Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite. The ratio of clay to other minerals is variable, shale is characterized by breaks along thin laminae or parallel layering or bedding less than one centimeter in thickness, called fissility. Mudstones, on the hand, are similar in composition. Before the mid 19th century, the slate, shale. In the context of underground mining, shale was frequently referred to as slate well into the 20th century. Non-fissile rocks of similar composition but made of smaller than 0.06 mm are described as mudstones or claystone. Rocks with similar sizes but with less clay and therefore grittier are siltstones. Shale is the most common sedimentary rock, shales are typically composed of variable amounts of clay minerals and quartz grains and the typical color is gray. Addition of variable amounts of minor constituents alters the color of the rock, black shale results from the presence of greater than one percent carbonaceous material and indicates a reducing environment.
Black shale can be referred to as black metal, red and green colors are indicative of ferric oxide, iron hydroxide, or micaceous minerals. Clays are the constituent of shales and other mudrocks. The clay minerals represented are largely kaolinite and illite, clay minerals of Late Tertiary mudstones are expandable smectites whereas in older rocks especially in mid- to early Paleozoic shales illites predominate. The transformation of smectite to illite produces silica, calcium, magnesium and these released elements form authigenic quartz, calcite, ankerite and albite, all trace to minor minerals found in shales and other mudrocks. Shales and mudrocks contain roughly 95 percent of the matter in all sedimentary rocks. However, this amounts to less than one percent by mass in an average shale, black shales, which form in anoxic conditions, contain reduced free carbon along with ferrous iron and sulfur. Pyrite and amorphous iron sulfide along with carbon produce the black coloration, the process in the rock cycle which forms shale is called compaction.
The fine particles that compose shale can remain suspended in long after the larger particles of sand have deposited. Shales are typically deposited in very slow moving water and are found in lakes and lagoonal deposits, in river deltas, on floodplains
Zion National Park
Zion National Park is located in the Southwestern United States, near Springdale, Utah. The lowest elevation is 3,666 ft at Coalpits Wash, located at the junction of the Colorado Plateau, Great Basin, and Mojave Desert regions, the parks unique geography and variety of life zones allow for unusual plant and animal diversity. Numerous plant species as well as 289 species of birds,75 mammals, and 32 reptiles inhabit the parks four life zones, riparian and coniferous forest. Zion National Park includes mountains, buttes, monoliths, slot canyons, human habitation of the area started about 8,000 years ago with small family groups of Native Americans, the semi-nomadic Basketmaker Anasazi stem from one of these groups. In turn, the Virgin Anasazi culture developed as the Basketmakers settled in permanent communities, a different group, the Parowan Fremont, lived in the area as well. Both groups moved away by 1300 and were replaced by the Parrusits, Mormons came into the area in 1858 and settled there in the early 1860s.
In 1909 the President of the United States, William Howard Taft, named the area a National Monument to protect the canyon, under the name of Mukuntuweap National Monument. In 1918, the director of the newly created National Park Service changed the parks name to Zion. According to historian Hal Rothman, The name change played to a prevalent bias of the time, many believed that Spanish and Indian names would deter visitors who, if they could not pronounce the name of a place, might not bother to visit it. The new name, had greater appeal to an ethnocentric audience, the United States Congress established the monument as a National Park on November 19,1919. The Kolob section was proclaimed a separate Zion National Monument in 1937, the geology of the Zion and Kolob canyons area includes nine formations that together represent 150 million years of mostly Mesozoic-aged sedimentation. At various periods in that warm, shallow seas, streams and lakes, vast deserts. Uplift associated with the creation of the Colorado Plateaus lifted the region 10,000 feet starting 13 million years ago, the park is located in southwestern Utah in Washington and Kane counties.
Geomorphically, it is located on the Markagunt and Kolob plateaus, the northern part of the park is known as the Kolob Canyons section and is accessible from Interstate 15, exit 40. The 8, 726-foot summit of Horse Ranch Mountain is the highest point in the park, streams in the area take rectangular paths because they follow jointing planes in the rocks. The stream gradient of the Virgin River, whose North Fork flows through Zion Canyon in the park, the road into Zion Canyon is 6 miles long, ending at the Temple of Sinawava. At the Temple the canyon narrows and a foot-trail continues to the mouth of the Zion Narrows, the Zion Canyon road is served by a free shuttle bus from early April to late October and by private vehicles the other months of the year. Other roads in Zion are open to private vehicles year-round, the east side of the park is served by Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, which passes through the Zion–Mount Carmel Tunnel and ends at Mount Carmel
Aquilegia coerulea is a species of Aquilegia flower native to the Rocky Mountains from Montana south to New Mexico and west to Idaho and Arizona. Its common name is Colorado blue columbine, sometimes it is called Rocky Mountain columbine and it is a herbaceous perennial plant growing to 20–60 cm tall. The flowers are variable in color, from pale blue to white, pale yellow and pinkish, very commonly the flowers are bicolored. Aquilegia coerulea is the flower of Colorado. It is a plant in gardens, with numerous cultivars selected for different flower colors. USDA Plant Profile, Aquilegia coerulea Colorado state flower Aquilegia coerulea Genome sequencing
Orange is the colour of carrots and apricots. It is between red and yellow in the spectrum of light, and on the traditional painters colour wheel and it is named after the fruit of the same name. In Asia it is an important symbolic colour of Buddhism and Hinduism, the colour orange is named after the appearance of the ripe orange fruit. The word comes from the Old French orange, from the old term for the fruit, the French word, in turn, comes from the Italian arancia, based on Arabic nāranj, derived from the Sanskrit naranga. The first recorded use of orange as a name in English was in 1512. Prior to this word being introduced to the English-speaking world, saffron already existed in the English language, crog referred to the saffron colour, so that orange was referred to as ġeolurēad for reddish orange, or ġeolucrog for yellowish orange. Alternatively, orange things were sometimes described as red such as red deer, red hair, in ancient Egypt artists used an orange mineral pigment called realgar for tomb paintings, as well as other uses.
It was used by Medieval artists for the colouring of manuscripts, pigments were made in ancient times from a mineral known as orpiment. Orpiment was an important item of trade in the Roman Empire and was used as a medicine in China although it contains arsenic and is highly toxic and it was used as a fly poison and to poison arrows. Because of its colour, it was a favourite with alchemists searching for a way to make gold. Before the late 15th century, the colour orange existed in Europe, portuguese merchants brought the first orange trees to Europe from Asia in the late 15th and early 16th century, along with the Sanskrit naranga, which gradually became orange in English. The House of Orange-Nassau was one of the most influential houses in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries. It originated in 1163 the tiny Principality of Orange, a state of 108 square miles north of Avignon in southern France. The family of the Prince of Orange eventually adopted the name, the colour came to be associated with Protestantism, due to participation by the House of Orange on the Protestant side in the French Wars of Religion.
One member of the house, William I of Orange, organised the Dutch resistance against Spain, another member, William III of Orange, became King of England in 1689, after the downfall of the Catholic James II. Due to William III, orange became an important political colour in Britain, William was a Protestant, and as such he defended the Protestant minority of Ireland against the majority Roman Catholic population. As a result, the Protestants of Ireland were known as Orangemen, Orange eventually became one of the colours of the Irish flag, symbolising the Protestant heritage. When the Dutch settlers of South Africa rebelled against the British in the late 19th century, in the United States, the flag of the City of New York has an orange stripe, to remember the Dutch colonists who founded the city
Dixie National Forest
Dixie National Forest is a United States National Forest in Utah with headquarters in Cedar City. It occupies almost two acres and stretches for about 170 miles across southern Utah. The largest national forest in Utah, it straddles the divide between the Great Basin and the Colorado River, in descending order of forestland area it is located in parts of Garfield, Iron, Kane and Piute counties. The majority of forest acreage lies in Garfield County, there are local ranger district offices in Cedar City, Panguitch, St. George, and Teasdale. Elevations vary from 2,800 feet above sea level near St. George, the southern rim of the Great Basin, near the Colorado River, provides spectacular scenery. Colorado River canyons are made up of multi-colored cliffs and steep-walled gorges, the Forest is divided into four geographic areas. High altitude forests in gently rolling hills characterize the Markagunt, Boulder Mountain, one of the largest high-elevation plateaus in the United States, is dotted with hundreds of small lakes 10,000 to 11,000 feet above sea level.
The forest includes the Pine Valley Mountains north of St. George The Forest has many climatic extremes, precipitation ranges from 10 inches in the lower elevations to more than 40 inches per year near Brian Head Peak 11,307 feet. At the higher elevations, most of the precipitation falls as snow. Thunderstorms are common during July and August and produce heavy rains, in some areas, August is the wettest month of the year. Temperature extremes can be impressive, with temperatures exceeding 100 degrees Fahrenheit near St. George. The vegetation of the Forest grades from sparse, desert-type plants at the elevations to stand of low-growing pinyon pine. At the higher elevations and conifers such as pine, the Dixie Forest Reserve was established on September 25,1905 by the General Land Office. The name was derived from the description of the warm southern part of Utah as Dixie. In 1906 the U. S. Forest Service assumed responsibility for the lands, the western part of Sevier National Forest was added on July 1,1922, and all of Powell National Forest on October 1,1944.
There are four designated wilderness areas within Dixie National Forest that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized minerals or rock grains. Most sandstone is composed of quartz or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earths crust, like sand, sandstone may be any color, but the most common colors are tan, yellow, grey, pink and black. Since sandstone beds often form highly visible cliffs and other topographic features, quartz-bearing sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure, usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. They are formed from cemented grains that may either be fragments of a rock or be mono-minerallic crystals. The cements binding these grains together are typically calcite, grain sizes in sands are defined within the range of 0.0625 mm to 2 mm. The formation of sandstone involves two principal stages, first, a layer or layers of sand accumulates as the result of sedimentation, either from water or from air. Typically, sedimentation occurs by the settling out from suspension.
The most common cementing materials are silica and calcium carbonate, which are derived either from dissolution or from alteration of the sand after it was buried. Colours will usually be tan or yellow, a predominant additional colourant in the southwestern United States is iron oxide, which imparts reddish tints ranging from pink to dark red, with additional manganese imparting a purplish hue. Red sandstones are seen in the Southwest and West of Britain, as well as central Europe. The regularity of the latter favours use as a source for masonry, either as a building material or as a facing stone. These physical properties allow the grains to survive multiple recycling events. Quartz grains evolve from rock, which are felsic in origin. Feldspathic framework grains are commonly the second most abundant mineral in sandstones, Feldspar can be divided into two smaller subdivisions, alkali feldspars and plagioclase feldspars. The different types of feldspar can be distinguished under a petrographic microscope, below is a description of the different types of feldspar.
Alkali feldspar is a group of minerals in which the composition of the mineral can range from KAlSi3O8 to NaAlSi3O8. Plagioclase feldspar is a group of solid solution minerals that range in composition from NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8. Lithic framework grains are pieces of ancient source rock that have yet to weather away to individual mineral grains, accessory minerals are all other mineral grains in a sandstone, commonly these minerals make up just a small percentage of the grains in a sandstone
Clarks nutcracker, sometimes referred to as Clarks crow or woodpecker crow, is a passerine bird in the family Corvidae. It is slightly smaller than its Eurasian relative the spotted nutcracker and it is ashy-grey all over except for the black-and-white wings and central tail feathers. The bill and feet are black and this bird derives its name from the explorer William Clark. It can be seen in western North America from British Columbia and western Alberta in the north to Baja California, there is a small isolated population on the peak of Cerro Potosí, elevation 3,700 metres, in Nuevo León, northeast Mexico. It is mainly found in mountains at altitudes of 900–3,900 metres in conifer forest, outside the breeding season, it may wander extensively to lower altitudes and further east as far as Illinois, particularly following any cone crop failure in its normal areas. During migrations to lower altitudes, it uses the seeds of pinyon pines. The isolated Cerro Potosí population is associated with the local endemic Potosi pinyon Pinus culminicola.
All Clarks Nutcrackers have a sublingual pouch capable of holding around 50–150 seeds, depending on the size of the seeds, Clarks nutcrackers store seeds, usually in the ground for consumption, in caches of 1–15 seeds. Depending on the crop as well as the tree species. Through this activity of caching and over-storing, the bird is perpetuating its own habitat, the diet includes a wide range of insect prey and other fruits, small mammals and occasionally flesh from carcasses. Eggs and nestlings are sometimes devoured, and peanuts and suet have become a favorite at bird tables, food is taken both from the ground and from trees, where the nutcrackers are very agile among the branches. The birds are able to extract food by clasping pine cones in such a way that the cones are held one or both feet. The birds hack the cones open with their strong bills, rotten logs are hacked into in order to locate large beetle grubs, and animal dung may be flipped over in search of insects. Clarks nutcrackers can be opportunistic feeders in developed areas, and are known to some as camp robbers, the species usually nests in pines or other types of conifers during early spring.
Two to four eggs are laid, incubation usually occurring in 16–18 days, incubation is performed by both the male and female parents, and the young are typically fledged by around the 22nd day. The fledglings follow their parents around for months, possibly in order to learn the complex seed storage behavior. Clarks nutcracker is the primary seed disperser for whitebark pine, Whitebark pine is in decline throughout its range, due to infection by white pine blister rust, widespread outbreaks of mountain pine beetle, and the long-term effects of fire suppression. The voice of this bird is extremely varied and produces different sounds
Chipmunks are small, striped rodents of the family Sciuridae. Chipmunks are found in North America, with the exception of the Siberian chipmunk which is primarily in Asia. These classifications are arbitrary, and most taxonomies over the century have placed the chipmunks in a single genus. However, studies of mitochondrial DNA show that the divergence between each of the three groups is comparable to the genetic dissimilarity between Marmota and Spermophilus. The genus name Tamias is Greek for treasurer, steward, or housekeeper, the common name originally may have been spelled chitmunk, from the native Odawa word jidmoonh, meaning red squirrel. The earliest form cited in the Oxford English Dictionary is chipmonk, other early forms include chipmuck and chipminck, and in the 1830s they were referred to as chip squirrels, probably in reference to the sound they make. In the mid-1800s, John James Audubon and his sons included a lithograph of the chipmunk in their Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America, Chipmunks have been referred to as striped squirrels, munks, timber tigers, and ground squirrels.
Chipmunks have a diet primarily consisting of seeds and other fruits. They commonly eat grass and many forms of plant matter, as well as fungi and other arthropods, small frogs, worms. Around humans, chipmunks can eat cultivated grains and vegetables, and other plants from farms and gardens, Chipmunks mostly forage on the ground, but they climb trees to obtain nuts such as hazelnuts and acorns. At the beginning of autumn, many species of chipmunk begin to stockpile nonperishable foods for winter and they mostly cache their foods in a larder in their burrows and remain in their nests until spring, unlike some other species which make many small caches of food. Cheek pouches allow chipmunks to carry items to their burrows for either storage or consumption. Eastern chipmunks mate in spring and again in early summer. Western chipmunks breed only once a year, the young emerge from the burrow after about six weeks and strike out on their own within the next two weeks. These small mammals fulfill several important functions in forest ecosystems and their activities harvesting and hoarding tree seeds play a crucial role in seedling establishment.
Chipmunks construct expansive burrows which can be more than 3.5 m in length with several well-concealed entrances, the sleeping quarters are kept clean as shells and feces are stored in refuse tunnels. The eastern chipmunk hibernates in the winter, while western chipmunks do not, Chipmunks typically live about three years although some have been observed living to nine years in captivity. Chipmunks in captivity are said to sleep for an average of about 15 hours a day and it is thought that mammals which can sleep in hiding, such as rodents and bats, tend to sleep longer than those that must remain on alert. and Paul V. Switzer
Porcupines are rodentian mammals with a coat of sharp spines, or quills, that protect against predators. The term covers two families of animals, the Old World porcupines of family Hystricidae, and the New World porcupines of family Erethizontidae, the Old World porcupines live in southern Europe and most of Africa. They are large and strictly nocturnal, in taxonomic terms, they form the family Hystricidae. The New World porcupines are indigenous to North America and northern South America and they live in wooded areas and can climb trees, where some species spend their entire lives. They are less strictly nocturnal than their Old World relatives, in taxonomic terms, they form the family Erethizontidae. Porcupines are the third-largest of the rodents, behind the capybara, most porcupines are about 60–90 cm long, with an 20–25 cm long tail. Weighing 5–16 kg, they are rounded and slow, Porcupines occur in various shades of brown and white. Porcupines spiny protection resembles that of the unrelated erinaceomorph hedgehogs and Australian spiny anteaters or monotreme echidnas, the name porcupine comes from Latin porcus pig + spina spine, via Old Italian—Middle French—Middle English.
A regional American name for the animal is quill pig, the German name, means thorn-swine and the Afrikaans name, means iron pig. Fossils belonging to the Hystrix genus date back to the late Miocene of Africa, a porcupine is any of 29 species of rodents belonging to the families Erethizontidae or Hystricidae. The two families of porcupines are quite different, and although both belong to the Hystricognathi branch of the vast order Rodentia, they are not closely related, the 11 Old World porcupines tend to be fairly large, and have spikes grouped in clusters. The two subfamilies of New World porcupines are mostly smaller, have their quills attached singly rather than grouped in clusters, the New World porcupines evolved their spines independently and are more closely related to several other families of rodents than they are to the Old World porcupines. The North American porcupine is a herbivore, it leaves, twigs. In the winter, it may eat bark and it often climbs trees to find food. The African porcupine is not a climber and forages on the ground and it is mostly nocturnal, but will sometimes forage for food in the day.
Porcupines have become a pest in Kenya and are eaten as a delicacy, Porcupines quills, or spines, take on various forms, depending on the species, but all are modified hairs coated with thick plates of keratin, and embedded in the skin musculature. Old World porcupines have quills embedded in clusters, whereas in New World porcupines, single quills are interspersed with bristles, quills are released by contact or may drop out when the porcupine shakes its body. New quills grow to replace lost ones, Porcupines were long believed to have the ability to project their quills to a considerable distance at an enemy, but this has since been proven to be untrue
A hoodoo is a tall, thin spire of rock that protrudes from the bottom of an arid drainage basin or badland. Hoodoos, which may range from 1.5 to 45 metres, typically consist of soft rock topped by harder. They generally form within sedimentary rock and volcanic rock formations, Hoodoos are found mainly in the desert in dry, hot areas. In common usage, the difference between hoodoos and pinnacles is that hoodoos have a variable thickness often described as having a totem pole-shaped body, a spire, on the other hand, has a smoother profile or uniform thickness that tapers from the ground upward. An example of a spire, as an earth pyramid, is found at Aultderg Burn, near Fochabers. Hoodoos range in size from the height of a human to heights exceeding a 10-story building. Hoodoo shapes are affected by the patterns of alternating hard. Minerals deposited within different rock types cause hoodoos to have different colors throughout their height, Hoodoos are commonly found in the High Plateaus region of the Colorado Plateau and in the Badlands regions of the Northern Great Plains.
While hoodoos are scattered throughout these areas, nowhere in the world are they as abundant as in the section of Bryce Canyon National Park. They are very prominent a few hundred miles away at Goblin Valley State Park on the side of the San Rafael Swell. Hoodoos are a tourist attraction in the Cappadocia region of Turkey and these rock formations were depicted on the reverse of the Turkish 50 new lira banknote of 2005–2009. Đavolja Varoš hoodoos in Serbia feature 202 exotic formations described as earth pyramids or towers, since 1959, Đavolja Varoš has been protected by the state. It was a nominee in the New Seven Wonders of Nature campaign, the hoodoo stones on the northern coast of Taiwan are unusual for their coastal setting. The stones formed as the seabed rose rapidly out of the ocean during the Miocene epoch, efforts have been made to slow the erosion in the case of iconic specimens in Wanli. Hoodoos in Drumheller, are a feature that continues to attract thousands of visitors each year.
The sediments comprising these hoodoos formed between 70 and 75 million years ago during the Cretaceous Period as clay and sand sediments from the Horseshoe Canyon Formation were deposited. In glaciated mountainous valleys the soft eroded material may be glacial till with the protective capstones being large boulders in the till, over time, cracks in the resistant layer allow the much softer rock beneath to be eroded and washed away. Hoodoos form where a small cap of the resistant layer remains, further erosion of the soft layer causes the cap to be undercut, eventually falling off, and the remaining cone is quickly eroded
Aspen is a common name for certain tree species, but not all, are classified by botanists in the section Populus, of the Populus genus. They are all medium-sized deciduous trees reaching 15–30 m tall, each individual tree can live for 40–150 years above ground, but the root system of the colony is long-lived. In some cases, this is for thousands of years, sending up new trunks as the older trunks die off above ground, for this reason, it is considered to be an indicator of ancient woodlands. One such colony in Utah, given the nickname of Pando, is estimated to be 80,000 years old, some aspen colonies become very large with time, spreading about 1 m per year, eventually covering many hectares. They are able to survive forest fires, because the roots are below the heat of the fire, aspens do not thrive in the shade, and it is difficult for seedlings to grow in an already mature aspen stand. Fire indirectly benefits aspen trees, since it allows the saplings to flourish in open sunlight in the burned landscape, young aspen bark is an important seasonal forage for the European hare and other animals in early spring.
Aspen is a tree of choice of the European beaver, aspen wood is white and soft, but fairly strong, and has low flammability. It has a number of uses, notably for making matches, shredded aspen wood is used for packing and stuffing, sometimes called excelsior. It is a popular animal bedding, since it lacks the phenols associated with pine and juniper, heat-treated aspen is a popular material for the interiors of a sauna. Trees portal Fox, Linda E. Tackaberry, Pascal Drouin, Yves Bergeron, Robert L. Bradley, microbial community structure of soils under four productivity classes of aspen forests in Northern British Columbia
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series and it is by mass the most common element on Earth, forming much of Earths outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earths crust, like the other group 8 elements and osmium, iron exists in a wide range of oxidation states, −2 to +6, although +2 and +3 are the most common. Elemental iron occurs in meteoroids and other low oxygen environments, but is reactive to oxygen, fresh iron surfaces appear lustrous silvery-gray, but oxidize in normal air to give hydrated iron oxides, commonly known as rust. Unlike the metals that form passivating oxide layers, iron oxides occupy more volume than the metal and thus flake off, Iron metal has been used since ancient times, although copper alloys, which have lower melting temperatures, were used even earlier in human history. Pure iron is soft, but is unobtainable by smelting because it is significantly hardened and strengthened by impurities, in particular carbon. A certain proportion of carbon steel, which may be up to 1000 times harder than pure iron.
Crude iron metal is produced in blast furnaces, where ore is reduced by coke to pig iron, further refinement with oxygen reduces the carbon content to the correct proportion to make steel. Steels and iron alloys formed with metals are by far the most common industrial metals because they have a great range of desirable properties. Iron chemical compounds have many uses, Iron oxide mixed with aluminium powder can be ignited to create a thermite reaction, used in welding and purifying ores. Iron forms binary compounds with the halogens and the chalcogens, among its organometallic compounds is ferrocene, the first sandwich compound discovered. Iron plays an important role in biology, forming complexes with oxygen in hemoglobin and myoglobin. Iron is the metal at the site of many important redox enzymes dealing with cellular respiration and oxidation and reduction in plants. A human male of average height has about 4 grams of iron in his body and this iron is distributed throughout the body in hemoglobin, muscles, bone marrow, blood proteins, ferritin and transport in plasma.
The mechanical properties of iron and its alloys can be evaluated using a variety of tests, including the Brinell test, Rockwell test, the data on iron is so consistent that it is often used to calibrate measurements or to compare tests. An increase in the content will cause a significant increase in the hardness. Maximum hardness of 65 Rc is achieved with a 0. 6% carbon content, because of the softness of iron, it is much easier to work with than its heavier congeners ruthenium and osmium. Because of its significance for planetary cores, the properties of iron at high pressures and temperatures have been studied extensively