Cedrus is a genus of coniferous trees in the plant family Pinaceae. They are native to the mountains of the western Himalayas and the Mediterranean region, occurring at altitudes of 1,500–3,200 m in the Himalayas and 1,000–2,200 m in the Mediterranean. Cedrus trees can grow up to 30–40 m tall with spicy-resinous scented wood, thick ridged or square-cracked bark, broad, level branches; the shoots are dimorphic, with long shoots, which form the framework of the branches, short shoots, which carry most of the leaves. The leaves are evergreen and needle-like, 8–60 mm long, arranged in an open spiral phyllotaxis on long shoots, in dense spiral clusters of 15–45 together on short shoots; the seed cones are barrel-shaped, 6–12 cm long and 3–8 cm broad, green maturing grey-brown, and, as in Abies, disintegrate at maturity to release the winged seeds. The seeds are 10–15 mm long, with a 20–30 mm wing. Cone maturation takes one year, with pollination in autumn and the seeds maturing the same time a year later.
The pollen cones are slender ovoid, 3–8 cm long, produced in late summer, shedding pollen in autumn. Cedars share a similar cone structure with the firs and were traditionally thought to be most related to them, but molecular evidence supports a basal position in the family; the five taxa of Cedrus are assigned according to taxonomic opinion to between one and four pecies: Cedars are adapted to mountainous climates. Cedars are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including pine processionary and turnip moth. Cedars are popular ornamental trees, are cultivated in temperate climates where winter temperatures do not fall below circa −25 °C; the Turkish cedar is hardier, to −30 °C or just below. Extensive mortality of planted specimens can occur in severe winters. Locales with successful longaeval cultivation include the Mediterranean region, western Europe north to the British Isles, southern Australia and New Zealand, southern and western North America. Cedar wood and cedar oil are natural repellents to moths, hence cedar is a popular lining for modern cedar chests and closets in which woolens are stored.
This specific use of cedar is mentioned in The Iliad, Book 24, referring to the cedar-roofed or lined storage chamber where Priam went to fetch treasures to be used as ransom. However, the species used for cedar chests and closets in North America is Juniperus virginiana, different from the true cedars. Cedar is commonly used to make shoe trees because it can absorb moisture and deodorise. Many species of cedar are suitable for training as bonsai, they work well for many styles, including formal and informal upright and cascading. In North America, Thuja species such as western red cedar are though mistakenly, confused with genuine cedars, as is J. virginiana, colloquially denominated "red cedar" or "eastern red cedar". While some naturalized Cedrus species grow in the Americas, none are native. Both the Latin word cedrus and the generic name cedrus are derived from Greek κέδρος kédros. Ancient Greek and Latin used the same word, kédros and cedrus for different species of plants now classified in the genera Cedrus and Juniperus.
Species of both genera are native to the area where Greek language and culture originated, though as the word kédros does not seem to be derived from any of the languages of the Middle East, it has been suggested the word may have applied to Greek species of juniper and was adopted for species now classified in the genus Cedrus because of the similarity of their aromatic woods. The name was applied to citron and the word citrus is derived from the same root. However, as a loan word in English, cedar had become fixed to its biblical sense of Cedrus by the time of its first recorded usage in AD 1000; the name "cedar" has more been applied to many other trees (such as western red cedar. Such usage is regarded by some authorities as a misapplication of the name to be discouraged. Cedars of God in the Kadisha Valley of Bsharri, Lebanon Cedar wood Media related to Cedrus at Wikimedia Commons
The 2020 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament is a planned single-elimination tournament of 68 teams to determine the men's National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I college basketball national champion for the 2019–20 season. The 82nd annual edition of the Tournament is scheduled to begin on March 17, 2020 and will conclude with the championship game on April 6 at Mercedes-Benz Stadium in Atlanta. Pending any changes to the current format, a total of 68 teams will enter the 2020 tournament. 32 automatic bids shall be awarded to each program. The remaining 36 bids are "at-large," with selections extended by the NCAA Selection Committee. Eight teams will play in the First Four; the winners of these games advance to the main draw of the tournament. The Selection Committee will seed the entire field from 1 to 68; the following are the sites selected to host each round of the 2020 tournament:First Four March 17 and 18 University of Dayton Arena, Ohio First and Second Rounds March 19 and 21 Times Union Center, New York Spokane Veterans Memorial Arena, Washington Enterprise Center, St. Louis, Missouri Amalie Arena, Florida March 20 and 22 Greensboro Coliseum, North Carolina CHI Health Center Omaha, Nebraska Golden 1 Center, California Rocket Mortgage FieldHouse, Ohio Regional Semifinals and Finals March 26 and 28 Midwest Regional, Lucas Oil Stadium, Indiana West Regional, Staples Center, Los Angeles, California March 27 and 29 South Regional, Toyota Center, Texas East Regional, Madison Square Garden, New York, New York National Semifinals and Championship April 4 and 6 Mercedes-Benz Stadium, Georgia CBS Sports and Turner Sports have US television rights to the tournament.
As part of a cycle that began in 2016, TBS will televise the 2020 Final Four and national championship game. First Four - TruTV First and Second Rounds - CBS, TBS, TNT, TruTV Regional Semifinals and Final - CBS and TBS National Semifinals and Championship - TBS 2020 NCAA Division I Women's Basketball Tournament 2020 NCAA Division II Men's Basketball Tournament 2020 NCAA Division III Men's Basketball Tournament 2020 NAIA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament 2020 National Invitation Tournament
Cicero is a monthly German magazine focusing on politics and culture. The magazine which has a liberal-conservative political stance is based in Berlin. Cicero was launched in Potsdam in March 2004; the magazine was moved to Berlin. The first editor-in-chief of the magazine was Wolfram Weimer, who served as the editor of the daily newspaper Die Welt from 2000 to 2002. Alexander Marguier was the editor-in-chief of Cicero until 2010. Michael Naumann worked for the magazine as an editor-in-chief between 2010 and 2012; the current editor-in-chief of the magazine is Christoph Schwennicke, appointed to the post in May 2012. The magazine has eleven editorial staff. Among its columnists are Bela Anda, Philipp Blom and Amelie Fried. In 2011, the magazine initiated the pencil heads project which covered the carved busts of leading politicians like Barack Obama into the lead of Cicero-branded pencils; these pencils were sent to their likenesses in special boxes to promote the magazine's interviews with major leaders.
Cicero has enjoyed increasing levels of circulation. It was 62,700 copies during the third quarter of 2005, it grew to 70,000 copies in the third quarter of 2006, to 73,200 copies in the third quarter of 2007 and to 77,077 copies for the second quarter of 2008. Its circulation further rose to 77,600 copies in the third quarter of 2008, to 81,000 copies in the third quarter of 2009 and to 82,600 copies in the third quarter of 2010; the magazine had a circulation of 83,527 copies in 2014. The contents of the magazine focus on opinion forming through first-hand views of the editors. Cicero has four main sections: The first section called "Weltbühne" provides analyses and discusses internationally significant topics and people; the second, "Berliner Republik", is a forum for German society. The next one, "Kapital", analyses economic affairs and the last one, "Salon", deals with the modern cultural life from different angles. In addition, the magazine's "Debate" section covers contribution of several leading figures including Al Gore and Prince Felix von Löwenstein.
The magazine publishes interviews the first of, with Gerhard Schröder, former German premier. In 2006, Dagmar Herzog featured her significant study on sexuality and morality, their relation to German fascism in the monthly. In December 2015 the magazine named the Russian President Vladimir Putin as the Man of the Year; the target audience of Cicero is German intellectuals looking for wider range of political views. The political stance of Cicero is liberal-conservative; the magazine's editing department was raided by the agents from federal criminal police office and searched by the public prosecutors of Potsdam on 12 September 2005 following its publication of a portrait of the Jordanian terrorist Abu Musab Zarqawi in April 2005. The incident was called "Cicero affair"; the German Supreme Court in Karlsruhe decided in February 2007 that the raid by the agents had been unconstitutional. List of magazines in Germany Official website
"Belle" is a 1997 song performed by the Francophone singers Patrick Fiori, Daniel Lavoie and Garou, from the musical Notre-Dame de Paris. Released as a single in 1998, it was a hit in France and Belgium, topping the charts for many months. To date, the song is one of the best-selling singles of all time in these countries; as for the songs from the musical, the text was written by Luc Plamondon, who had written the musical Starmania in 1978, the music composed by Richard Cocciante. The musical arrangements were made by Richard Cocciante, Jannick Top and Serge Perathoner who worked on the musical direction. "Belle" is a romantic song in which the three singers, who portrayed Quasimodo and Phoebus, reveal in turn their love for the gypsy Esmeralda, before singing together the last verse. The theme of the song is based in Victor Hugo's novel Notre Dame de Paris. In chapter VI of the Eighth book "Trois coeurs d'homme faits différemment", Frollo et Quasimodo watch Esmeralda, sentenced to death. Phoebus is with his fiancée and though he pales when seeing Esmerelda proving he has feelings for her, he stays with his Fleur-de-Lys.
Frollo is trying once again to propose Esmeralda a salvation, but in return he wants her to become his woman. And Quasimodo selflessly saves Esmeralda from death, only because of his enormous love for her. Since its debut, it has been professionally played in Belgium, China, Italy, Lebanon, Russia, South Korea, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom and United States, has been translated into seven languages; the song has thus been adapted in these six languages, but several covers have been made in various languages. The English-language version of the song, recorded by Steve Balsamo and Daniel Lavoie, is available on Notre Dame de Paris - Version anglaise; the song was charted on the French Singles Chart for 60 weeks, to date the second single with most total weeks in the Top 100, the first one in the top 50, with 49 weeks. It entered the chart at #96 on 9 May 1998, climbed reaching number one in its 18th week, one of the slowest climbs to first place, it was the first trio to reach #1 on this chart.
It had huge weekly sales when the musical was performed, from 12 September 1998. It stayed at the top for 18 consecutive weeks, at the time the record of the most weeks at #1. After that, the song managed to drop totaling 31 weeks in the top ten. Certified Diamond disc by the SNEP, it was the best-selling single of 1998, of the 1990s, the third one of all time in France, with about 2,221,000 copies sold. In Belgium, the single debuted at #24 on the Ultratop 40 Singles Chart, on 6 June 1998, it topped the chart for only six weeks, from 19 September to 24 October, but remained in the top ten for 30 consecutive weeks. It fell off the chart after 44 weeks, it is the most successful song from 1995 in that country. In 1999, the song was awarded'Song of the year' at the Victoires de la Musique. CD single"Belle" — 4:36 "Déchiré" by Patrick Fiori — 3:18
Craftsmanship of Black Forest clockmakers dates back to mid of the 17th century. A specialized branch of Black Forest clockmakers are the manufacturers of cuckoo clocks. Black Forest clock production began in the mid-17th century; the first range of clocks were of simple design. The popularity of clocks from Black Forest grew, plates and clock faces became more sophisticated, it is said. Black Forest clocks gained in reputation. In the first half of the 18th century, wooden wheels were used in Black Forest clock manufacturing. In the second half of the 18th century, technical progress led to winding wheels being produced in yellow brass. Towards the end of the 18th century, plate clocks for the wall were produced, they had wooden panels. At the end of the 18th century, Jacob Herbstreith manufactured small wall clocks with plates in porcelain or brass. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Sorgs, a clockmaker family, produced a small wall clock; the heart core of Black forest clock production was an area that extended from Triberg via Furtwangen to St. Peter.
In 1850, the Duchy of Baden founded the first school for clockmakers in Furtwangen in order to improve the standard of production and make it more efficient. Several times of crisis followed. In the mid-19th century, mass production began, but after the American Civil War, elements of the US war industry switched to competitive clock production. German clock manufacturers thus lost market share. Special types of clock were developed: the cuckoo clock, the figurine clock, clocks that chimed the hours, the bracket clock and the grandfather clock. At the beginning of the 20th century, the clock industry prospered but collapsed as the First World War broke out and, the Russian and American markets broke away. After the Second World War, exports boosted production. In the 1970s, the advent of new plastic clock cases and quartz clockworks lead to serious restructuring; the new methods meant many workers became redundant and brought higher competition from the newly industrialized countries. The introduction of LCD watches led to further painful restructuring.
The number of employed clockworkers shrunk from 28,000 in 1973 to 21,000 in 1976. The export-oriented German clock industry had to weather a roller-coaster of unstable exchange rates, lower growth rates, high competition from developing countries and continual technological change.“ Continuing new techniques and globalization affect the Black Forest clock industry. The German Clock Museum has in its collection some early Black Forest clocks with wooden cogwheels as well as a number of industrially produced Black Forest clocks; the German Clock Route is a themed route that connects places with relevant museums and clock manufacturers in the Black Forest. Aktiengesellschaft für Uhrenfabrikation Lenzkirch Badische Uhrenfabrik Furtwangen AG Johann Baptist Beha Theodor Ketterer Mauthe Uhrenfabrik Villingen AG Emilian Wehrle Winterhalder & Hofmeier Württembergische Uhrenfabrik Bürk Hermle Hubert Herr Rombach & Haas Robert Herr SS technic August Schwer Bracket clocks and grandfather clocks by Black forest clockmakers are viewed on the German and American antique market as mechanical clocks of high craftsmenship.
Rick Ortenburger: Black Forest Clocks. Schiffer Publications, Atglen, Pennsylvania, USA, 1991. ISBN 0-88740-300-X. Helmut Kahlert:300 Jahre Schwarzwälder Uhrenindustrie, Katz, 2007, ISBN 978-3-938047-15-6. Herbert Jüttemann: Die Schwarzwalduhr. Badenia-Verlag, Karlsruhe, 2000, ISBN 978-3-89735-360-2. Ekkehard Liehl, Wolf Dieter Sick: Der Schwarzwald. Beiträge zur Landeskunde. Veröffentlichungen des Alemannischen Instituts, 47, Freiburg im Breisgau, 4th edn. 1989. Berthold Schaaf: Schwarzwalduhren. G. Braun Buchverlag, Karlsruhe, 4th edition, 2008. ISBN 978-3-7650-8391-4.. Gerd Bender: Die Uhrmacher des hohen Schwarzwalds und ihre Werke. Vol. 1, 1998, Vol. 2 1978. Verlag Müller, Villingen.. German clock Museum in Furtwangen in Black Forest ErfinderZeiten – Clock Museum in Schramberg Private collection of historical Black Forest clocks in the USA Private collection of historical Black Forest clocks in the Czech Republic
Dejean's theorem is a statement about repetitions in infinite strings of symbols. It belongs to the field of combinatorics on words. In the study of strings, concatenation is seen as analogous to multiplication of numbers. So, for instance, if s is any string the concatenation s s of two copies of s is called the square of s, denoted s 2; this exponential notation may be extended to fractional powers: if s has length ℓ, e is a non-negative rational number of the form n / ℓ s e denotes the string formed by the first n characters of the infinite repetition s s s s s …. A square-free word is a string. In particular, it avoids repeating the same symbol consecutively, repeating the same pair of symbols, etc. Axel Thue showed that there exists an infinite square-free word using a three-symbol alphabet, the sequence of differences between consecutive elements of the Thue–Morse sequence. However, it is not possible for an infinite two-symbol word to be square-free. For alphabets of two symbols, there do exist infinite cube-free words, words with no substring of the form s s s.
One such example is the Thue–Morse sequence itself. More the Thue–Morse sequence contains no substring, a power greater than two. In 1972, Dejean investigated the problem of determining, for each possible alphabet size, the threshold between exponents e for which there exists an infinite e -power-free word, the exponents for which no such word exists; the problem was solved for two-symbol alphabets by the Thue–Morse sequence, Dejean solved it as well for three-symbol alphabets. She conjectured a precise formula for the threshold exponent for every larger alphabet size. Let k be the number of symbols in an alphabet. For every k, define RT , the repeat threshold, to be the infimum of exponents e such that there exists an infinite e -power-free word on a k -symbol alphabet. Thus, for instance, the Thue–Morse sequence shows that RT = 2, an argument based on the Lovász local lemma can be used to show that RT is finite for all k. Dejean's conjecture is that the repeat threshold can be calculated by the simple formula RT = k k − 1 except in two exceptional cases: RT = 7 4 and RT = 7 5.
Dejean herself proved the conjecture for k = 3. The case k = 4 was proven by Jean-Jacques Pansiot in 1984; the next progress was by Moulin Ollagnier in 1992, who proved the conjecture for all alphabet sizes up to k ≤ 11. This analysis was extended up to k ≤ 14 in 2007 by Currie. In the other direction in 2007, Arturo Carpi showed the conjecture to be true for large alphabets, with k ≥ 33; this reduced the problem to a finite number of remaining cases, which were solved in 2009 and published in 2011 by Currie and Rampersad and independently by Rao. An infinite string that meets Dejean's formula is called a Dejean word. Thus, for instance, the Thue–Morse sequence is a Dejean word