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Celebrity is the fame and public attention accorded by the mass media to individuals or groups or animals, but is applied to the persons or groups of people themselves who receive such a status of fame and attention. Celebrity status is associated with wealth, while fame through entertainment are associated with celebrity status, while political leaders become celebrities. People may become celebrities due to media attention on their lifestyle, wealth, or controversial actions, or for their connection to a famous person. Athletes in Ancient Greece were welcomed home as heroes, had songs and poems written in their honor, received free food and gifts from those seeking celebrity endorsement. Ancient Rome lauded actors and notorious gladiators, Julius Caesar appeared on a coin in his own lifetime. In the early 12th century, Thomas Becket became famous following his murder, he was promoted by the Christian Church as a martyr and images of him and scenes from his life became widespread in just a few years.

In a pattern repeated, what started out as an explosion of popularity turned into long-lasting fame: pilgrimages to Canterbury Cathedral where he was killed became fashionable and the fascination with his life and death have inspired plays and films. The cult of personality can be traced back to the Romantics in the 18th century, whose livelihood as artists and poets depended on the currency of their reputation; the establishment of cultural hot-spots became an important factor in the process of generating fame: for example and Paris in the 18th and 19th centuries. Newspapers started including gossip columns and certain clubs and events became places to be seen in order to receive publicity; the movie industry spread around the globe in the first half of the 20th century and now, the familiar concept of the recognizable faces of its superstars. Yet, celebrity was not always tied to actors in films when cinema was starting out as a medium; as Paul McDonald states in The Star System: Hollywood's Production of Popular Identities, "in the first decade of the twentieth century, American film production companies withheld the names of film performers, despite requests from audiences, fearing that public recognition would drive performers to demand higher salaries."

Public fascination went well beyond the on-screen exploits of movie stars and their private lives became headline news: for example, in Hollywood the marriages of Elizabeth Taylor and in Bollywood the affairs of Raj Kapoor in the 1950s. The second half of the century saw television and popular music bring new forms of celebrity, such as the rock star and the pop group, epitomised by Elvis Presley and the Beatles, respectively. John Lennon's controversial 1966 quote: "We're more popular than Jesus now," which he insisted was not a boast, that he was not in any way comparing himself with Christ, gives an insight into both the adulation and notoriety that fame can bring. Unlike movies, television created celebrities who were not actors. However, most of these are only famous within the regions reached by their particular broadcaster, only a few such as Oprah Winfrey, Jerry Springer, or David Frost could be said to have broken through into wider stardom. In the'60s and early'70s, the book publishing industry began to persuade major celebrities to put their names on autobiographies and other titles in a genre called celebrity publishing.

In most cases, the book was not written by the celebrity but by a ghost-writer, but the celebrity would be available for a book tour and appearances on talk shows. People may become celebrities in a wide range of ways; the term "instant celebrity" describes someone who becomes a celebrity in a short period of time. Someone who achieves a small amount of transient fame may become labeled a "B-grade celebrity"; the generalization extends to someone who falls short of mainstream or persistent fame but who seeks to extend or exploit it. There are, of course. Though celebrities come from many different working fields, most celebrities are associated with the fields of sports and entertainment, or a person may be a public figure, recognizable in mass media with commercial and critical acclaim. Though glamour and wealth may play a role for only famous celebrities, most people in the sports and entertainments spheres, be it music, television, modelling, literature etc. live in obscurity and only a small percentage achieve fame and fortune.

Outside of the sports and entertainment sphere, the top inventors, professionals such as doctors and scientists, etc. are unlikely to become celebrities if they are enormously successful in their field due to society's disinterest in science, invention and courtroom law, not fictional. American microbiologist Maurice Hilleman is credited with saving more lives than any other medical scientist of the 20th century. After Hilleman's death Ralph Nader wrote, "Yet no one knew about him, saw him on television, or read about him in newspapers or magazines, his anonymity, in comparison with Madonna, Michael Jackson, Jose Canseco, or an assortment of grade B actors, tells something about our society's and media's concepts of celebrity. A number of athl

Bourne Co. Music Publishers

Bourne Co. Music Publishers is an American publisher of sheet music, one of the largest held international music publishers in the world, with over three thousand titles in their catalogue. Subsidiaries include Bourne Music Canada Limited, Bourne Music France, Bourne Music Ltd.. Bourne Music was founded in 1919 by Max Winslow and Irving Berlin. Bourne had been the professional manager of Irving Berlin Music. One day, Berlin accused Bornstein of putting fake contracts through the company. According to Irving Berlin biographer Laurence Bergreen, "The two antagonists met shortly after the confrontation, Berlin offered Bornstein a way to leave the company and save face, it was, under the circumstances, a generous deal. Berlin would retain the copyrights to — and thus the right to publish — his own songs, Bornstein could take the copyrights to all other songs published by Berlin's company; those non-Berlin songs amounted to a large share of the business — not half, but enough for Bornstein to become the proprietor of a lucrative music publishing company without having to do anything except agree to Berlin's conditions."The partnership between Bourne and Berlin ended in 1944.

The former "Irving Berlin, Inc." was renamed to "Bourne, Inc." while Berlin's publications were issued by the "Irving Berlin Music Company."Saul's wife Bonnie took over the running of the company when he died in 1957, their daughter took over when she died in 1993. The daughter of Saul and Bonnie, Beebe Bourne was the modern day publisher until her death, 1 Nov 2005. Bonnie and Beebe Bourne were the only two women in history to receive the Abe Olman Publisher Award from the Songwriters Hall of Fame; the company's copyrights consist of classics, Charlie Chaplin songs, the soundtracks to early Disney motion pictures such as Snow White and Dumbo. Its office is in New York City. In 1995, Bourne Co was taken to court by Harry Woods over his song, "When the Red, Robin Comes Bob, Bobbin' Along"; the University of California School of law noted that "This case involves an obscure area of copyright law" regarding derivative works derived from the original song and Woods' right to terminate the license under Section 304 of the Copyright Act.

The appeal court sided with the defendant. In 1995, Bourne Co took the Walt Disney Company to court over alleged copyright infringement over "Disney's sale of videocassette recordings featuring Bourne's copyrighted compositions from the motion pictures Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and Pinocchio, "related to Disney's use of the Compositions in television commercials"; the jury rejected Bourne's claim of video copyright infringement, but found in favour of Bourne's claim over the use of the material in TV commercials. In 1997, the British newspaper, the Independent, noted that: "Phil Spector won back the United Kingdom copyright to his first hit, "To Know Him is to Love Him" that Bourne Music had no rights to the copyright after December 1986." While Bourne Music's website notes that it aims "to maintain the integrity and strength of the copyrights entrusted to our care whether they are beloved standards or lesser-known songs", the company has been criticized for demanding copyright fees from a 10-year-old girl who used the song "Smile" in an online charity video.

Eternally from Limelight Smile from Modern Times Terry's Theme from Limelight "Heigh-Ho" "When You Wish Upon A Star" "Whistle While You Work" "Who's Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf?" "Ain't Nobody Here But Us Chickens" "Are You Lonesome Tonight?" "Black Magic Woman" "Bring Me Sunshine" "Me and My Shadow" "My Mammy" "On The Good Ship Lollipop" "Popcorn" "Swinging on a Star" "Witch Doctor" Category:Music published by Bourne Co. Music Publishers Official website Beebe Bourne, death notice, in the New York Times "Publishing Legend Beebe Bourne Dies" by Margo Whitmore, on Beebe Bourne President of the Music Publishers Association, arrives at the 2005 Songwriters Hall Of Fame induction ceremony

Gareth Mitchell

Gareth Mitchell is a Welsh technology journalist and former broadcast engineer. Mitchell was born Gareth James Mitchell in England to a Welsh father, and was a member of the computer society at school as well as bellringing and organ playing at his local church. He joined the BBC during the mid-1990s. Mitchell decided to trade climbing TV and radio transmitter towers for science and technology journalism, his first hosting role was for The Lab. He presents on the BBC most notably as the host of Digital Planet a BBC radio programme broadcast worldwide on the BBC World Service with Bill Thompson, he additionally writes for the Q & A section of the BBC branded Science Focus magazine and hosts their podcast He has lectured at Imperial College London since 1998 in broadcast and written journalism on the Science Communication and Science Media Production MScsHe was the host of TEDx Imperial Gareth being interviewed by the'Speaking of Science' podcast Gareth's OpenLearn articles for the Open University

1911 Westbury by-election

The Westbury by-election was a Parliamentary by-election which returned one Member of Parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, elected by the first past the post voting system. The sitting Liberal Member for Westbury, Sir John Fuller, resigned his seat in the House of Commons on his appointment as Governor of Victoria, he had represented the constituency since 1900. The new Liberal candidate was Geoffrey Howard, the member for Eskdale in Cumberland, he had been defeated at the last general election in December 1910. Since he had served as a Private Secretary to the Prime Minister, H. H. Asquith; the Conservatives re-selected local man George Llewellen Palmer, their defeated candidate from the last election. He had been High Sheriff of Wiltshire in 1903 and since 1910 had been a Lieutenant-Colonel commanding the Royal Wiltshire Yeomanry. On an increased turnout, the Liberal Party held the seat with only a 1.8% swing against them. A General Election was due to take place by the end of 1915, by the autumn of 1914, the following candidates had been adopted to contest it at Westbury.

Liberal Party: Geoffrey Howard Unionist Party:George Llewellen PalmerHowever, due to the outbreak of war, there was no general election until 1918. At the 1918 general election, a former Liberal member of parliament, who had joined the Labour Party in 1916, intervened in the contest, handing the seat to the Unionists. Candidate endorsed by the Coalition Government

1st Yeşilçam Awards

The 1st Yeşilçam Awards, presented by the Turkish Foundation of Cinema and Audiovisual Culture and Beyoğlu Municipality, honored the best Turkish films of 2007 and took place on March 24, 2008, at the Lütfi Kırdar Congress and Exhibition Hall in Istanbul, Turkey. Winner: Bliss directed by Abdullah Oğuz At the Bar directed by Serdar Akar The White Angel directed by Mahsun Kırmızıgül The Edge of Heaven directed by Fatih Akın Egg directed by Semih Kaplanoğlu Winner: Fatih Akın for The Edge of Heaven Serdar Akar for At the Bar Barış Pirhasan for Adam and the Devil Abdullah Oğuz for Bliss Semih Kaplanoğlu for Egg Winner: Şener Şen for For Love and Honor Haluk Bilginer for Police Nejat İşler for At the Bar and Egg Uğur Polat for Fog and the Night Yetkin Dikinciler for Nazim Hikmet: Blue Eyed Giant Winner: Özgü Namal for Bliss Fadik Sevin Atasoy for Zeynep's Eight Days Nurgül Yeşilçay for Adam and the Devil and The Edge of Heaven Ülkü Duru for İyi Seneler Londra Winner: Tuncel Kurtiz for The Edge of Heaven İlyas Salman for Fog and the Night Uğur Polat for Nazim Hikmet: Blue Eyed Giant Rasim Öztekin for For Love and Honor Talat Bulut for Bliss Winner: Nursel Köse for The Edge of Heaven Derya Alabora for Adam and the Devil Lale Mansur for Bliss Melisa Sözen for Wish Me Luck Özge Özberk for Nazim Hikmet: Blue Eyed Giant Winner: Mirsad Heroviç for Bliss Eyüp Boz for Janjan Gökhan Atılmış for Fog and the Night Özgür Eken for Egg Rainer Klausman for The Edge of Heaven Winner: Fatih Akın for The Edge of Heaven İsmail Doruk for Adam and the Devil Kubilay Tuncer for Bliss Semih Kaplanoğlu & Orçun Köksal for Egg Yavuz Turgul for For Love and Honor Winner: Zülfü Livaneli for Bliss Fazıl Say for İyi Seneler Londra Mahsun Kırmızıgül & Yıldıray Gürgen for The White Angel Selim Demirlen for At the Bar Shantel for The Edge of Heaven Winner: Saadet Işıl Aksoy for Egg Ali Atay for İyi Seneler Londra Aslı Tandoğan for For Love and Honor Ferit Kaya for Nazim Hikmet: Blue Eyed Giant Fıratcan Aydın for Adam and the Devil Winner: The White Angel directed by Mahsun Kırmızıgül İyi Seneler Londra directed by Berkun Oya Wish Me Luck directed by Çağan Irmak The Last Ottoman: Knockout Ali directed by Mustafa Şevki Doğan Police directed by Onur Ünlü Yeşilçam Award Turkish films of 2007 2007 in film Official website for the awards

François Rotger

François Rotger is a French independent film director. Former photographer and music video director, his first feature film The Passenger debuted at the 2005 Locarno International Film Festival. From his early work, 74km avec elle and Jan author/director François Rotger explores the themes of deception and betrayal within the family circle leading to sudden and extreme violence. Rotger's first short film, made in 2001, was 74km avec elle featuring Bambou as the main character, a desenchanted wife sleeping with a man she's met on the road just to find her husband's car wrecked in a terrible car accident. In 2003, his second short film, with the French actor Jeannick Gravelines, was produced in France by Tom Dercourt. In 2004/2005, a first feature film, The Passenger, was shot in Japan; the severe weather conditions in north Canada delayed completion of the film edited and ready for the 2005 Locarno International Film Festival. It was produced in France and Japan. After Locarno, The Passenger was selected for Tokyo International Film Festival, Angers's Premiers Plans European Film Festival.

Since November 2009, a DVD has been released for The Passenger. During the shooting of the second half of the film, on location in Tokyo, Rotger started to work on a new project intended to be published as a novel. Working on some friend's biographical material, he soon realised. Based on both accurate events and fictional material, Story of Jen is presented as a reconstruction of a personal experience «It was like I was writing, feeling my distant friend’s hand on my shoulder». Story of Jen was shot in 2008, in Canada, starring Laurence Leboeuf, a young Canadian actress winner of 2009 Jutra award, Cesar-awarded French actress Marina Hands, Tony Ward, an underground icon starring in Bruce LaBruce’s controversial Hustler White. Once again, Rotger weaves fact and fiction, reporting on a «war zone» set within the family circle. Distortion of reality goes as far as an evocation of Tony Ward’s character’s last esoteric vision as he passes away. Story Of Jen proved dividing both the public and the press.

Cahiers du cinéma praised the "unique uncompromised vision", when others were just appalled by the graphic violence and the "disturbing description of a distressed adolescent psyche". Story of Jen premiered on 10 June 2009 and a DVD was released on November of the same year, it has been nominated to several international festivals, starting in August 2008 for the Locarno Festival, in official competition. François Rotger is credited for Story of Jen's original soundtrack, both as composer and performer] of the score. Rotger is working on EVLYXES, a modern epic based on both James Joyce and Homer's Odyssey. 2001 74km avec elle 2003 Jan 2005 The Passenger 2008 Story of Jen 2008 Story of Jen Original soundtrack and score, Unofficial website on Francois Rotger's work Francois Rotger's interview on Allocine