Ceiba pentandra is a tropical tree of the order Malvales and the family Malvaceae, native to Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean, northern South America, to tropical west Africa. A somewhat smaller variety is found throughout the East Indies. Kapok is a name used in English speaking countries for both the tree and the cotton-like fluff obtained from its seed pods. In Spanish speaking countries the tree is known as "ceiba"; the tree is cultivated for the seed fibre in south-east Asia, is known as the Java cotton, Java kapok, silk-cotton, samauma, or ceiba. The tree grows to 240 ft, as confirmed by climbing and tape drop with reports of Kapoks up to 252 feet. Trunks can be up to 3 m in diameter above the extensive buttress roots; the largest individuals, can be 19 feet thick or more above the buttresses. The buttress roots can be seen in photographs extending 40 to 50 feet up the trunk of some specimens and extending out from the trunk as much as 65 feet and continuing below ground to a total length of 165 feet The trunk and many of the larger branches are crowded with large simple thorns.
These major branches 4 to 6 in number, can be up to 6 feet thick and form a crown of foliage as much as 201 feet in width. The palmate leaves are composed of each up to 20 cm long; the trees produce several hundred 15 cm pods containing seeds surrounded by a fluffy, yellowish fibre, a mix of lignin and cellulose. The referenced reports make it clear; the commercial tree is most cultivated in the rainforests of Asia, notably in Java, the Philippines and Hainan Island in China, as well as in South America. The flowers are an important source of pollen for honey bees and bats. Bats are the primary pollinators of the night-blooming flowers. Native tribes along the Amazon River harvest the fibre to wrap around their blowgun darts; the fibres create a seal. The fibre is light buoyant, resistant to water, but it is flammable; the process of harvesting and separating the fibre is manual. It is difficult to spin, but is used as an alternative to down as filling in mattresses, upholstery and stuffed toys such as teddy bears, for insulation.
It was much used in life jackets and similar devices until synthetic materials replaced the fibre. The seeds produce an oil, used locally in soap and can be used as fertilizer. Ceiba pentandra bark decoction has been used as a diuretic, to treat headache, as well as type II diabetes, it is used as an additive in some versions of the psychedelic drink Ayahuasca. A vegetable oil can be pressed from the seeds; the oil has a pleasant, mild odour and taste, resembling cottonseed oil. It becomes rancid when exposed to air. Kapok oil is produced in India and Malaysia, it has an iodine value of 85–100. The oil has some potential in paint preparation; the tree is a sacred symbol in Maya mythology. According to the folklore of Trinidad and Tobago, the Castle of the Devil is a huge C. pentandra growing deep in the forest in which Bazil the demon of death was imprisoned by a carpenter. The carpenter tricked the devil into entering the tree in which he carved seven rooms, one above the other, into the trunk. Folklore claims.
Most masks coming from Burkina Faso those of Bobo and Mossi people, are carved from C. pentandra timber. Ceiba pentandra is the national emblem of Guatemala, Puerto Rico, Equatorial Guinea, it appears on the coat of arms and flag of Equatorial Guinea. The Cotton Tree is a landmark in downtown Freetown, Sierra Leone, is considered a symbol of freedom for the slaves that immigrated there. Fiber crop Parque de la Ceiba Media related to Ceiba pentandra at Wikimedia Commons Kapok Fibers Seed Fibers Germplasm Resources Information Network: Ceiba pentandra Ceiba pentandra in Brunken, U. Schmidt, M. Dressler, S. Janssen, T. Thombiano, A. & Zizka, G. 2008. West African plants – A Photo Guide. Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, Frankfurt/Main
Yonsei University is a private research university in Seoul, South Korea. It is one of Korea's three SKY universities, a group of universities regarded as the most prestigious in the country. Yonsei is one of the oldest universities in South Korea; the student body consists of 26,731 undergraduate students, 11,994 graduate students, 4,518 faculty members, 6,788 staff, 257,931 alumni. Yonsei operates its main campus in Seoul and offers graduate and doctoral programs in Korean and English; the university was established in January 1957 through the union of Yonhi College and Severance Union Medical College. This was a result of a lasting bilateral cooperation between the colleges; the institutions were new to Korea at the time of their inception. Yonhi College was one of the first modern colleges, founded as Chosun Christian College in March 1915. Severance has its roots in the first modern medical center in Korea, founded in April, 1885; as a tribute, the name "Yonsei" was derived from the first syllables of the names of its two parent institutions, "Yon.
The Yonsei University Medical School dates to April 10, 1885, when the first modern hospital to practice Western medicine in Korea, was established. The hospital was founded by Horace Newton Allen, the American protestant missionary appointed to Korea by the Presbyterian Church in the USA The hospital was renamed Jejungwon on April 26; as there appeared difficulties, the church appointed Canadian Oliver R. Avison to run Jejungwon on July 16, 1893. Gwanghyewon was financed at first by the Korean government, while the medical staff was provided by the church. However, by 1894 when the First Sino-Japanese War and Gabo reforms took place, the government was not able to continue its financial support, thus management of Jejungwon came under the church. In 1899, Avison returned to the US and attended a conference of missionaries in New York City where he elaborated on the medical project in Korea. Louis Severance, a businessman and philanthropist from Cleveland, was present and was moved, he paid for the major portion of the construction costs of new buildings for the medical facility.
Jejungwon was renamed Severance Hospital after him. Jejungwon was a hospital, but it performed medical education as an attachment; the hospital admitted its first class of 16 medical students selected through examinations in 1886, one year after its establishment. By 1899, Jejungwon Medical School was independently recognized. Following the increase of diversity in missionary denominations in Korea, collaboration began to form. Jejungwon began to receive medical staff, school faculty, financial support from the Union Council of Korean Missionaries in 1912. Accordingly, the medical school was renamed as Severance Union Medical College in 1913; the rest of Yonsei University traces its origins to Chosun Christian College, founded on March 5, 1915, by an American Protestant missionary, Horace Grant Underwood sent by the church. Underwood became the first president, Avison became the vice president, it was located at the YMCA. Courses began in April with 18 faculty members. Underwood died of illness on October 12, 1916, Avison took over as president.
On August 22, 1910, Japan annexed Korea with the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1910. The first Governor-General of Korea, Terauchi Masatake, introduced the Ordinance on Chosun Education in 1911, subsequently Regulations on Professional Schools and Revised Regulations on Private Schools in March, 1915; these were intended to stifle private education in Korea. Severance Union College struggled to meet these requirements, it received its recognition as a professional medical school on May 14, 1917. In 1922 the governor-general Makoto Saito issued Revised Ordinance on Chosun Education, it called for stricter qualifications for the faculty, Severance reacted obediently and further recruited more members with degrees from accredited institutions in North America and Europe. Japan did not ignore the competence of this institution. Moreover, in March 1934, the Japanese Ministry of Education and Culture further recognized Severance in allowing its graduates the right to practice medicine anywhere in Japanese sovereignty.
Oh Geung Seon became the first Korean president of Severance in 1934. Ordinances in 1915 and 1922 affected the fate of Chosun Christian College. Intended as a college, it was not recognized as such, since the Ordinance of 1915 did not allow the establishment of Korean private colleges. Hence, Chosun Christian College, now renamed Yonhi College, was accepted only as a "professional school" on April 17, 1917 a joint project from diverse missionary denominations. However, Yonhi had formed the faculty becoming a university, it consisted of six departments: humanities, commerce, theology (this department did not open due to differences among the
Aurora Castillo better known as "la doña-- a title of respect given to her by her Latino community--" was a Mexican-American environmentalist from Los Angeles, California. She co-founded the Mothers of East Los Angeles in 1984; the MELA organization has fought against a scheduled oil pipeline, against a planned toxic waste incinerator, they stopped a waste treatment plant located close to a high school. Castillo was awarded the Goldman Environmental Prize in 1995. Aurora Castilla was a fourth generation Mexican. Family has always been important to her. "Three years ago, Arthur Castillo, her only brother, died of cancer at 74. Her twin, married and childless for 40 years, lives in Canoga Park. Another sister, Henrietta, 78, lives with Castillo in their childhood home." Her father, a U. S. Navy regimental sergeant bugler during World War I, was her hero. Aurora Castillo's career as an activist began in 1984 when her local priest of the East Los Angeles church asked the woman parishioners to protest the construction of a state prison in the neighborhood.
The prison would have been the eight in the area and the woman united to form MELA. The women were motivated to protect their children and did so by informing the community of the threat of having a prison in their neighborhood, executing protesting marches every Monday and uniting with other groups like the Coalition Against the Prison in East Los Angeles. MELA continued to grow in experience. In 1987 MELA began a successful fight against the Lancer Project. In 1988 MELA fought against another toxic waste incinerator. In 1989 MELA united with High School students from Huntington to stop a chemical plant treatment. MELA takes part in the water conservation program, leads a lead poison awareness program and sponsors higher education programs. Aurora Castillo was awarded the Goldman Environmental prize in 1995
Hollyoaks is a British soap opera, broadcast on Channel 4 since 23 October 1995. It was devised by Phil Redmond, who had conceived the Channel 4 soap Brookside; the programme is set in the fictional village of Hollyoaks, a suburb of Chester, is filmed at Lime Pictures in Childwall, Liverpool. When Hollyoaks premiered, it aired just one episode weekly. At its inception, the soap was targeted towards an adolescent and young adult audience, but now has broadened its appeal to all age groups, it has famously covered many taboo subjects seen on British television. Beginning with a cast of fourteen characters, the serial now has upwards of fifty cast members; the longest-serving cast member is Nick Pickard, who plays Tony Hutchinson and has done since the first episode. The programme has won 39 British Soap Awards, 18 Inside Soap Awards, one TRIC Award and one National Television Award. Hollyoaks has won the award for Best British Soap at the British Soap Awards twice, in 2014 and 2019. Hollyoaks is produced by Lime Pictures and is filmed at studios in Childwall, Liverpool.
Bryan Kirkwood joined the show as executive producer in 2006, but left three years to become producer of EastEnders. After he left his role in 2009, a number of producers worked on the show, resulting in a number of creative reinventions and changes in direction during this time. Lucy Allan was named as Kirkwood's successor. In 2010, Allan announced she was to step down from the series after only a year, being replaced by Paul Marquess. Speaking of her decision, Allan stated: "I am proud to have been part of the Hollyoaks team. I've had a fantastic time working on this show but am now excited about what the future will hold." On his upcoming role of series producer, Marquess said: "Taking up this position at Lime Pictures feels like I'm going home, as I began my career working with both Carolyn and Tony at Granada and my first major project was Brookside at Mersey Television. I'm a huge soap fan so to be handed the reins of Channel 4's flagship teen drama is not only a huge challenge but a massive honour."
Lime Pictures creative director Tony Wood added: "I'd like to thank Lucy Allan for making such a contribution to Hollyoaks over the years and wish her well for the future. It's exciting to be working with Paul Marquess again. He's one of the best showrunners in the business; this is a brilliant appointment for Hollyoaks." Only one day after being announced as the new producer, Marquess began work on the soap opera. A Channel 4 spokesperson stated: "It's all been a quick turnaround at the top, it was announced in January 2011 that Marquess would leave his role as series producer and would be succeeded by Hollyoaks production team member Gareth Philips. Discussing the news, Philips said: "I have enjoyed working in the script team at Hollyoaks and it will be a huge honour to take the reins of Channel 4's flagship youth drama. I am excited about taking the show further this year with more compelling and brave stories." Emma Smithwick replaced Philips in autumn 2011. In late-September 2012, it was announced that Bryan Kirkwood would be returning to Hollyoaks, replacing Emma Smithwick.
The original style of this sequence has changed on many occasions. It was announced on 19 June 2010 that new titles with a new theme tune, "slowed right down", would be used in new series producer Paul Marquess' first episode, which aired on 5 July 2010. However, on 2 July, the titles were delayed for one week; the titles were delayed for a second time due to "technical difficulties". On 10 September 2010, Channel 4 confirmed the new Hollyoaks titles and theme music would air from 13 September. However, the titles were different from pictures of filming of the original credits, suggesting a reshoot was the reason for the delay. Marquess commented: "We're excited about the new titles that the viewers will see on Channel 4 on Monday. They're glossy and Hollyoaks." He apologised for the delay, saying: "We're sorry to the fans who have been waiting to see them, but they've taken a while to perfect. I'm happy with them and I hope that the fans like the new-look show."It was announced in August 2016 that a new title sequence would begin airing from 5 September 2016, which would launch the show's "action-packed Autumn storyline".
The new title sequence features shots of characters on the show's set. Executive producer Bryan Kirkwood said. I think they are vibrant and glossy and from the first opening guitar riff feel Hollyoaks." Shots from the new title sequence included Ste Hay riding a carousel with his children, Leah Barnes and Lucas Hay, Sienna Blake lying on a bed of petals, Mercedes McQueen appearing in the village dressed in a "striking red dress". On 13 May 2019, a new title sequence, as well as altered theme music, was launched. Hollyoaks is the only British soap to make use of incidental music, The main theme was written and performed by Steve Wright, who has produced music and themes for Brookside and Grange Hill. A number of real acts have performed during transmitted episodes of the series; the Alphites were the first band to perform on the show. They played in the SU Bar. In 2003, Pop Idol runner up. I
"Arnie" Paul Robinson Jr. is a retired American athlete. He won a bronze medal in the long jump at the 1972 Olympics and a gold medal in 1976. Arnie Paul Robinson Jr. stayed in the San Diego area throughout his career, first at Samuel F. B. Morse High School San Diego Mesa College and San Diego State University, where he was the 1970 NCAA Men's Outdoor Track and Field Champion in the long jump; the following year he won his first USA Outdoor Track and Field Championships title, representing the San Diego Track Club. That qualified him to go to the Athletics at the 1971 Pan American Games, where he won the Gold Medal. In 1972 he won the USA Championships again, this time representing the U. S. Army; that was the first time. In Munich that year he was third in the Olympics behind youngster Randy Williams, setting the still standing World Junior Record in the long jump. Starting in 1975, Robinson went on to win four straight USA Outdoor Championships, representing an assortment of clubs; the 1975 championship qualified Robinson to again go to the Pan Am Games, where he won the silver medal behind the first of 4 jumping gold medals for João Carlos de Oliveira of Brazil.
In 1976, he bested Williams in both the Olympic Trials and the Olympics, taking home the Gold Medal and a career best 8.35m jump. In 1977, his National Championship qualified him to go to the first World Cup meet in Düsseldorf, where he again took home Gold. In 2000, Robinson was elected into the USATF National Field Hall of Fame. Earlier that year, he was injured in an auto accident; as of 2005, he was teaching physical education courses at Mesa College in San Diego. He was the head track coach at Mesa College, starting in 1982. On April 13, 2013, San Diego Mesa College honored the Olympian Long Jumper by naming their Invitational after him, presenting him with an award. Arnie Robinson at World Athletics USATF Hall of Fame
Nuclear Chaos is a Mexican melodic death metal band from Tehuacán, Puebla based in Mexico City, founded in 2009 by guitarist and vocalist Anuar Solís, guitarist and bassist Christian García, drummer Rudy Paz. Nuclear Chaos's current line-up comprises founding member Solís, guitarist Pablo Gutiérrez, bassist Lou Alpízar, drummer Johnny Chávez. Nuclear Chaos was formed in 2009 in Tehuacán, Puebla by guitarist and vocalist Anuar Solís, guitarist and bassist Christian García, drummer Rudy Paz; this first formation of the band recorded the demo Ruins of the Future. Songs from this demo would be rerecorded for their first official releases, including an EP with the same title. Due to personal and creative problems, García left the band in 2011, leading to the incorporation of guitarist Pablo Gutiérrez and bassist Jerónimo Chanona; the band recorded their debut album Absolution, released on March 2, 2013. On July 21, 2014, the band played for the first time MetalDays in Tolmin, Slovenia, as part of Young Forces contest.
Nuclear Chaos ended as one of the five best bands, earning them a spot at MetalDays 2015's Main Stage. That year, Paz left the band and Bart Chanona, brother of bandmate Jerónimo Chanona, took over as drummer. 2015 saw the release of their first EP, Ruins of the Future, released on February 9. The EP consisted of rerecordings from their demo album of the same name, which included a collaboration with Morbid Angel's ex-vocalist David Vincent for "Suffocate", it was released as a double album along their debut album Absolution. A music video for "Suffocate" was released on January 10 via YouTube, which included Vincent's participation. On July 23, 2015, Nuclear Chaos repeated MetalDays, this time at the Main Stage on Thursday, as winners of previous year Young Forces contest, they shared stage with bands such as Arch Crowbar. A week they represented Mexico at Wacken Open Air Metal Battle, playing the Headbangers Stage on Wednesday, July 29. After a six-month hiatus, the band returned to stages on August, 2016, meanwhile working on their second album.
On August 8, the band released a music video for a new single, "Shockwave". This single, along with songs such as "Remain in the Darkness" and "Mi Guerra", the band's first approach to Spanish lyrics, were debuted during their Reborn Tour; this tour has taken the band to seven cities in nine dates across Mexico, including Force Fest in Guadalajara, Jalisco. On March 16, 2017, the band announced Unite as their second album's title; the first single, "Remain in the Darkness", was released via YouTube on May 15. On May 2, 2017, the band announced the departure of both Chanona brothers due to personal and professional interests. On July 17, the band presented their new lineup, with Lou Alpízar as bassist and Rubén Vega as drummer. On November 7, the band released tracklist for Unite, announced the album's release date for February, 2018; the album will feature collaborations by several Mexican metal singers, such as S7N's Mao Kanto, Here Comes The Kraken's Tts, Driven's Mireya Mendoza. On November 21, "Ashes" was released as the second single through Summa Inferno.
On August 15, 2018, Rubén Vega decided to quit the band to focus on his other musical proyects. Johnny Chávez, from the Mexican band Acrania, joins the band as a drummer. Anuar Solís – vocals, guitars Pablo Gutiérrez – guitars Lou Alpízar - bass, backing vocals Johnny Chavez - drums Christian García - guitars, bass Rudy Paz – drums Jerónimo Chanona - bass, backing vocals Bart Chanona - drums Ruben Vega - drums Johnny Chavez - drums Rafael - drums Facebook Page Encyclopaedia Metallum