Sir William Lawrence Bragg, was an Australian-born British physicist and X-ray crystallographer, discoverer of Bragg's law of X-ray diffraction, basic for the determination of crystal structure. He was joint winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1915: "For their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-ray", an important step in the development of X-ray crystallography. Bragg was knighted in 1941; as of 2018, he is the youngest Nobel laureate in physics, having received the award at the age of 25 years. Bragg was the director of the Cavendish Laboratory, when the discovery of the structure of DNA was reported by James D. Watson and Francis Crick in February 1953. Bragg was born in South Australia, he showed an early interest in mathematics. His father, William Henry Bragg, was Elder Professor of Mathematics and Physics at the University of Adelaide. Shortly after starting school, William Lawrence Bragg broke his arm, his father, who had read about Röntgen's experiments in Europe and was performing his own experiments, used the newly discovered X-rays and his experimental equipment to examine the broken arm.
This is the first recorded surgical use of X-rays in Australia. After beginning his studies at St Peter's College, Adelaide in 1905, Bragg went to the University of Adelaide at age 16 to study mathematics and physics, graduating in 1908. In the same year his father accepted the Cavendish chair of physics at the University of Leeds, brought the family to England. Bragg entered Trinity College, Cambridge in the autumn of 1909 and received a major scholarship in mathematics, despite taking the exam while in bed with pneumonia. After excelling in mathematics, he transferred to the physics course in the years of his studies, graduated with first class honours in 1911. In 1914 Bragg was elected to a Fellowship at Trinity College – a Fellowship at a Cambridge college involves the submission and defence of a thesis. Among Bragg's other interests was shell collecting, he discovered a new species of cuttlefish – Sepia braggi, named for him by Joseph Verco. The composition of X-rays was unknown, his father argued that X-rays are streams of particles, others argued that they are waves.
Max von Laue directed an X-ray beam at a crystal in front of a photographic plate. In 1912, as a first-year research student at Cambridge, W L Bragg, while strolling by the river, had the insight that crystals made from parallel sheets of atoms would not diffract X-ray beams that struck their surface at most angles because X-rays deflected by collisions with atoms would be out of phase, cancelling one another out. However, when the X-ray beam stuck at an angle at which the distances it passed between atomic sheets in the crystal equaled the X-ray's wavelength those deflected would be in phase and produce a spot on a nearby film. From this insight he wrote the simple Bragg equation that relates the wavelength of the X-ray and the distance between atomic sheets in a simple crystal to the angles at which an impinging X-ray beam would be reflected. Father built an apparatus in which a crystal could be rotated to precise angles while measuring the energy of reflections; this enabled father and son to measure the distances between the atomic sheets in a number of simple crystals.
They calculated the spacing of the atoms from the weight of the crystal and Avogadro's constant which enabled them to measure the wavelengths of the X-rays produced by different metallic targets in the X-ray tubes. W H Bragg reported their results at meetings and in a paper, giving credit to "his son" for the equation, but not as a co-author, which gave his son "some heartaches", which he never overcame. Bragg was commissioned early in the First World War in the Royal Horse Artillery as a second lieutenant of the Leicestershire battery. In 1915 he was seconded to the Royal Engineers to develop a method to localize enemy artillery from the boom of their firing. On 2 September 1915 his brother was killed during the Gallipoli Campaign. Shortly afterwards, he and his father were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics, he remains the youngest science laureate. The problem with sound ranging was that the heavy guns boomed at too low a frequency to be detected by a microphone. After months of frustrating failure he and his group devised a hot wire air wave detector that solved the problem.
In this work he was aided by Charles Galton Darwin, William Sansome Tucker, Harold Roper Robinson and Henry Harold Hemming. British sound ranging was effective. For his work during the war he was awarded the Military Cross and appointed Officer of the Order of the British Empire, he was Mentioned in Despatches on 16 June 1916, 4 January 1917 and 7 July 1919. Hot wire sound ranging was used in the Second World War, during which he served as a civilian adviser. Between the wars, from 1919 to 1937, he worked at the Victoria University of Manchester as Langworthy Professor of Physics, he became the director of the National Physical Laboratory in Teddington in 1937. After World War II, Bragg returned to Cambridge, splitting the Cavendish Laboratory into research groups, he believed that "the ideal research unit is one of six to twelve scientists and a few assistants". When demobilized he returned to crystallography at Cambridge, they had agreed that father would study organi
Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, HFRSE LLD, was a New Zealand-born British physicist who came to be known as the father of nuclear physics. Encyclopædia Britannica considers him to be the greatest experimentalist since Michael Faraday. In early work, Rutherford discovered the concept of radioactive half-life, the radioactive element radon, differentiated and named alpha and beta radiation; this work was performed at McGill University in Canada. It is the basis for the Nobel Prize in Chemistry he was awarded in 1908 "for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, the chemistry of radioactive substances", for which he was the first Canadian and Oceanian Nobel laureate. Rutherford moved in 1907 to the Victoria University of Manchester in the UK, where he and Thomas Royds proved that alpha radiation is helium nuclei. Rutherford performed his most famous work. In 1911, although he could not prove that it was positive or negative, he theorized that atoms have their charge concentrated in a small nucleus, thereby pioneered the Rutherford model of the atom, through his discovery and interpretation of Rutherford scattering by the gold foil experiment of Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden.
He conducted research that led to the first "splitting" of the atom in 1917 in a nuclear reaction between nitrogen and alpha particles, in which he discovered the proton. Rutherford became Director of the Cavendish Laboratory at the University of Cambridge in 1919. Under his leadership the neutron was discovered by James Chadwick in 1932 and in the same year the first experiment to split the nucleus in a controlled manner was performed by students working under his direction, John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton. After his death in 1937, he was honoured by being interred with the greatest scientists of the United Kingdom, near Sir Isaac Newton's tomb in Westminster Abbey; the chemical element rutherfordium was named after him in 1997. Ernest Rutherford was the son of James Rutherford, a farmer, his wife Martha Thompson from Hornchurch, England. James had emigrated to New Zealand from Perth, Scotland, "to raise a little flax and a lot of children". Ernest was born near Nelson, New Zealand, his first name was mistakenly spelled ` Earnest'.
Rutherford's mother Martha Thompson was a schoolteacher. He studied at Havelock School and Nelson College and won a scholarship to study at Canterbury College, University of New Zealand, where he participated in the debating society and played rugby. After gaining his BA, MA and BSc, doing two years of research during which he invented a new form of radio receiver, in 1895 Rutherford was awarded an 1851 Research Fellowship from the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851, to travel to England for postgraduate study at the Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, he was among the first of the'aliens' allowed to do research at the university, under the inspiring leadership of J. J. Thomson, which aroused jealousies from the more conservative members of the Cavendish fraternity. With Thomson's encouragement, he managed to detect radio waves at half a mile and held the world record for the distance over which electromagnetic waves could be detected, though when he presented his results at the British Association meeting in 1896, he discovered he had been outdone by another lecturer, by the name of Marconi.
In 1898, Thomson recommended Rutherford for a position at McGill University in Canada. He was to replace Hugh Longbourne Callendar who held the chair of Macdonald Professor of physics and was coming to Cambridge. Rutherford was accepted, which meant that in 1900 he could marry Mary Georgina Newton to whom he had become engaged before leaving New Zealand. In 1901, he gained a DSc from the University of New Zealand. In 1907, Rutherford returned to Britain to take the chair of physics at the Victoria University of Manchester, he was knighted in 1914. During World War I, he worked on a top secret project to solve the practical problems of submarine detection by sonar. In 1916, he was awarded the Hector Memorial Medal. In 1919, he returned to the Cavendish succeeding J. J. Thomson as the Cavendish professor and Director. Under him, Nobel Prizes were awarded to James Chadwick for discovering the neutron, John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton for an experiment, to be known as splitting the atom using a particle accelerator, Edward Appleton for demonstrating the existence of the ionosphere.
In 1925, Rutherford pushed calls to the Government of New Zealand to support education and research, which led to the formation of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research in the following year. Between 1925 and 1930, he served as President of the Royal Society, as president of the Academic Assistance Council which helped 1,000 university refugees from Germany, he was appointed to the Order of Merit in the 1925 New Year Honours and raised to the peerage as Baron Rutherford of Nelson, of Cambridge in the County of Cambridge in 1931, a title that became extinct upon his unexpected death in 1937. In 1933, Rutherford was one of the two inaugural recipients of the T. K. Sidey Medal, set up by the Royal Society of New Zealand as an award for outstanding scientific research. For some time before his death, Rutherford had a small hernia, which he had neglected to have fixed, it became strangulated, causing him to be violently ill. Despite an emergency operation in Lon
A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism
A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism is a two-volume treatise on electromagnetism written by James Clerk Maxwell in 1873. Maxwell was revising the Treatise for a second edition when he died in 1879; the revision was completed by William Davidson Niven for publication in 1881. A third edition was prepared by J. J. Thomson for publication in 1892. According to one historian, The Treatise was notoriously hard to read. Rather than expounding his own system, Maxwell had set out to write a comprehensive treatise on electrical science, so he had allowed his own new distinctive ideas, notably that of the displacement current, to be buried under long accounts of miscellaneous phenomena discussed from several points of view. Except for a fuller treatment of the Faraday effect, Maxwell added little to his earlier work on the electromagnetic theory of light. Maxwell introduced the use of vector fields, his labels have been perpetuated: A, B, C, D, E, F, H. Maxwell's work is considered an exemplar of rhetoric of science: Lagrange's equations appear in the Treatise as the culmination of a long series of rhetorical moves, including Green's theorem, Gauss's potential theory and Faraday's lines of force – all of which have prepared the reader for the Lagrangian vision of a natural world, whole and connected: a veritable sea change from Newton's vision.
Preliminary. On the Measurement of Quantities. PART I. Electrostatics. Description of Phenomena. Elementary Mathematical Theory of Electricity. On Electrical Work and Energy in a System of Conductors. General Theorems. Mechanical Action Between Two Electrical Systems. Points and Lines of Equilibrium. Forms of Equipotential Surfaces and Lines of Flow. Simple Cases of Electrification. Spherical Harmonics. Confocal Surfaces of the Second Degree. Theory of Electric Images. Conjugate Functions in Two Dimensions. Electrostatic Instruments. PART II. Electrokinematics; the Electric Current. Conduction and Resistance. Electromotive Force Between Bodies in Contact. Electrolysis. Electrolytic Polarization. Mathematical Theory of the Distribution of Electric Currents. Conduction in Three Dimensions. Resistance and Conductivity in Three Dimensions. Conduction through Heterogeneous Media. Conduction in Dielectrics. Measurement of the Electric Resistance of Conductors. Electric Resistance of Substances. PART III Magnetism Elementary Theory of Magnetism.
Magnetic Force and Magnetic Induction. Particular Forms of Magnets. Induced Magnetization. Magnetic Problems. Weber's Theory of Magnetic Induction. Magnetic Measurements. Terrestrial Magnetism. Part IV. Electromagnetism. Electromagnetic Force. Mutual Action of Electric Currents. Induction of Electric Currents. Induction of a Current on Itself. General Equations of Dynamics. Application of Dynamics to Electromagnetism. Electrokinetics. Exploration of the Field by means of the Secondary Circuit. General Equations. Dimensions of Electric Units. Energy and Stress. Current-Sheets. Parallel Currents. Circular Currents. Electromagnetic Instruments. Electromagnetic Observations. Electrical Measurement of Coefficients of Induction. Determination of Resistance in Electromagnetic Measure. Comparison of Electrostatic With Electromagnetic Units. Electromagnetic Theory of Light. Magnetic Action on Light. Electric Theory of Magnetism. Theories of Action at a distance. On April 24, 1873, Nature announced the publication with much praise.
When the second edition was published in 1881, George Chrystal wrote the review for Nature. Pierre Duhem published a critical essay outlining mistakes. Duhem's book was reviewed in Nature. Hermann von Helmholtz: "Now that the mathematical interpretations of Faraday's conceptions regarding the nature of electric and magnetic force has been given by Clerk Maxwell, we see how great a degree of exactness and precision was hidden behind Faraday's words…it is astonishing in the highest to see what a large number of general theories, the mechanical deduction of which requires the highest powers of mathematical analysis, he has found by a kind of intuition, with the security of instinct, without the help of a single mathematical formula."Oliver Heaviside:”What is Maxwell's theory? The first approximation is to say: There is Maxwell's book as he wrote it, but when we come to examine it we find that this answer is unsatisfactory. To begin with, it is sufficient to refer to papers by physicists, written say during the first twelve years following the first publication of Maxwell's treatise to see that there may be much difference of opinion as to what his theory is.
It may be, has been, differently interpreted by different men, a sign, not set forth in a clear and unmistakable form. There are some inconsistencies. Speaking for myself, it was only by changing its form of presentation that I was able to see it and so as to avoid the inconsistencies. Now there is no finality in a growing science, it is, impossible to adhere to Maxwell's theory as he gave it to the world, if only on account of its inconvenient form. Alexander Macfarlane: "This work has served as the starting point of many advances made in recent y
J. J. Thomson
Sir Joseph John Thomson was an English physicist and Nobel Laureate in Physics, credited with the discovery and identification of the electron, the first subatomic particle to be discovered. In 1897, Thomson showed that cathode rays were composed of unknown negatively charged particles, which he calculated must have bodies much smaller than atoms and a large charge-to-mass ratio. Thomson is credited with finding the first evidence for isotopes of a stable element in 1913, as part of his exploration into the composition of canal rays, his experiments to determine the nature of positively charged particles, with Francis William Aston, were the first use of mass spectrometry and led to the development of the mass spectrograph. Thomson was awarded the 1906 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the conduction of electricity in gases. Joseph John Thomson was born 18 December 1856 in Cheetham Hill, Lancashire, England, his mother, Emma Swindells, came from a local textile family. His father, Joseph James Thomson, ran.
He had a brother, Frederick Vernon Thomson, two years younger than he was. J. J. Thomson was a devout Anglican, his early education was in small private schools where he demonstrated outstanding talent and interest in science. In 1870, he was admitted to Owens College in Manchester at the unusually young age of 14, his parents planned to enroll him as an apprentice engineer to Sharp-Stewart & Co, a locomotive manufacturer, but these plans were cut short when his father died in 1873. He moved on to Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1876. In 1880, he obtained his Bachelor of Arts degree in mathematics, he applied for and became a Fellow of Trinity College in 1881. Thomson received his Master of Arts degree in 1883. In 1890, Thomson married Rose Elisabeth Paget, one of his former students, daughter of Sir George Edward Paget, KCB, a physician and Regius Professor of Physic at Cambridge at the church of St. Mary the Less, they had one son, George Paget Thomson, one daughter, Joan Paget Thomson. On 22 December 1884, Thomson was appointed Cavendish Professor of Physics at the University of Cambridge.
The appointment caused considerable surprise, given that candidates such as Osborne Reynolds or Richard Glazebrook were older and more experienced in laboratory work. Thomson was known for his work as a mathematician, he was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1906, "in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases." He was knighted in 1908 and appointed to the Order of Merit in 1912. In 1914, he gave the Romanes Lecture in Oxford on "The atomic theory". In 1918, he became Master of Trinity College, where he remained until his death. Joseph John Thomson died on 30 August 1940. One of Thomson's greatest contributions to modern science was in his role as a gifted teacher. One of his students was Ernest Rutherford, who succeeded him as Cavendish Professor of Physics. In addition to Thomson himself, six of his research assistants won Nobel Prizes in physics, two won Nobel prizes in chemistry. In addition, Thomson's son won the 1937 Nobel Prize in physics for proving the wave-like properties of electrons.
Thomson's prize-winning master's work, Treatise on the motion of vortex rings, shows his early interest in atomic structure. In it, Thomson mathematically described the motions of William Thomson's vortex theory of atoms. Thomson published a number of papers addressing both mathematical and experimental issues of electromagnetism, he examined the electromagnetic theory of light of James Clerk Maxwell, introduced the concept of electromagnetic mass of a charged particle, demonstrated that a moving charged body would increase in mass. Much of his work in mathematical modelling of chemical processes can be thought of as early computational chemistry. In further work, published in book form as Applications of dynamics to physics and chemistry, Thomson addressed the transformation of energy in mathematical and theoretical terms, suggesting that all energy might be kinetic, his next book, Notes on recent researches in electricity and magnetism, built upon Maxwell's Treatise upon electricity and magnetism, was sometimes referred to as "the third volume of Maxwell".
In it, Thomson emphasized physical methods and experimentation and included extensive figures and diagrams of apparatus, including a number for the passage of electricity through gases. His third book, Elements of the mathematical theory of electricity and magnetism was a readable introduction to a wide variety of subjects, achieved considerable popularity as a textbook. A series of four lectures, given by Thomson on a visit to Princeton University in 1896, were subsequently published as Discharge of electricity through gases. Thomson presented a series of six lectures at Yale University in 1904. Several scientists, such as William Prout and Norman Lockyer, had suggested that atoms were built up from a more fundamental unit, but they envisioned this unit to be the size of the smallest atom, hydrogen. Thomson in 1897 was the first to suggest that one of the fundamental units was more than 1,000 times smaller than an atom, suggesting th
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol e− or β−, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge. Electrons belong to the first generation of the lepton particle family, are thought to be elementary particles because they have no known components or substructure; the electron has a mass, 1/1836 that of the proton. Quantum mechanical properties of the electron include an intrinsic angular momentum of a half-integer value, expressed in units of the reduced Planck constant, ħ; as it is a fermion, no two electrons can occupy the same quantum state, in accordance with the Pauli exclusion principle. Like all elementary particles, electrons exhibit properties of both particles and waves: they can collide with other particles and can be diffracted like light; the wave properties of electrons are easier to observe with experiments than those of other particles like neutrons and protons because electrons have a lower mass and hence a longer de Broglie wavelength for a given energy. Electrons play an essential role in numerous physical phenomena, such as electricity, magnetism and thermal conductivity, they participate in gravitational and weak interactions.
Since an electron has charge, it has a surrounding electric field, if that electron is moving relative to an observer, it will generate a magnetic field. Electromagnetic fields produced from other sources will affect the motion of an electron according to the Lorentz force law. Electrons absorb energy in the form of photons when they are accelerated. Laboratory instruments are capable of trapping individual electrons as well as electron plasma by the use of electromagnetic fields. Special telescopes can detect electron plasma in outer space. Electrons are involved in many applications such as electronics, cathode ray tubes, electron microscopes, radiation therapy, gaseous ionization detectors and particle accelerators. Interactions involving electrons with other subatomic particles are of interest in fields such as chemistry and nuclear physics; the Coulomb force interaction between the positive protons within atomic nuclei and the negative electrons without, allows the composition of the two known as atoms.
Ionization or differences in the proportions of negative electrons versus positive nuclei changes the binding energy of an atomic system. The exchange or sharing of the electrons between two or more atoms is the main cause of chemical bonding. In 1838, British natural philosopher Richard Laming first hypothesized the concept of an indivisible quantity of electric charge to explain the chemical properties of atoms. Irish physicist George Johnstone Stoney named this charge'electron' in 1891, J. J. Thomson and his team of British physicists identified it as a particle in 1897. Electrons can participate in nuclear reactions, such as nucleosynthesis in stars, where they are known as beta particles. Electrons can be created through beta decay of radioactive isotopes and in high-energy collisions, for instance when cosmic rays enter the atmosphere; the antiparticle of the electron is called the positron. When an electron collides with a positron, both particles can be annihilated, producing gamma ray photons.
The ancient Greeks noticed. Along with lightning, this phenomenon is one of humanity's earliest recorded experiences with electricity. In his 1600 treatise De Magnete, the English scientist William Gilbert coined the New Latin term electrica, to refer to those substances with property similar to that of amber which attract small objects after being rubbed. Both electric and electricity are derived from the Latin ēlectrum, which came from the Greek word for amber, ἤλεκτρον. In the early 1700s, Francis Hauksbee and French chemist Charles François du Fay independently discovered what they believed were two kinds of frictional electricity—one generated from rubbing glass, the other from rubbing resin. From this, du Fay theorized that electricity consists of two electrical fluids and resinous, that are separated by friction, that neutralize each other when combined. American scientist Ebenezer Kinnersley also independently reached the same conclusion. A decade Benjamin Franklin proposed that electricity was not from different types of electrical fluid, but a single electrical fluid showing an excess or deficit.
He gave them the modern charge nomenclature of negative respectively. Franklin thought of the charge carrier as being positive, but he did not identify which situation was a surplus of the charge carrier, which situation was a deficit. Between 1838 and 1851, British natural philosopher Richard Laming developed the idea that an atom is composed of a core of matter surrounded by subatomic particles that had unit electric charges. Beginning in 1846, German physicist William Weber theorized that electricity was composed of positively and negatively charged fluids, their interaction was governed by the inverse square law. After studying the phenomenon of electrolysis in 1874, Irish physicist George Johnstone Stoney suggested that there existed a "single definite quantity of electricity", the charge of a monovalent ion, he was able to estimate the value of this elementary charge e by means of Faraday's laws of electrolysis. However, Stoney could not be removed. In 1881, German physicist Hermann von Helmholtz argued that both positive and negative charges were divided into elementary parts, each of which "behaves like atoms of electricity".
Stoney coined the term
University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 and granted a Royal Charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university; the university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople. The two'ancient universities' share many common features and are referred to jointly as'Oxbridge'; the history and influence of the University of Cambridge has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent Colleges and over 100 academic departments organised into six schools. Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world; the university operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, as well as a botanic garden.
Cambridge's libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, eight million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £1.965 billion, of which £515.5 million was from research grants and contracts. In the financial year ending 2017, the central university and colleges had combined net assets of around £11.8 billion, the largest of any university in the country. However, the true extent of Cambridge's wealth is much higher as many colleges hold their historic main sites, which date as far back as the 13th century, at depreceated valuations. Furthermore, many of the wealthiest colleges do not account for “heritage assets” such as works of art, libraries or artefacts, whose value many college accounts describe as “immaterial”; the university is linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as'Silicon Fen'. It is a member of numerous associations and forms part of the'golden triangle' of English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre.
As of 2018, Cambridge is the top-ranked university in the United Kingdom according to all major league tables. As of September 2017, Cambridge is ranked the world's second best university by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, is ranked 3rd worldwide by Academic Ranking of World Universities, 6th by QS, 7th by US News. According to the Times Higher Education ranking, no other institution in the world ranks in the top 10 for as many subjects; the university has educated many notable alumni, including eminent mathematicians, politicians, philosophers, writers and foreign Heads of State. As of March 2019, 118 Nobel Laureates, 11 Fields Medalists, 7 Turing Award winners and 15 British Prime Ministers have been affiliated with Cambridge as students, faculty or research staff. By the late 12th century, the Cambridge area had a scholarly and ecclesiastical reputation, due to monks from the nearby bishopric church of Ely. However, it was an incident at Oxford, most to have led to the establishment of the university: two Oxford scholars were hanged by the town authorities for the death of a woman, without consulting the ecclesiastical authorities, who would take precedence in such a case, but were at that time in conflict with King John.
The University of Oxford went into suspension in protest, most scholars moved to cities such as Paris and Cambridge. After the University of Oxford reformed several years enough scholars remained in Cambridge to form the nucleus of the new university. In order to claim precedence, it is common for Cambridge to trace its founding to the 1231 charter from King Henry III granting it the right to discipline its own members and an exemption from some taxes. A bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach "everywhere in Christendom". After Cambridge was described as a studium generale in a letter from Pope Nicholas IV in 1290, confirmed as such in a bull by Pope John XXII in 1318, it became common for researchers from other European medieval universities to visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses; the colleges at the University of Cambridge were an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself; the colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars.
There were institutions without endowments, called hostels. The hostels were absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some traces, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, Cambridge's first college, in 1284. Many colleges were founded during the 14th and 15th centuries, but colleges continued to be established until modern times, although there was a gap of 204 years between the founding of Sidney Sussex in 1596 and that of Downing in 1800; the most established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s. However, Homerton College only achieved full university college status in March 2010, making it the newest full college. In medieval times, many colleges were founded so that their members would pray for the souls of the founders, were associated with chapels or abbeys; the colleges' focus changed in 1536 with the Dissolution of the Monasteries. King Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon Law and to stop teaching "scholastic philosophy".
In response, colleges changed
John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh
John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, was a British scientist who made extensive contributions to both theoretical and experimental physics. He spent all of his academic career at the University of Cambridge. Among many honours, he received the 1904 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies." He served as President of the Royal Society from 1905 to 1908 and as Chancellor of the University of Cambridge from 1908 to 1919. Rayleigh provided the first theoretical treatment of the elastic scattering of light by particles much smaller than the light's wavelength, a phenomenon now known as "Rayleigh scattering", which notably explains why the sky is blue, he studied and described transverse surface waves in solids, now known as "Rayleigh waves". He contributed extensively to fluid dynamics, with concepts such as the Rayleigh number, Rayleigh flow, the Rayleigh–Taylor instability, Rayleigh's criterion for the stability of Taylor–Couette flow.
He formulated the circulation theory of aerodynamic lift. In optics, Rayleigh proposed a well known criterion for angular resolution, his derivation of the Rayleigh–Jeans law for classical black-body radiation played an important role in birth of quantum mechanics. Rayleigh's textbook The Theory of Sound is still used today by engineers. Strutt was born on 12 November 1842 at Langford Grove in Essex. In his early years he suffered from poor health, he attended Eton College and Harrow School, before going on to the University of Cambridge in 1861 where he studied mathematics at Trinity College, Cambridge. He obtained a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1865, a Master of Arts in 1868, he was subsequently elected to a Fellowship of Trinity. He held the post until his marriage to Evelyn Balfour, daughter of James Maitland Balfour, in 1871, he had three sons with her. In 1873, on the death of his father, John Strutt, 2nd Baron Rayleigh, he inherited the Barony of Rayleigh, he was the second Cavendish Professor of Physics at the University of Cambridge, from 1879 to 1884.
He first described dynamic soaring in the British journal Nature. From 1887 to 1905 he was Professor of Natural Philosophy at the Royal Institution. Around the year 1900 Rayleigh developed the duplex theory of human sound localisation using two binaural cues, interaural phase difference and interaural level difference; the theory posits that we use two primary cues for sound lateralisation, using the difference in the phases of sinusoidal components of the sound and the difference in amplitude between the two ears. In 1919, Rayleigh served as President of the Society for Psychical Research; as an advocate that simplicity and theory be part of the scientific method, Rayleigh argued for the principle of similitude. Rayleigh was elected Fellow of the Royal Society on 12 June 1873, served as president of the Royal Society from 1905 to 1908. From time to time Rayleigh participated in the House of Lords, he died on 30 June 1919, in Essex. He was succeeded, as the 4th Lord Rayleigh, by his son Robert John Strutt, another well-known physicist.
Lord Rayleigh was buried in the graveyard of All Saints' Church in Terling in Essex. The rayl unit of acoustic impedance is named after him. Rayleigh was an Anglican. Though he did not write about the relationship of science and religion, he retained a personal interest in spiritual matters; when his scientific papers were to be published in a collection by the Cambridge University Press, Strutt wanted to include a religious quotation from the Bible, but he was discouraged from doing so, as he reported: When I was bringing out my Scientific Papers I proposed a motto from the Psalms, "The Works of the Lord are great, sought out of all them that have pleasure therein." The Secretary to the Press suggested with many apologies that the reader might suppose that I was the Lord. Still, he had his wish and the quotation was printed in the five-volume collection of scientific papers. In a letter to a family member, he wrote about his rejection of materialism and spoke of Jesus Christ as a moral teacher: I have never thought the materialist view possible, I look to a power beyond what we see, to a life in which we may at least hope to take part.
What is more, I think that Christ and indeed other spiritually gifted men see further and truer than I do, I wish to follow them as far as I can. He was an early member of the Society for Psychical Research, he remained open to the possibility of supernatural phenomena. Rayleigh was the president of the SPR in 1919, he gave a presidential address in the year of his death but did not come to any definite conclusions. The lunar crater Rayleigh as well as the Martian crater Rayleigh were named in his honour; the asteroid 22740 Rayleigh was named after him on 1 June 2007. A type of surface waves are known as Rayleigh waves; the rayl, a unit of specific acoustic impedance, is named for him. Rayleigh was awarded with: Smith's Prize Royal Medal Matteucci Medal Member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Copley Medal Nobel Prize for Physics Elliott Cresson Medal Rumford Medal Lord Rayleigh was among the original recipients of the O