Edwin D. Morgan
Edwin Denison Morgan was the 21st Governor of New York from 1859 to 1862 and served in the United States Senate from 1863 to 1869. He was the longest-serving chairman of the Republican National Committee, he was a Union Army general during the American Civil War. A native of Massachusetts, Morgan was raised in Connecticut, trained as a merchant in Hartford, served on the city council, he moved to New York City, where he became a successful wholesale grocer and bond broker and served as an assistant alderman and member of the New York State Senate. A Whig, he was one of the founders of the Republican Party, he served as chairman of the Republican National Committee from 1856 to 1864 and 1872 to 1876. In 1858, Morgan was elected Governor of New York, he served from 1859 to 1862; as governor during the American Civil War, Morgan supported the Union. Appointed a major general of volunteers in the Union Army, he commanded the military's Department of New York while serving as governor. In 1863, he was elected to the United States Senate.
He was an unsuccessful candidate for renomination in 1869, the unsuccessful Republican nominee for governor in 1876. Morgan had been a patron of Chester A. Arthur at the start of Arthur's career. Morgan declined on the grounds of age and ill health. Morgan died in New York City in 1883, was buried in Connecticut. Morgan was born in Washington, Massachusetts on February 8, 1811 to Catherine Morgan; the family moved to Windsor, where Morgan received his early education before attending Bacon Academy in Colchester. Edwin Morgan was a cousin of Morgan G. Bulkeley, the Governor of Connecticut from 1889 to 1893. In addition, he was a cousin of Congressmen Edwin B. Christopher Morgan, he began his business career as a grocer in Connecticut. He served on the city council. In 1836, he moved to New York City and became a successful wholesaler and banker. In 1843, Morgan organized E. D. Morgan & Company, an import house, in partnership with George D. Morgan, his cousin, Frederick Avery, who left the firm a year and was replaced by J.
T. Terry. Solon Humphreys was taken in as a full partner in 1854 after working several years as an agent in St. Louis, Missouri. Through his connections, the firm became the principal agent for Missouri securities. Nearly two-thirds of the bonds issued by the State of Missouri from 1835-1860, plus a large share of securities of St. Louis, were sold through the house of Morgan - in all thirty million dollars worth. All the while the firm maintained its wholesale grocery trade. In 1849, Morgan was elected as a member of the New York City Board of Assistant Aldermen, he made a name for himself as chairman of the Sanitary Committee during the cholera epidemic of 1848. He was a member of the New York State Senate from 1850 to 1853, State Commissioner of Immigration. Morgan became influential in Republican politics of his time and twice served as chairman of the Republican National Committee, 1856 to 1864 and 1872 to 1876. From 1859 until 1862, he served as Governor of New York, elected in 1858 and 1860.
He was appointed major general of volunteers in September 1861 and commanded the Department of New York until he resigned on January 3, 1863, serving as governor and head of the military department. In February 1863, he was elected to the U. S. Senate, served one term until 1869. In January 1869, he sought re-nomination, but was voted down by the Republican caucus of State legislators who instead nominated Ex-Governor Reuben E. Fenton. In 1876, Morgan was defeated by Democrat Lucius Robinson. In 1881, Morgan was nominated by President Chester A. Arthur as Treasury Secretary and was confirmed by the Senate, but declined the position. In 1833, he married daughter of Henry Waterman. Together, they had: Edwin D. Morgan Frederick Avery Morgan, died young Gilbert Henry Morgan, died young Caroline Matilda Morgan, died young Alfred Waterman Morgan, died youngKnown for generous contributions to charities and causes, he contributed large sums to the Union Theological Seminary. Morgan died in New York City on February 14, 1883.
He was buried at the Cedar Hill Cemetery in Hartford. His 2x great-grandson was Edwin D. Morgan and Pioneer Fund director from 2000 to 2001. List of American Civil War generals Finding Aid to Edwin D. Morgan Papers, 1833-1883 at the New York State Library, accessed January 4, 2016United States Congress. "Edwin D. Morgan". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Mr. Lincoln and New York: Edwin D. Morgan Eicher, John H. and David J. Eicher, Civil War High Commands. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3. "Edwin D. Morgan". Find a Grave. Retrieved 2008-02-12
Bushnell Park in Hartford, Connecticut is the oldest publicly funded park in the United States. It was conceived by the Reverend Horace Bushnell in the mid-1850s at a time when the need for open public spaces was just starting to be recognized. Today the park comprises 50 acres of green space, is visited by over one million people each year. Paths through the park contribute to the East Coast Greenway. Hartford in the 1850s was a growing river town, doubling in population from 1850 to 1860; the city's economy was booming, driven by industries such as publishing, banking, munitions and river shipping. Like many American cities of the time, Hartford was enjoying the benefits of the Industrial Revolution, but along with this growth came some growing pains, including crime, crowded tenements, poor sanitation, polluted water and air. It was in this context that Bushnell presented an idea that had not been suggested in any other American city: the creation of a public park, financed by public funds.
Initial public reaction was skeptical. Hard-nosed business leaders were opposed to removing taxable property from the tax rolls. Furthermore, it was hard to imagine a less place for a green, peaceful park than Bushnell's proposed site, home to two leather tanneries, a soapworks and other livestock–even a garbage dump. A railroad spur ran through it and the smelly Park River, polluted with the city's industrial waste, ran alongside it. Crowded tenements lined both banks of the river, with their outhouses in the back emptying directly into the sluggish current. Rev. Bushnell described it as “hell without the fire.” However, after hearing Dr. Bushnell's presentation in October 1853, the Hartford City Council voted unanimously in November to spend public funds to buy the land, to become Bushnell Park. Hartford voters approved the expenditure on Jan. 5, 1854, by a vote of 1,687 to 683, making it the first municipal park in the nation to be conceived and paid for by citizens through a popular vote. But six years the park still had not taken shape.
Reverend Bushnell asked his good friend and Hartford native, Frederick Law Olmsted, to design the layout of the park. Olmsted, was occupied at the time with the double-duty of designing of New York City's Central Park and Springfield, Massachusetts' Forest Park, thus declined the offer. Olmsted recommended a Swiss-born landscape architect and botanist. Weidenmann's plan for the park included graceful paths and clusters of trees that shielded strollers from the sounds of the city, enhanced the presence of the Park River which flowed through the park. Additions to the park include: the Horace Wells Monument in 1875, sculpted by Truman Howe Bartlett; as a result of seasonal flooding and pollution, after damage from the great flood of 1936, the Park River was buried in underground conduits, a main feature of the park was lost. A pond was added to return a water feature to the park. Today Bushnell Park is a focal point in downtown Hartford, it is the site of several festivals and music events each year.
The park was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1970. National Register of Historic Places listings in Hartford, Connecticut Bushnell Park's Home Page
Joseph Roswell Hawley
Joseph Roswell Hawley was the 42nd Governor of Connecticut, a U. S. politician in the Republican and Free Soil parties, a Civil War general, a journalist and newspaper editor. He served two terms in the United States House of Representatives and was a four-term U. S. Senator. Hawley, a direct descendant of Joseph Hawley, first of the name in America, through Ebenezer and Samuel, was born in Stewartsville, near Laurinburg, North Carolina, where Hawley's father, a native of Connecticut, was pastor of a Baptist church, he was born at the Stewart-Hawley-Malloy House. His father returned to Connecticut in 1837 and Joseph attended and graduated from Hamilton College in New York in 1847, he was practiced law in Hartford, Connecticut for six years. An ardent opponent of slavery, Hawley became a Free Soiler, was a delegate to the National Convention which nominated John Parker Hale for the presidency in 1852, subsequently served as chairman of the party's State Committee and editor of the party's newspaper, the Charter Oak.
In 1856, he took a leading part in organizing the Republican Party in Connecticut, in 1857 became editor of the Hartford Evening Press, a newly established Republican newspaper. Hawley served in the Federal army with distinction throughout the Civil War, rising from the rank of captain to that of brevet major general of volunteers. In April 1861, Hawley organize an infantry company, he was mustered into the three-month 1st Connecticut Infantry with the rank of captain of Company A on April 22. He first saw combat at the First Battle of Bull Run in July, receiving praise from his brigade commander, General Erasmus D. Keyes. After mustering out, he assisted Col. Alfred H. Terry in raising the 7th Connecticut Infantry, a three-year regiment, was named as lieutenant colonel, he participated in the Port Royal Expedition in November, commanded the forces assigned to garrison two captured forts. He was a part of the four-month siege that culminated in the capture of Fort Pulaski in April 1862. Again, he commanded the garrison force.
With Colonel Terry's promotion to brigade command, Hawley succeeded him as commander of the 10th Connecticut, leading the regiment in the battles of James Island and Pocotaligo. He was in Brannan's expedition to Florida in January 1863, commanded the post at Ferandina, near Jacksonville. In April, he participated in an unsuccessful expedition to capture South Carolina. In the summer, he commanded a brigade on Morris Island during the siege of Charleston, was involved in the attacks on Fort Wagner in September. During the autumn, he procured enough Spencer breech-loading rifles to outfit his regiment with the rapid-fire weapon; the following year, Hawley commanded a brigade under General Truman Seymour in the Battle of Olustee in Florida. He and his men were reassigned to the front lines in Virginia as a part of Terry's Division, X Corps, Army of the James, he was in the battles of Drewry's Bluff, Deep Run, Derbytown Road, other actions near Bermuda Hundred and Deep Bottom. With openings created by battlefield losses and reassignments, Hawley commanded a division during the Siege of Petersburg and was promoted in September 1864 to brigadier general of volunteers.
Concerned over keeping the peace during the November elections, Hawley commanded a hand-picked brigade shipped to New York City to safeguard the election process. In January 1865, Hawley succeeded his mentor Alfred Terry as divisional commander when Terry was sent to command troops in the attacks on Fort Fisher. Hawley joined him in North Carolina as Chief of Staff for the X Corps. After the capture of Wilmington, North Carolina, Hawley took over command of the forces in southeastern North Carolina. In June, following the surrender of the Confederate armies, Hawley rejoined Terry and served as Chief of Staff for the Department of Virginia, serving until October when he returned home to Connecticut, he was breveted as a major general in September 1865, mustered out of the army on January 15, 1866. After the war, Hawley served as governor of Connecticut from April 1866 to April 1867, but was not re-elected. A few months after stepping down from that office, he bought the Hartford Courant newspaper, which he combined with the Press.
Under his editorship, this became the most influential newspaper in Connecticut and one of the leading Republican papers in the country. Hawley was the permanent chairman of the Republican National Convention in 1868, was a delegate to the conventions of 1872, 1876 and 1880, he represented Connecticut in the U. S. Congress from December 1872 until March 1875 and again in 1879–81, having lost the two elections in between. From 1873 to 1876, he served as president of the United States Centennial Commission, which planned and ran the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia, he was a trustee of Hamilton College and received his LL. D. degree in 1875. Hawley was a United States Senator from 1881 to 1905, being one of the key Republican leaders both in the House and the Senate, he was chairman of the committee on civil service, vigorously promoted civil service reform legislation. He chaired a special committee called to investigate the production of military ordnance and warships. In this capacity, he wrote a detailed report on the heavy steel industry and gun making in the United States and England.
He died in Washington, D. C. two weeks after stepping down from the Senate. He was buried in Connecticut. Hawley has a battery named in his honor in Phippsburg, Maine. Hawley and his wife Harriet Foote Hawley adopted one of her nieces.
Historic districts in the United States
Historic districts in the United States are designated historic districts recognizing a group of buildings, properties, or sites by one of several entities on different levels as or architecturally significant. Buildings, structures and sites within a historic district are divided into two categories and non-contributing. Districts vary in size: some have hundreds of structures, while others have just a few; the U. S. federal government designates historic districts through the United States Department of Interior under the auspices of the National Park Service. Federally designated historic districts are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, but listing imposes no restrictions on what property owners may do with a designated property. State-level historic districts may follow similar criteria or may require adherence to certain historic rehabilitation standards. Local historic district designation offers, by far, the most legal protection for historic properties because most land use decisions are made at the local level.
Local districts are administered by the county or municipal government. The first U. S. historic district was established in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931, predating the U. S. federal government designation by more than three decades. Charleston city government designated an "Old and Historic District" by local ordinance and created a board of architectural review to oversee it. New Orleans followed in 1937, establishing the Vieux Carré Commission and authorizing it to act to maintain the historic character of the city's French Quarter. Other localities picked up on the concept, with the city of Philadelphia enacting its historic preservation ordinance in 1955; the regulatory authority of local commissions and historic districts has been upheld as a legitimate use of government police power, most notably in Penn Central Transportation Co. v. City of New York; the Supreme Court case validated the protection of historic resources as "an permissible governmental goal." In 1966 the federal government created the National Register of Historic Places, soon after a report from the U.
S. Conference of Mayors had stated Americans suffered from "rootlessness." By the 1980s there were thousands of federally designated historic districts. Some states, such as Arizona, have passed referendums defending property rights that have stopped private property being designated historic without the property owner's consent or compensation for the historic overlay. Historic districts are two types of properties and non-contributing. Broadly defined, a contributing property is any property, structure or object which adds to the historical integrity or architectural qualities that make a historic district, listed locally or federally, significant. Different entities governmental, at both the state and national level in the United States, have differing definitions of contributing property but they all retain the same basic characteristics. In general, contributing properties are integral parts of the historic context and character of a historic district. In addition to the two types of classification within historic districts, properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places are classified into five broad categories.
They are, structure, site and object. All but the eponymous district category are applied to historic districts listed on the National Register. A listing on the National Register of Historic Places is governmental acknowledgment of a historic district. However, the Register is "an honorary status with some federal financial incentives." The National Register of Historic Places defines a historic district per U. S. federal law, last revised in 2004. According to the Register definition a historic district is: a geographically definable area, urban or rural, possessing a significant concentration, linkage, or continuity of sites, structures, or objects united by past events or aesthetically by plan or physical development. A district may comprise individual elements separated geographically but linked by association or history. Districts established under U. S. federal guidelines begin the process of designation through a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. The National Register is the official recognition by the U.
S. government of cultural resources worthy of preservation. While designation through the National Register does offer a district or property some protections, it is only in cases where the threatening action involves the federal government. If the federal government is not involved the listing on the National Register provides the site, property or district no protections. For example, if company A wants to tear down the hypothetical Smith House and company A is under contract with the state government of Illinois the federal designation would offer no protections. If, company A was under federal contract the Smith House would be protected. A federal designation is little more than recognition by the government that the resource is worthy of preservation. In general, the criteria for acceptance to the National Register are applied but there are considerations for exceptions to the criteria and historic districts have influence on some of those exceptions; the National Register does not list religious structures, moved structures, reconstructed structures, or properties that have achieved significance within the last 50 years.
However, if a property falls into one of those categories and are "integral parts of districts that do meet the criteria" an exception allowing their listing will be made. Historic dis
Katharine Martha Houghton Hepburn
Katharine Martha Houghton Hepburn was a U. S. feminist social reformer and a leader of the suffrage movement in the United States. Hepburn served as president of the Connecticut Woman Suffrage Association before joining the National Woman's Party. Alongside Margaret Sanger, Hepburn co-founded the organization, she was the mother of Academy Award-winning actress Katharine Hepburn. Katharine Martha Houghton was born on February 1878 in Buffalo, New York, her family and friends familiarly referred to her as "Kit". She was the daughter of Caroline and Alfred Augustus Houghton, a member of the Houghton family of Corning Incorporated glass works, she was named in part after Martha Ann Spaulding Garlinghouse. Katharine had two younger sisters and Marion; when not in Buffalo and her family spent time at their property in the Athol Springs area of Hamburg, New York and in Corning, New York, the seat of the family business. In contrast to the conservative views of the Episcopal Houghton family and Alfred were progressive freethinkers.
Thus and her sisters were raised in a household that championed women's education and the ideas of the agnostic orator Robert G. Ingersoll. In 1892, her father Alfred Houghton committed suicide, leaving Caroline to raise their three children. Not long after, she was diagnosed with stomach cancer. Before her death in 1894, she inculcated her daughters Katharine as the eldest, with the importance of a college education. In her will, Caroline Houghton did not name a legal guardian for her daughters, preferring that they be independent to pursue their own aspirations. After her death, the girls' education remained a point of contention between the sisters and their uncle, Amory Houghton Jr. the family patriarch and president of Corning Glass. While Amory believed young women belonged in finishing school, Katharine had absorbed her mother's insistence on a college education. Despite consistent opposition from the Houghton family, she was able to realize the promise she had made to her mother. B. in history and political science.
She earned her master's degree in chemistry and physics the following year, although biographer Barbara Leaming claims Houghton's degree was in art history. She briefly attended Boston's Radcliffe College. After completing preparatory studies at Baldwin School, her sisters and Marion, received degrees from Bryn Mawr in 1901 and 1906 respectively. Hepburn became interested in the suffrage movement and co-founded the Hartford Equal Franchise League in 1909; the following year, this organization was absorbed into the Connecticut Woman's Suffrage Association and became a branch of the National American Woman Suffrage Association. As president of the CWSA, Hepburn represented the state of Connecticut as part of a 1913 deputation that met with President Woodrow Wilson to "seek some expression of the President of his attitude on the woman suffrage question." Earlier that year, Hepburn had played host to famed British suffragette, Emmeline Pankhurst, visiting Hartford on a speaking tour. In 1917, she resigned as CWSA president, declaring the Association to be "old-fashioned and supine."
She instead joined Alice Paul and the National Woman's Party, a suffrage organization with a more aggressive reputation. In an oral history interview, Paul recalled Hepburn as "the unquestioned leader of the suffragists... in Connecticut." She was elected to serve as legislative chairman of the organization's National Executive Committee. After the Nineteenth Amendment was ratified in 1920, members of the Democratic Party asked Hepburn to run for the US Senate. Though Dr. Hepburn supported his wife's work, he did not wish, she subsequently declined the offer. Having concluded her suffrage work, Hepburn allied herself with birth control advocate Margaret Sanger, a Socialist Party USA member, International Workers of the World organizer. Sanger, a New York native, remembered Hepburn as "the Kathy Houghton of my Corning childhood." Together they founded the American Birth Control League. The League would evolve into Planned Parenthood. Hepburn was elected chair of Sanger's National Committee on Federal Legislation for Birth Control.
In her autobiography, Sanger wrote of Hepburn: In her long public career she had learned great efficiency and she never let our witnesses run over their time. Just as we were swinging along briskly she invariably tugged at a coat and passed over a little slip –'time up in one minute.' In 1934, Sanger, Congressman Walter Marcus Pierce, others met with the House Judiciary Committee in Washington, D. C. to rally on behalf of a bill. Among those speaking against birth control was popular Catholic radio priest Charles Coughlin. Coughlin's on-air ministry coupled with the fact that Hepburn's daughter Katharine had by that time established a film career in Hollywood, led newspapers to announce the event under the headline "Radio Father v. Movie Ma." Coughlin condemned prophylactics as communistic, the House Committee rejected the bill. Despite the defeat, TIME magazine afterward published an article noting the success of the Hepburn/Sanger birth control propaganda in yielding favorable local results for its cause.
Throughout her career, Hepburn gave numerous speeches in cities around the East Coast, including speaking engagements at Carnegie Hall. Her words were not always popular.