He was married to Antimache, daughter of Amphidamas. The arena for the actions that would bring about this change are the Twelve Labors imposed on Heracles by Eurystheus. Details of the episodes may be found in the article on the Labours of Heracles. Heracles first task was to slay the Nemean Lion and bring back its skin, Eurystheus was so scared by Heracles fearsome guise that he hid in a subterranean bronze winejar, and from that moment forth all labors were communicated to Heracles through a herald, Copreus. For his second labour, to slay the Lernaean Hydra, Heracles took with him his nephew, Iolaus, as a charioteer. When Eurystheus found out that Heracles nephew had helped him he declared that the labour had not been completed alone, Eurystheus third task did not involve killing a beast, but capturing one alive - the Cerynian Hind, a golden-horned stag sacred to Artemis. Heracles knew that he had to return the hind, as he had promised, to Artemis, so he agreed to hand it over on the condition that Eurystheus himself come out and take it from him.
Eurystheus did come out, but the moment Heracles let the hind go, she sprinted back to her mistress, when Heracles returned with the Erymanthian Boar, Eurystheus was again frightened and hid in his jar, begging Heracles to get rid of the beast, Heracles obliged. The fifth labour proposed by Eurystheus was to out the numerous stables of Augeias. Striking a deal with Augeias, Heracles proposed a payment of a tenth of Augeias cattle if the labour was completed successfully, not believing the task feasible, Augeias agreed, asking his son Phyleus to witness. Heracles rerouted two nearby rivers through the stable, clearing out the dung rapidly, when Augeias learned of Heracles bargain for the task, he refused payment. Heracles brought the case to court, and Phyleus testified against his father, Augeias banished both Phyleus and Heracles from the land before the court had cast their vote. However, Eurystheus refused to credit the labour to Heracles, as he had performed it for payment, so Heracles went and drove Augeias out of the kingdom and installed Phyleus as king.
Heracles took his tenth of the cattle and left them to graze in a field by his home, for his sixth labour, Heracles had to drive the Stymphalian Birds off the marshes they plagued. He did so, shooting down several birds with his Hydra-poisoned arrows, for his seventh labour, Heracles captured the Cretan Bull. He used a lasso and rode it back to his cousin, Eurystheus offered to sacrifice the bull to Hera his patron, who hated Heracles. She refused the sacrifice because it reflected glory on Heracles, the bull was released and wandered to Marathon, becoming known as the Marathonian Bull. When Heracles brought back the man-eating Mares of Diomedes successfully, Eurystheus dedicated the horses to Hera, Alexander the Greats horse, was said to be descended from these mares
Jebel Musa (Morocco)
Jebel Musa is a mountain in the northernmost part of Morocco, on the African side of the Strait of Gibraltar. It is part of the Rif mountain chain, the mountain is generally identified as the southern Pillar of Hercules, Abila Mons. Together with the Rock of Gibraltar to the north, it is identified as one of the Pillars of Hercules. The pillars of Hercules arose from one of his twelve labours, Perseus defeated the Titan Atlas by showing him the head of the Gorgon. Atlas was petrified, his became an forest and his shoulders became cliffs. Later, Hercules was directed to get the Cattle of Geryon, according to the legend this split in the mountain created a sea link between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. This link was the Strait of Gibraltar, Jebel Musa is 842 metres high. To the north, across the Strait of Gibraltar, lie Spain, to the east is Ceuta, a Spanish exclave, and to the west and south is Morocco. By road, the mountain is about 22 kilometres west of Ceuta, Jebel Musa is opposite the Rock of Gibraltar at the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea from the Atlantic Ocean.
It is an important landmark in the region of Tangier-Tetouan on the north coast of Morocco, the coastlines around the mountain show evidence of having had varying sea levels through the ages. These highstands are at 120-130 metres,80 to 90 metres,40 to 60 metres, in Ceuta, around the town of Benzú, the mountain is known as The Dead Woman, because from that direction it resembles a woman on her back. The mountain is a site for birdwatching, migratory birds use the updraughts and thermals from Jebel Musa to gain height before attempting to cross the Strait of Gibraltar. The Strait of Gibraltar is one of the worlds most prominent migration bottlenecks and raptor watching is popular in the fall, the area around the mountain has over 200 caves that attract visiting cavers. The area around the mountain is mainly forest and is identified in the Plan for Protected Areas in Morocco as a Site of Biological and Ecological Interest
Berbers or Amazighen are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa. They are distributed in an area stretching from the Atlantic Ocean to the Siwa Oasis in Egypt, they spoke Berber languages, which together form the Berber branch of the Afro-Asiatic family. The majority of Berbers are predominantly Sunni Muslim, the Berber identity is usually wider than language and ethnicity, and encompasses the entire history and geography of North Africa. Berbers are not an entirely homogeneous ethnicity and they encompass a range of phenotypes and ancestries, the unifying forces for the Berber people may be their shared language, or a collective identification with Berber heritage and history. There are some twenty-five to thirty million Berber speakers in North Africa, the number of ethnic Berbers is far greater, as a large part of the Berbers have acquired other languages over the course of many decades or centuries, and no longer speak Berber today. The majority of North Africas population is believed to be Berber in origin, Berbers call themselves some variant of the word i-Mazigh-en, possibly meaning free people or noble men.
The name likely had its ancient parallel in the Roman and Greek names for Berbers, dihya or Kahina was a religious and military leader who led a fierce Berber resistance against the Arab-Muslim expansion in Northwest Africa. Kusaila was a leader of the Awraba tribe of the Berber people. A history by a Roman consul in Africa made the first reference of the barbarian to describe Numidia. The use of the term Berber spread in the following the arrival of the Vandals during their major invasions. The English term was introduced in the 19th century, replacing the earlier Barbary, for the historian Abraham Isaac Laredo the name Amazigh could be derived from the name of the ancestor Mezeg which is the translation of biblical ancestor Dedan son of Sheba in the Targum. According to Leo Africanus, Amazigh meant free man, though this has been disputed, further, it has a cognate in the Tuareg word Amajegh, meaning noble. The Egyptians, Greeks and Byzantines mentioned various tribes with similar names living in Greater Libya in the areas where Berbers were found, tribal names differ from the classical sources, but are probably still related to the modern Amazigh.
The Meshwesh tribe among them represents the first thus identified from the field, all those names are similar and perhaps foreign renditions of the name used by the Berbers in general for themselves, Imazighen. The Maghreb region in northwestern Africa is believed to have been inhabited by Berbers from at least 10,000 BC, local cave paintings, which have been dated to twelve millennia before present, have been found in the Tassili nAjjer region of southern Algeria. Other rock art has been observed in Tadrart Acacus in the Libyan desert, a Neolithic society, marked by domestication and subsistence agriculture, developed in the Saharan and Mediterranean region of northern Africa between 6000 and 2000 BC. This type of life, richly depicted in the Tassili nAjjer cave paintings of southeastern Algeria, prehistorical Tifinagh scripts were found in the Oran region. During the pre-Roman era, several independent states existed before the king Masinissa unified the people of Numidia
It was a part of the religion in ancient Greece. Greek mythology is explicitly embodied in a collection of narratives. Greek myth attempts to explain the origins of the world, and details the lives and adventures of a variety of gods, heroes, heroines. These accounts initially were disseminated in a tradition, today the Greek myths are known primarily from ancient Greek literature. The oldest known Greek literary sources, Homers epic poems Iliad and Odyssey, focus on the Trojan War, archaeological findings provide a principal source of detail about Greek mythology, with gods and heroes featured prominently in the decoration of many artifacts. Geometric designs on pottery of the eighth century BC depict scenes from the Trojan cycle as well as the adventures of Heracles, in the succeeding Archaic and Hellenistic periods and various other mythological scenes appear, supplementing the existing literary evidence. Greek mythology has had an influence on the culture, arts. Poets and artists from ancient times to the present have derived inspiration from Greek mythology and have discovered contemporary significance and relevance in the themes, Greek mythology is known today primarily from Greek literature and representations on visual media dating from the Geometric period from c.
Mythical narration plays an important role in every genre of Greek literature. Nevertheless, the only general mythographical handbook to survive from Greek antiquity was the Library of Pseudo-Apollodorus and this work attempts to reconcile the contradictory tales of the poets and provides a grand summary of traditional Greek mythology and heroic legends. Apollodorus of Athens lived from c, 180–125 BC and wrote on many of these topics. His writings may have formed the basis for the collection, however the Library discusses events that occurred long after his death, among the earliest literary sources are Homers two epic poems, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Other poets completed the cycle, but these and lesser poems now are lost almost entirely. Despite their traditional name, the Homeric Hymns have no connection with Homer. They are choral hymns from the part of the so-called Lyric age. Hesiods Works and Days, a poem about farming life, includes the myths of Prometheus, Pandora. The poet gives advice on the best way to succeed in a dangerous world, lyrical poets often took their subjects from myth, but their treatment became gradually less narrative and more allusive.
Greek lyric poets, including Pindar and Simonides, and bucolic poets such as Theocritus and Bion, myth was central to classical Athenian drama
In Greek mythology, the Hesperides are the nymphs of evening and golden light of sunset, who were the Daughters of the Evening or Nymphs of the West. They tend a garden in a far western corner of the world, located near the Atlas mountains in North Africa at the edge of the encircling Oceanus. The name means originating from Hesperos, Hesperos, or vesper in Latin, is the origin of the name Hesperus, the evening star as well as having a shared root with the English word west. Ordinarily the Hesperides number three, like the other Greek triads, since the Hesperides themselves are mere symbols of the gifts the apples embody, they cannot be actors in a human drama. Their abstract, interchangeable names are a symptom of their impersonality and they are sometimes portrayed as the evening daughters of Night either alone, or with Darkness, in accord with the way Eos in the farthermost east, in Colchis, is the daughter of the titan Hyperion. Or they are listed as the daughters of Atlas, or of Zeus, in another source, the nymphs are said to be the daughters of Hesperus.
Nevertheless, among the names given to them, though never all at once, is the colour of the setting sun, yellow or gold. Pseudo-Apollodorus gives the number of the Hesperides as four, Aigle, Hesperia, fulgentius gives four Hesperides, Aegle, Hesperie and Arethusa. Apollonius of Rhodes gives their names as Aigle and Hespere, hyginus in his preface to the Fabulae names them as Aegle and Aerica. In another source, they are named Ægle and Hesperethusa, an ancient vase painting attests the following names as four, Chrysothemis and Lipara, on another seven names as Aiopis, Donakis, Mermesa and Tara. A Pyxis has Hippolyte and Thetis, petrus Apianus attributed to these stars a mythical connection of their own. He believed that they were the seven Hesperides, nymph daughters of the Atlas and their names were, Erythea, Hestia, Hespera and Hespereia. In the far west of the world, Hesperis is appropriately the personification of the evening and the Evening Star is Hesperus. In addition to their tending of the garden, they were said to have great pleasure in singing.
Erytheia is one of the Hesperides, the name was applied to an island close to the coast of southern Hispania, which was the site of the original Punic colony of Gades. By Ephorus and Philistides it is called Erythia, by Timæus and Silenus Aphrodisias, the island was the seat of Geryon, who was overcome by Heracles. The Garden of the Hesperides is Heras orchard in the west, the trees were planted from the fruited branches that Gaia gave to Hera as a wedding gift when Hera accepted Zeus. The Hesperides were given the task of tending to the grove, not trusting them, Hera placed in the garden a never-sleeping, hundred-headed dragon named Ladon as an additional safeguard
Ladon /ˈleɪdən/ is a monster in Greek mythology. Ladon was the dragon that twined and twisted around the tree in the Garden of the Hesperides. The Dragon which guarded the golden apples was the brother of the Nemean lion asserted Ptolemy Hephaestion, in one version, Heracles did not kill Ladon. The image of the dragon coiled round the tree, originally adopted by the Hellenes from Near Eastern and Minoan sources, is familiar from surviving Greek vase-painting. In the 2nd century CE, Pausanias saw among the treasuries at Olympia an archaic cult image in cedar-wood of Heracles, Ladon is the constellation Draco, according to Hyginus Astronomy. Ladon is the Greek version of the West Semitic serpent Lotan and he might be given multiple heads, a hundred in Aristophanes The Frogs, which might speak with different voices. Lernaean Hydra, a monster who was slain by Heracles
Millstones or mill stones are stones used in gristmills, for grinding wheat or other grains. The base or bedstone is stationary, above the bedstone is the turning runner stone which actually does the grinding. The runner stone spins above the stationary bedstone creating the scissoring or grinding action of the stones, a runner stone is generally slightly concave, while the bedstone is slightly convex. This helps to channel the ground flour to the edges of the stones where it can be gathered up. The runner stone is supported by a metal piece fixed to a mace head topping the main shaft or spindle leading to the driving mechanism of the mill. Neolithic and Upper Paleolithic people used millstones to grind grains, nuts and these implements are often called grinding stones. They used either saddle stones or rotary querns turned by hand, such devices were used to grind pigments and metal ores prior to smelting. In India, grinding stones were used to grind grains and spices and these consist of a stationary stone cylinder upon which a smaller stone cylinder rotates.
Smaller ones, for use, were operated by two people. Larger ones, for community or commercial use, used livestock to rotate the upper cylinder, the type of stone most suitable for making millstones is a siliceous rock called burrstone, an open-textured, porous but tough, fine-grained sandstone, or a silicified, fossiliferous limestone. In some sandstones, the cement is calcareous, derbyshire Peak stones wear quickly and are typically used to grind animal feed since they leave stone powder in the flour, making it undesirable for human consumption. French burrstones, used for finer grinding, not cut from one piece, but built up from sections of quartz, cemented together with plaster, and bound with iron bands. French Burr comes from the Marne Valley in northern France, in Europe, a third type of millstone was used. These were uncommon in Britain, but not unknown, cullen stones were quarried in the Rhine Valley near Cologne, Germany. The surface of a millstone is divided by deep grooves called furrows into separate areas called lands.
Spreading away from the furrows are smaller grooves called feathering or cracking, the grooves provide a cutting edge and help to channel the ground flour out from the stones. The furrows and lands are arranged in repeating patterns called harps, a typical millstone will have six, eight or ten harps. The pattern of harps is repeated on the face of each stone, when in regular use stones need to be dressed periodically, that is, re-cut to keep the cutting surfaces sharp
Barbary macaques in Gibraltar
The Barbary macaque population in Gibraltar is the only wild monkey population in the European continent. Although most populations in Africa are facing declining populations due to hunting and deforestation, at present, some 300 animals in five troops occupy the area of the Upper Rock area of the Gibraltar Nature Reserve, though occasional forays into the town may result in damage to personal property. As they are a species, they are known locally as Barbary apes or rock apes. The local people refer to them as monos when conversing in Spanish or Llanito. All Gibraltar Barbary macaques are descended from North African populations of Barbary macaques, DNA evidence has established the present population is of relatively recent Algerian and Moroccan origin. No traces were found of a source for their DNA. The Macaca sylvanus species is listed as endangered by the IUCN Red List and is declining, about 75% of the total population is found in the Middle Atlas mountains. During the Pleistocene, this species inhabited the Mediterranean coasts and Europe, reaching as far north as Germany, the species decreased with the arrival of the Ice Age, to extinction in the Iberian Peninsula 30,000 years ago.
The skull of a Barbary macaque was discovered during excavation in the 1970s at the pre-Christian Navan Fort in County Armagh, carbon dating tests suggest it died in the third century BC. The macaque population had been present on the Rock of Gibraltar long before Gibraltar was captured by the British in 1704, the original introduction of the macaques was most likely orchestrated by the Moors, who kept them as pets. The Gibraltar Barbary macaques are considered by many to be the top tourist attraction in Gibraltar, the most popular troop is that of Queens Gate at the Apes Den, where people can get especially close to the monkeys. They will often approach and sometimes climb onto people, as they are used to human interaction, they are still wild animals and will bite if frightened or annoyed. The macaques contact with large numbers of tourists was causing the integrity of their groups to break down. This induced the monkeys to forage in the town, resulting in damage to buildings, close contact with humans has led to the macaques learning how to open pockets and unzip handbags and rucksacks in order to steal food from humans.
For these reasons, deliberately feeding the macaques in Gibraltar is now a punishable by law. Anyone caught feeding the monkeys is liable to be fined up to £4,000, an officer was appointed to supervise their welfare, and a food allowance of fruit and nuts was included in the budget. Births were gazetted in true fashion, and each new arrival was named. They were named after governors and high-ranking officers, any ill or injured monkey needing surgery or any other form of medical attention was taken to Royal Naval Hospital Gibraltar and received the same treatment as would an enlisted service man
Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Romes legendary origins and religious system, as represented in the literature and visual arts of the Romans. Roman mythology may refer to the study of these representations. The Romans usually treated their traditional narratives as historical, even when these have miraculous or supernatural elements, the stories are often concerned with politics and morality, and how an individuals personal integrity relates to his or her responsibility to the community or Roman state. When the stories illuminate Roman religious practices, they are concerned with ritual, augury. Romes early myths and legends have a relationship with Etruscan religion. In particular, the versions of Greek myths in Ovids Metamorphoses, written during the reign of Augustus, because ritual played the central role in Roman religion that myth did for the Greeks, it is sometimes doubted that the Romans had much of a native mythology. This perception is a product of Romanticism and the scholarship of the 19th century.
From the Renaissance to the 18th century, Roman myths were an inspiration particularly for European painting, the Roman tradition is rich in historical myths, or legends, concerning the foundation and rise of the city. These narratives focus on human actors, with only occasional intervention from deities, in Romes earliest period and myth have a mutual and complementary relationship. As T. P. Wiseman notes, The Roman stories still matter, as they mattered to Dante in 1300 and Shakespeare in 1600, what does it take to be a free citizen. Can a superpower still be a republic, how does well-meaning authority turn into murderous tyranny. Major sources for Roman myth include the Aeneid of Vergil and the first few books of Livys history as well as Dionysius s Roman Antiquities. Other important sources are the Fasti of Ovid, a six-book poem structured by the Roman religious calendar, scenes from Roman myth appear in Roman wall painting and sculpture, particularly reliefs. The Aeneid and Livys early history are the best extant sources for Romes founding myths, material from Greek heroic legend was grafted onto this native stock at an early date.
By extension, the Trojans were adopted as the ancestors of the Roman people. Rape of the Sabine women, explaining the importance of the Sabines in the formation of Roman culture, numa Pompilius, the Sabine second king of Rome who consorted with the nymph Egeria and established many of Romes legal and religious institutions. Servius Tullius, the king of Rome, whose mysterious origins were freely mythologized. The Tarpeian Rock, and why it was used for the execution of traitors, whose self-sacrifice prompted the overthrow of the early Roman monarchy and led to the establishment of the Republic
Armenia, officially the Republic of Armenia, is a sovereign state in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. The Republic of Armenia constitutes only one-tenth of historical Armenia, Armenia is a unitary, multi-party, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. Urartu was established in 860 BC and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia, in the 1st century BC the Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great. Armenia became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion, in between the late 3rd century to early years of the 4th century, the state became the first Christian nation. The official date of adoption of Christianity is 301 AD. The ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century, under the Bagratuni dynasty, the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century. Declining due to the wars against the Byzantines, the fell in 1045. An Armenian principality and a kingdom Cilician Armenia was located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 11th and 14th centuries.
By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia had been conquered by the Russian Empire, during World War I, Armenians living in their ancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated in the Armenian Genocide. By 1920, the state was incorporated into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, in 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics. The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in 1991 during the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Republic of Armenia recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church, the worlds oldest national church, as the countrys primary religious establishment. The unique Armenian alphabet was invented by Mesrop Mashtots in 405 AD, Armenia is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union, the Council of Europe and the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Armenia supports the de facto independent Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, which was proclaimed in 1991, the native Armenian name for the country is Հայք.
The name in the Middle Ages was extended to Հայաստան, by addition of the Persian suffix -stan, the further origin of the name is uncertain. It is postulated that the name Hay comes from one of the two confederated, Hittite vassal states—the Ḫayaša-Azzi. The exonym Armenia is attested in the Old Persian Behistun Inscription as Armina, the ancient Greek terms Ἀρμενία and Ἀρμένιοι are first mentioned by Hecataeus of Miletus. Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and he relates that the people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians. According to the histories of both Moses of Chorene and Michael Chamchian, Armenia derives from the name of Aram, a descendant of Hayk
Larache is an important harbour town in the region of Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima in northern Morocco. The town was founded by the Banu Arous tribe, who gave it the name Araich Beni Arous. He constructed a fortress at the entrance to the port as a means of controlling access to the river, in the 15th century superpower due to their marine expenditures Portugal spoke of Larache as the largest Port. For a long time, attempts by the Portuguese, the Portuguese established the nearby Graciosa fortress in 1489. The Kasbah, which was built in 1491 by Moulay en Nasser, became a pirate stronghold, in 1610, the town passed to the Spanish, who stayed there until 1689, but who mainly used the ports as trading stops and never really administered the town. Moulay Ismail finally conquest by Siege of Larache, attacks on Larache continued, but it still remained in Muslim hands. In 1765, a French fleet failed in the Larache expedition, in 1829, the Austrians punitively bombarded the city due to Moroccan piracy.
Due to the colonisation era Spain took Larache in 1911 and held it for 45 years until 1956, Lixus is the site of an ancient city located in Morocco just north of the modern seaport of Larache on the bank of the Loukkos River. It was built by a Berber king in 1180 BC, Lixus was one of the Kingdom of Mauretanias ancient cities. It was settled by the Phoenicians in the 7th century BC, Lixus was part of a chain of Phoenician/Carthaginian settlements, other major settlements further to the south are Chellah and Mogador. When Carthage fell to Ancient Rome, Lixus and Mogador were annexed to the Kingdom of Mauretania and this ancient Amazigh city gradually grew in importance, coming under Carthaginian domination. After the destruction of Carthage, Lixus fell to Amazigh control, some ancient Greek writers located at Lixus the mythological garden of the Hesperides, the keepers of the golden apples. The name of the city which was mentioned by writers from Hanno the Navigator to the Geographer of Ravenna and confirmed by the legend on its coins.
The ancients believed this to be the site of the Garden of the Hesperides and of a sanctuary of Hercules, there are no grounds for the claim that Lixus was founded at the end of the second millennium BC. Life was maintained there nevertheless until the Islamic conquest of North Africa by the presence of a mosque, today Larache has a population of approximately 125,008. Periods of Berber and Spanish rule have left their mark, the layout of the old town is typically Moorish, while houses in the new town seem to be Andalusian in style. Larache has a Mediterranean climate with heavier rainfall, the summers are moderately hot and sunny - ideal for the city’s beaches - and the winters are wet and cool