Cebu is a province of the Philippines located in the Central Visayas region, consists of a main island and 167 surrounding islands and islets. Its capital is Cebu City, "the Queen City of the South", the oldest city and first capital of the Philippines, politically independent from the provincial government; the Cebu Metropolitan Area or Metro Cebu is formed by 6 municipalities. Cebu is one of the most developed provinces in the Philippines with Metro Cebu being the second largest metropolitan area in the Philippines and Cebu City as the main center of commerce, trade and industry in the Visayas. In a decade it has transformed into a global hub for business processing services, shipping, furniture-making, heavy industry. Mactan–Cebu International Airport, located on Mactan Island, is the second busiest airport in the Philippines; the name "Cebu" comes from the old Cebuano: sibu or sibo, a shortened form of sinibuayng hingpit,'the place for trading'. It was applied to the harbors of the town of Sugbu, the ancient name for Cebu City.

Alternate renditions of the name by traders between the 13th to 16th centuries include Sebu, Zubu, or Zebu, among others. Sugbu, in turn, is derived from the Old Cebuano term for "scorched earth" or "great fire"; the Rajahnate of Cebu was a native kingdom which existed in Cebu prior to the arrival of the Spaniards. It was founded by Sri Lumay otherwise known as Rajamuda Lumaya, a half-Malay, half-Tamil prince of the Chola dynasty who invaded Sumatra in Indonesia, he was sent by the Maharajah to establish a base for expeditionary forces to subdue the local kingdoms, but he rebelled and established his own independent Rajahnate instead. The arrival of Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan in 1521 began a period of Spanish exploration and colonization. Losing the favour of King Manuel I of Portugal for his plan of reaching the Spice Islands by sailing west from Europe, Magellan offered his services to king Charles I of Spain. On 20 September 1519, Magellan led five ships with a total complement of 250 people from the Spanish fort of Sanlúcar de Barrameda en route to southeast Asia via the Americas and Pacific Ocean.

They reached the Philippines on 16 March 1521. Rajah Kolambu the king of Mazaua told them to sail for Cebu, where they could trade and obtain provisions. Arriving in Cebu City, with Enrique of Malacca as translator, befriended Rajah Humabon the Rajah or King of Cebu, persuaded the natives to ally themselves with Charles I of Spain. Humabon and his wife were baptized as Carlos and Juana; the Santo Niño was presented to the native queen of Cebu, as a symbol of peace and friendship between the Spaniards and the Cebuanos. On 14 April Magellan erected a large wooden cross on the shores of Cebu. Afterwards, about 700 islanders were baptized. Magellan soon heard of datu Lapu-Lapu, a native king in nearby Mactan Island, a rival of the Rajahs of Cebu, it was thought that Humabon and Lapu–Lapu had been fighting for control of the flourishing trade in the area. On 27 April the Battle of Mactan occurred, where the Spaniards were defeated and Magellan was killed by the natives of Mactan in Mactan Island. According to Italian historian and chronicler Antonio Pigafetta, Magellan's body was never recovered despite efforts to trade for it with spice and jewels.

Magellan's second-in-command, Juan Sebastián Elcano, took his place as captain of the expedition and sailed the fleet back to Spain, circumnavigating the world. Survivors of the Magellan expedition returned to Spain with tales of a savage island in the East Indies. Several Spanish expeditions were sent to the islands but all ended in failure. In 1564, Spanish explorers led by Miguel López de Legazpi, sailing from Mexico, arrived in 1565, established a colony; the Spaniards fought the King, Rajah Tupas, occupied his territories. The Spaniards established settlements, trade flourished and renamed the island to "Villa del Santísimo Nombre de Jesús". Cebu became the first European settlement established by the Spanish Cortés in the Philippines. In 1595, the Universidad de San Carlos was established and in 1860, Cebu opened its ports to foreign trade; the first printing house was established in 1873 and in 1880, the Colegio de la Inmaculada Concepcion was established and the first periodical The Bulletin of Cebu began publishing in 1886.

In 1898, the island was ceded to the United States after the Spanish–American War and Philippine–American War. In 1901, Cebu was governed by the United States for a brief period, however it became a charter province on 24 February 1937 and was governed independently by Filipino politicians. Cebu, being one of the most densely populated islands in the Philippines, served as a Japanese base during their occupation in World War II which began with the landing of Japanese soldiers in April 1942; the 3rd, 8th, 82nd and 85th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army was re-established from 3 January 1942 to 30 June 1946 and the 8th Constabulary Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary was reestablished again from 28 October 1944 to 30 June 1946 at the military general headquarters and the military camps and garrisoned in Cebu city and Cebu province. They started the Anti-Japanese military operations in Cebu from April 1942 to September 1945 and helped Cebuano guerrillas and fought against the Japanese Imperial forces.

Three years in M

Koko: A Talking Gorilla

Koko: A Talking Gorilla is a 1978 documentary directed by Barbet Schroeder that focuses on Francine Patterson and her work with Koko, the gorilla Patterson claims to have taught to communicate with humans using symbols taken from American Sign Language. The film was screened in the Un Certain Regard section at the 1978 Cannes Film Festival; the film introduces us to Koko soon after she was brought from the San Francisco Zoo to Stanford University by Francine Patterson for a controversial experiment, she would be taught American Sign Language. Koko: A Talking Gorilla on IMDb Barbet and Koko: An Equivocal Love Affair an essay by Gary Indiana at the Criterion Collection


Oclemena E. L. Greene, is a small genus of North American flowering plants in the aster tribe within the, it is native to northeastern North America, found in wet or dry woodlands, sometimes in clearings in the woods, or in acid bogs and peat. The finely woolly stem grows in a zig-zag fashion to a height 30–100 cm, it may be red at its base. The lanceolate leaves are numerous, arranged in a spiral whorl around a single stem, they can be toothed along the margin or smooth. The leaves contain sessile resin glands; the flower heads consist of flat-topped pink to yellow disk florets. There are one to a few on a plant, growing on a slender peduncle; the disk flowers are abruptly expanded at the top. The scarious floral bracts consist of narrow chlorophyllous bands, tinted with purple along the midrib; the stipitate ovaries are compressed and show on the surface minute, cylindrical glands. The fruit is a glandular achene with a double pappus of two bristled whorls; the chromosome base number is x=9. The Kew database Vascular Plant Families and Genera categorizes Oclamena under the genus Aster L.

But taxonomically, Oclemena belongs to the North American clade of the tribe Astereae, as a basal member of one of the main branches. Species Oclemena acuminata Greene: Whorled Wood Aster, Sharpleaf Aster, White Wood Aster GA TN NC WV VA OH PA NJ DE NY CT RI MA VT NH ME NS NB QUE ONT NFL LAB Oclemena × blakei G. L. Nesom: Blake's Aster MI PA NJNY CT RI MA VT NH ME NS NB QUE ONT Oclemena nemoralis Greene: Bog Aster, Bog Nodding Aster. MI DE MD PA NJ NY CT RI MA VT NH ME NS NB QUE ONT Oclemena reticulata G. L. Nesom: Pinebarren Whitetop Aster. FL GA AL SC Semple, J. C. S. Heard and Chunsheng Xiang, 1996; the Asters of Ontario: Diplactis Raf. Oclemena Greene, Doellingeria Nees and Aster L.. University of Waterloo Biology Series No. 30: 1-88. Semple, J. C. S. B. Heard and L. Brouillet. 2002. Cultivated and native asters of Ontario: Aster L. Callistephus Cass. Galatella Cass. Doellingeria Nees, Oclemena E. L. Greene, Eurybia S. F. Gray, Canadanthus Nesom, Symphyotrichum Nees. University of Waterloo Biology Series No. 41: 1-134