthal extinction hypotheses Levallois technique Neanderthals’ Last Stand Is Traced — New York Times article
A club is among the simplest of all weapons: a short staff or stick made of wood, wielded as a weapon since prehistoric times. There are several examples of blunt-force trauma caused by clubs in the past, including at the site of Nataruk in Turkana, described as the scene of a prehistoric conflict between bands of hunter-gatherers 10,000 years ago. In popular culture, clubs are associated with primitive cultures cavemen. Most clubs are small enough to be swung with one hand, although larger clubs may require the use of two to be effective. Various specialized clubs are used in martial arts and other fields, including the law-enforcement baton; the military mace is a more sophisticated descendant of the club made of metal and featuring a spiked, knobbed, or flanged head attached to a shaft. The wounds inflicted by a club are known as strike trauma or blunt-force trauma injuries. Police forces and their predecessors have traditionally favored the use, whenever possible, of less-lethal weapons than guns or blades.
Until recent times, when alternatives such as tasers and capsicum spray became available, this category of policing weapon has been filled by some form of wooden club variously termed a truncheon, nightstick, or lathi. Short, flexible clubs are often used by plainclothes officers who need to avoid notice; these are known colloquially as saps, or coshes. They are used in olden ages of the Philippines to punish citizens. Conversely, criminals have been known to arm themselves with an array of homemade or improvised clubs of concealable sizes, or which can be explained as being carried for legitimate purposes. In addition, Shaolin monks and members of other religious orders around the world have employed cudgels from time to time as defensive weapons. Though the simplest of all weapons, there are many varieties of club, including: For other types see Baton. Aklys – a club with an integrated leather thong, used to return it to the hand after snapping it at an opponent. Used by the legions of the Roman Empire.
Ball club – These clubs were used by the Native Americans. There are two types; these consisted of a free-moving head of rounded stone or wood attached to a wooden handle. Baseball, cricket and T-ball bats – The baseball bat is used as an improvised weapon, much like the pickaxe handle. In countries where baseball is not played, baseball bats are first thought of as weapons. Tee ball bats are used in this manner, their smaller size and lighter weight make the bat easier to handle in one hand than a baseball bat. Baton Blackjack: see cosh. Clava – a traditional stone hand-club used by Mapuche Indians in Chile, featuring a long flat body. In Spanish, it is known as clava cefalomorfa, it has some ritual importance as a special sign of distinction carried by the tribal chief. Cosh: A weapon made of covered metal similar to a blackjack. Any of various sorts of blunt instrument such as bludgeon, truncheon or the like. Cudgel – A stout stick carried by peasants during the Middle Ages, it functioned as a weapon for both self-defence and wartime.
Regiments of clubmen were raised as late as the English Civil War. The cudgel is known as the singlestick. Crowbar – The crowbar is a used improvised weapon, though some examples are too large to be wielded with a single hand, therefore should be classified as staves. Flashlight – A large metal flashlight, such as a Maglite, can make a effective improvised club. Though not classified as a weapon, it is carried for self-defense by security guards and civilians in countries where carrying weapons is restricted. Gunstock war club – The wooden stocks of firearms introduced during the European colonization of the Americas were re-used by First Nations as improvised weapons. Regardless, the gunstock is an essential part of firearms, but it was stylized as a war club made famous by the American Indians as the gunstock war club. Another more modern variation of this kind of war club is the combat skill of bayonet usage. Without a knife or blade type attachment, the rifle's body itself is used for close-quarters combat.
Jutte – One of the more distinctive weapons of the samurai police was the jutte. An iron rod, the jutte was popular because it could parry and disarm a sword-wielding assailant without serious injury. A single hook on the side near the handle allowed the jutte to be used for trapping or breaking the blades of edged weapons, as well as for jabbing and striking; the hook could be used to entangle the clothes or fingers of an opponent. Thus, feudal Japanese police used the jutte to arrest subjects without serious bloodshed; the jutte came to be considered a symbol of official status. Kanabō – Various types of different-sized Japanese clubs made of wood and or iron with iron spikes or studs. First used by the Samurai. Kiyoga, a spring baton similar in concept to the Asp collapsible police baton, but with the center section made of a heavy duty steel spring; the tip and first section slide into the spring, the whole nests into a seven-inch handle. To deploy the kiyoga, all, necessary is to grasp the handle and swing.
10th edition of Systema Naturae
The 10th edition of Systema Naturae is a book written by Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus and published in two volumes in 1758 and 1759, which marks the starting point of zoological nomenclature. In it, Linnaeus introduced binomial nomenclature for animals, something he had done for plants in his 1753 publication of Species Plantarum. Before 1758, most biological catalogues had used polynomial names for the taxa included, including earlier editions of Systema Naturae; the first work to apply binomial nomenclature across the animal kingdom was the 10th edition of Systema Naturae. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature therefore chose 1 January 1758 as the "starting point" for zoological nomenclature, asserted that the 10th edition of Systema Naturae was to be treated as if published on that date. Names published before that date are unavailable if they would otherwise satisfy the rules; the only work which takes priority over the 10th edition is Carl Alexander Clerck's Svenska Spindlar or Aranei Suecici, published in 1757, but is to be treated as if published on January 1, 1758.
During Linnaeus' lifetime, Systema Naturae was under continuous revision. Progress was incorporated into ever-expanding editions; the Animal Kingdom: Animals enjoy sensation by means of a living organization, animated by a medullary substance. They have members for the different purposes of life, they all originate from an egg. Their external and internal structure; the list has been broken down into the original six classes Linnaeus described for animals. These classes were created by studying the internal anatomy, as seen in his key: Heart with 2 auricles, 2 ventricles. Warm, red blood Viviparous: Mammalia Oviparous: Aves Heart with 1 auricle, 1 ventricle. Cold, red blood Lungs voluntary: Amphibia External gills: Pisces Heart with 1 auricle, 0 ventricles. Cold, pus-like blood Have antennae: Insecta Have tentacles: VermesBy current standards Pisces and Vermes are informal groupings, Insecta contained arachnids and crustaceans, one order of Amphibia comprised sharks and sturgeons. Linnaeus described mammals as: Animals.
In external and internal structure they resemble man: most of them are quadrupeds. The largest, though fewest in number, inhabit the ocean. Linnaeus divided the mammals based upon the number and structure of their teeth, into the following orders and genera: Primates: Homo, Lemur & Vespertilio Bruta: Elephas, Bradypus, Myrmecophaga & Manis Ferae: Phoca, Felis, Mustela & Ursus Bestiae: Sus, Erinaceus, Sorex & Didelphis Glires: Rhinoceros, Lepus, Mus & Sciurus Pecora: Camelus, Cervus, Ovis & Bos Belluae: Equus & Hippopotamus Cete: Monodon, Physeter & Delphinus Linnaeus described birds as: A beautiful and cheerful portion of created nature consisting of animals having a body covered with feathers and down, they are areal, vocal and light, destitute of external ears, teeth, womb, epiglottis, corpus callosum and its arch, diaphragm. Linnaeus divided the birds based upon the characters of the bill and feet, into the following 6 orders and 63 genera: Accipitres: Vultur, Strix & Lanius Picae: Psittacus, Buceros, Corvus, Gracula, Cuculus, Picus, Alcedo, Upupa, Certhia & Trochilus Anseres: Anas, Alca, Diomedea, Phaethon, Larus, Sterna & Rhyncops Grallae: Phoenicopterus, Mycteria & Tantulus, Scolopax, Charadrius, Haematopus, Rallus, Otis & Struthio Gallinae: Pavo, Crax, Phasianus & Tetrao Passeres: Columba, Sturnus, Loxia (cardina
Minute Maid is a product line of beverages associated with lemonade or orange juice, but which now extends to soft drinks of many kinds, including Hi-C. Minute Maid is sold under the Cappy brand in Central Europe and under the brand "Моя Семья" in Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States. Minute Maid was the first company to market orange juice concentrate, allowing it to be distributed throughout the United States and served year-round; the Minute Maid Company is owned by The Coca-Cola Company, the world's largest marketer of fruit juices and drinks. The firm opened its headquarters in Sugar Land Town Square in Sugar Land, United States, on February 16, 2009; the company was incorporated in 1945 as Florida Foods, Inc. It has over $2 billion in sales. In 1945, the National Research Corporation of Boston, developed a method of concentrating orange juice into a powder using a high-vacuum evaporation process developed for dehydrating medical products for use in the U. S. war effort. The US Army had a need for 500,000 lb for the war, so NRC created a new branch, the Florida Foods Corporation.
Led by John M. Fox, the company won the government contract for $750,000; the war ended and the contract was canceled before the factory could be built, but with investment, the company moved forward with a product. Rather than selling powder to the public market, the company decided to create frozen orange juice concentrate, using a process that eliminated 80 percent of the water in orange juice. A Boston marketing firm came up with the name Minute Maid, implying the juice was quick and easy to prepare; the first shipment took place in April 1946. The same month, the company was renamed Vacuum Foods Corporation. With limited funds for advertising, Fox himself went door to door giving free samples, until demand skyrocketed. In October, 1948, TIME magazine announced that entertainer Bing Crosby was to employ a 5-day a week radio show to promote Minute Maid; the magazine article gave further details. "Minute Maid got into the field at a new $2,300,000 plant in Plymouth, Fla.. With little cash to advertise, it lost $450,262 the first two years.
Last year it turned the corner. Says Vacuum’s President John M. Fox: “Why, this orange juice thing is the wonder of the grocery world. Ask anybody.” Anybody in the frozen food industry agreed—and Birds Eye, Snow Crop and others began to put out their own concentrate. Vacuum’s sales increased so much that President Fox announced last week that the net profit for its last fiscal year was $179,865. Demand is so great, said Fox, that Vacuum has had to allocate shipments and is thinking of setting up a California plant; the shortage temporarily takes some of the bloom off the Crosby deal. But Vacuum hopes to step up output enough to fill the new orders, and in the scramble for the new market, Vacuum figures that Crosby is just the Pied Piper needed to lure customers away from the old brand names."The Crosby radio show ran until October 1950 and the ability to purchase fresh-tasting orange juice at any time of year, far from where oranges are grown, proved popular, led to the company's national success.
In October 1949, the company adopted the name Minute Maid Corp. In late 1954, Minute Maid purchased rival Snow Crop; the Minute Maid company was purchased by Coca-Cola in 1960. In 1967, Minute Maid relocated to Houston, is joined with Duncan Foods to form the Coca-Cola Foods division. In 1970, the company was involved in a scandal in the United States about bad housing referred to as "slave quarters," and working conditions of Minute Maid farm laborers in Florida; the United Farm Workers stepped in to support the workers. NBC reported on the issue in a 1970 documentary called Chet Huntley's Migrant: An NBC White Paper. In response to the bad press and a boycott in Florida, the company established a program that improved the workers' situation. In 1973, the company released its first ready-to-drink, chilled orange juice product in the United States, entering an "orange juice war" with Tropicana. In 1996, the name was changed from Minute Maid Corp. to The Minute Maid Company. The Coca-Cola Company sold its Minute Maid orange groves in Florida in 1997.
The United Farm Workers again took the side of the orange growers during this time. In 2001, the Minute Maid division of Coca-Cola launched the Simply Orange brand. In 2002, Minute Maid bought the naming rights to re-brand the Houston Astros ballpark from Enron Field to Minute Maid Park. In 2003, Minute Maid's division merged with Coca-Cola North America. Minute Maid is marketed under the brand Cepita del Valle. Apple, Homemade Apple, Homemade Orange, Nutridefensas Apple, Nutridefensas Orange, Peach, Pineapple Aquarius Apple, Grapefruit, Multifruta, Pear, Pink Grapefruit Slightly Sparkling Aquarius Zero Calories Citrus, Zero Calories Lemonade, Zero Calories Pear Aquarius Zero Apple, Lemonade, Orange Minute Maid Mais - Del ValleApple, Cashew Mango, Guava, Orange, Passion fruit, Homemade Orange Minute Maid 100% Juice Pure Squeezed Orange Juice, Pulp Free Pure Squeezed Orange Juice, Home Squeezed Style Orange Juice, Original Orange Juice, Pulp Free Orange Juice, Low Acid Orange Juice, Apple Juice, Apple Grape, Grapefruit Juice, Fruit Blend, Tropical Orange, Mixed Berry Fortified Juices Original Orange Juice with Calcium and Vitamin D, Orange Tangerine with Calcium and Vitamin D Juice Drinks Fruit Punch, Berry Punch, Cranberry Punch, Grape Punch, Mango Punch, Orange Guava Punch, Peach Punch, Raspberry Punc