Regions of Peru
The regions of Peru are the first-level administrative subdivisions of Peru. Since its 1821 independence, Peru had been divided into departments but faced the problem of a centralization of political and economic power in its capital. Under the new arrangement, the former 24 departments plus the Callao Province has become regional circumscriptions, the province of Lima has been excluded from this process and does not form part of any region. Unlike the earlier departments, regions have a government and have a wide array of responsibilities within their jurisdiction. Under the 2002 Organic Law of Regional Governments, there is a process of transfer of functions from the central government to the regions. A2005 referendum for the merger of several failed to get the necessary electoral support. Peruvian regions and departments are subdivided in provinces and districts, the 1979 Peruvian Constitution contained provisions for the decentralization of power through the creation of autonomous regions, but they were not implemented.
As a way of creating a source of power, the regime established twelve autonomous regions on January 20,1989 in the hope of winning some elections at this level. However, due to the haste of their creation, these governments were not provided with fiscal resources of their own so they depended on the goodwill of the central government for funding. The 1990 presidential elections were marked by the discredit of political parties as evidenced in the election of Alberto Fujimori, Fujimori withheld financial transfers to regional governments and then, on December 29,1992, replaced them with government-designated Transitory Councils of Regional Administration. Having dissolved Congress in the 1992 Peruvian constitutional crisis, Fujimori called an election for a Constitutional Assembly which drafted the 1993 Constitution and this new text included provisions for the creation of regions with autonomous, elected governments but they were not carried out. A framework law on decentralization issued on January 30,1998, confirmed the permanence of transitory councils, Fujimori was forced to resign in November 2000 under accusations of authoritarianism and human rights violations.
After an interim government led by Valentín Paniagua, Alejandro Toledo was elected president for the 2001–2006 period on a platform that included creating regional governments. New regional governments were elected on November 20,2002, one in each of the former departments, the province of Lima, containing the capital, was excluded from the process thus it is not part of any region. In the 2002 elections, most regional governments went to parties in opposition, with going to the APRA and only one to Possible Peru. Thus, no merger was carried out, new elections for regional governments were held on November 19,2006, most regions went to local political movements rather than to national parties. The APRA, which had won the elections held on June 4,2006. The Regional Coordination Council has a role on planning and budget issues
Districts of Peru
The districts of Peru are the third-level country subdivisions of Peru. They are subdivisions of the provinces, which in turn are subdivisions of the regions or departments. There are 1,838 districts in total, in the dry Andean area, many districts have less than 3,500 inhabitants due to low population density in the area. In some cases, their populations have decreased in comparison to the days when they were founded, districts that are located at very high altitudes tend to be scarcely populated. These districts usually are large in area, have few available land for use, many basic government services do not reach all residents of these districts due to their difficult geography. Many lack financial means to govern their jurisdictions and they often have high emigration rates. A similar pattern can be observed in many districts located in the Peruvian Amazon rainforest, once important settlements created during the era of colonization, they nowadays do not offer much space for agriculture.
Deeper into the jungle, the districts of the selva alta have higher populations living on geographically large districts, districts located outside the colonized area have very low populations that are entirely composed of Native Amazonian tribes. All over the country, many districts have higher populations than the minimum required by law and these districts are old and tend to be smaller in area with high population densities since prehispanic times. Districts with a population of more than 10000 inhabitants should ideally be subdivided, particularly if they are large in area. Colonization happens quickly and boundaries of districts are not modified. This is less of a problem in the coast where communication is easier, reaching to large populations remain a problem in this area. This is a list of the top twenty Peruvian districts by population, population density, Source, INEI Source, INEI Source, INEI Source, INEI Regions of Peru Provinces of Peru Administrative divisions of Peru
Geography is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth. The first person to use the word γεωγραφία was Eratosthenes, Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of the Earth and its human and natural complexities—not merely where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be. It is often defined in terms of the two branches of geography and physical geography. Geography has been called the world discipline and the bridge between the human and the physical sciences, Geography is a systematic study of the Earth and its features. Traditionally, geography has been associated with cartography and place names, although many geographers are trained in toponymy and cartology, this is not their main preoccupation. Geographers study the space and the temporal database distribution of phenomena, because space and place affect a variety of topics, such as economics, climate and animals, geography is highly interdisciplinary.
The interdisciplinary nature of the approach depends on an attentiveness to the relationship between physical and human phenomena and its spatial patterns. Names of places. are not geography. know by heart a whole gazetteer full of them would not, in itself and this is a description of the world—that is Geography. In a word Geography is a Science—a thing not of mere names but of argument and reason, of cause, just as all phenomena exist in time and thus have a history, they exist in space and have a geography. Geography as a discipline can be split broadly into two main fields, human geography and physical geography. The former largely focuses on the environment and how humans create, manage. The latter examines the environment, and how organisms, soil, water. The difference between these led to a third field, environmental geography, which combines physical and human geography. Physical geography focuses on geography as an Earth science and it aims to understand the physical problems and the issues of lithosphere, atmosphere and global flora and fauna patterns.
Physical geography can be divided into broad categories, Human geography is a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns. It encompasses the human, cultural, and it requires an understanding of the traditional aspects of physical and human geography, as well as the ways that human societies conceptualize the environment. Integrated geography has emerged as a bridge between the human and the geography, as a result of the increasing specialisation of the two sub-fields. Examples of areas of research in the environmental geography include, emergency management, environmental management, geomatics is concerned with the application of computers to the traditional spatial techniques used in cartography and topography
Provinces of Peru
The provinces of Peru, known in Spanish as provincias, are the second-level administrative subdivisions of the country. There are 196 provinces in Peru, grouped into 25 regions except for the Lima Province which does not belong to any region and this makes an average of 7 provinces per region. The region with the fewest provinces is Callao and the region with the most is Ancash, while provinces in the sparsely populated Amazon rain forest of eastern Peru tend to be larger, there is a large concentration of them in the north-central area of the country. The province with the least number of districts is Purús Province, the province with the most districts is Lima Province, with 43 districts. The most common number of districts per province is 8, a total of 29 provinces share this number of districts, the table below shows all provinces with their capitals and the region in which they are located. The UBIGEO code uniquely identifies each province, capitals in bold are a regional capital. Provinces in which the capital is located all have an UBIGEO code ending in 01.
Administrative divisions of Peru Regions of Peru Districts of Peru Municipalities of Peru
Chachapoyas is a city in northern Peru at an elevation of 2,235 meters. The city has a population of approximately 20,279 people, situated in the mountains far from the Peruvian coast, Chachapoyas remains fairly isolated from other regions of Peru. Hikers and adventurers can visit the Chachapoya region There is daily service by bus to Chiclayo, the bus from Chiclayo is an overnight bus but to Cajamarca due to the difficult and winding roads the bus only goes during the day. The road to Cajamarca is a road so it is almost impossible to travel to Cajamarca during the rainy season from Chachapoyas. The city is served by Chachapoyas Airport, the city of Chachapoyas is the capital of the Amazonas Region. It was founded on September 5,1538 by the Spanish conquistador Alonso de Alvarado, local agriculture includes sugar cane and coffee growing. Named San Juan de la Frontera de los Chachapoyas, the city was first established near La Jalca, the citys original locations were abandoned due to climate, disease and a lack of defenses against rebelling local groups.
The location of the city changed several times, until it was settled in the place that it now occupies at 2334 m, at first the date of settlement had not been specified. It is believed that the Spanish colonials moved the city to its present location in 1545, the city still preserves its wide colonial casonas of big courts and lounges, with roofs made of tiles. Its Plaza de Armas is located to the west of the city, located on the south side of the plaza is a monument to the Hero of Arica, colonel Francisco Bolognesi. From the viceroyalty period dates the legend that the Indian chief Pantoja asked the viceroy for permission to put a roof in his house. This and other treasures would be hidden in one of the 40 caves that surround the city, at one time there was a lagoon surrounded with totoras and palm trees. From these plants, wood was extracted to build the temples of the city, the Kuélap stadium now stands this location. From the route of Bagua towards the Mayo River and Huallaga Central, the citys geographical location has determined its isolation until recently, when better roads were constructed between Chachapoyas and the cities of the northern Peruvian coast.
Chachapoyas is surrounded by extensive and matted wooded formations, during the rainy season, these formations are covered with a thick haze, from which the citys name may be derived. Another interpretation of the name Chachapoyas is the one that alludes its meaning of strong male, however, in some areas the temperature can drop to 2 °C. Chachapoyas has a climate and is moderately rainy. The annual average of maximum and minimum temperature is 19.8 °C and 9.2 °C, annual average precipitation accumulated for period 1960-1991 is 777.8 mm. Jiron Triunfo is the street which links the three principal plazas of the city
Peru, officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peruvian territory was home to ancient cultures spanning from the Norte Chico civilization in Caral, one of the oldest in the world, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty with its capital in Lima, ideas of political autonomy spread throughout Spanish America and Peru gained its independence, which was formally proclaimed in 1821. After the battle of Ayacucho, three years after proclamation, Peru ensured its independence, the country has undergone changes in government from oligarchic to democratic systems. Peru has gone through periods of political unrest and internal conflict as well as periods of stability, Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions.
It is a country with a high Human Development Index score. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing and fishing, the Peruvian population, estimated at 31.2 million in 2015, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages and this mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine and music. The name of the country may be derived from Birú, the name of a ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama. When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Perú. An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilasco de la Vega, son of an Inca princess, the Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru.
Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, the earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to approximately 9,000 BC. Andean societies were based on agriculture, using such as irrigation and terracing, camelid husbandry. Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money, the oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BC. These early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed mostly around the coastal, the Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BC along what is now Perus Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Incan culture. The Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BC was probably more of a religious than a political phenomenon, on the coast, these included the civilizations of the Paracas, Nazca and the more outstanding Chimu and Mochica.
Their capital was at Chan Chan outside of modern-day Trujillo, in the 15th century, the Incas emerged as a powerful state which, in the span of a century, formed the largest empire in pre-Columbian America with their capital in Cusco
Cajamarca is the capital and largest city of the Cajamarca Region as well as an important cultural and commercial center in the northern Andes. It is located in the highlands of Peru at approximately 2,750 m above sea level in the valley of the Mashcon river. Cajamarca had an population of about 226,031 inhabitants in 2015. Cajamarca has a highland climate, and the area has a very fertile soil. The city is known for its dairy products and mining activity in the surroundings. The history of the city is highlighted by the Battle of Cajamarca, the etymology of Cajamarca may mean town of thorns or cold place depending on the source. All sources agree that the word has quechua origin, the city and its surroundings have been occupied by several cultures for more than 2000 years. Traces of pre-Chavín cultures can be seen in archaeological sites, such as Cumbe Mayo. During the period between 1463 and 1471, Tupac Inca conquered the area and brought Cajamarca into the Tawantinsuyu, at the time, it was ruled by Tupac Incas father Pachacuti.
In 1532 Atahualpa defeated his brother Huáscar in a battle for the Inca throne in Quito, on his way to Cusco to claim the throne with his army, he stopped at Cajamarca. Francisco Pizarro and his 168 soldiers met Atahualpa here after weeks of marching from Piura, as the two leaders faced off, the young captain Hernando De Soto, rode on horseback directly up to Atahualpa to intimidate him. Having taken Atahualpa captive, they held him in Cajamarcas main temple, Atahualpa offered his captors a ransom for his freedom, a room filled with gold and silver, within two months. Although having complied with the offering, Atahualpa was brought to trial, Pizarro, De Soto, and others shared in the ransom. In 1986 the Organization of American States designated Cajamarca as a site of Historical and Cultural Heritage of the Americas, the style of ecclesiastical architecture in the city differs from other Peruvian cities due to the geographic and climatic conditions. Cajamarca is further north with a climate, the colonial builders used available stone rather than the clay of used in the coastal desert cities.
Cajamarca has six Christian churches of Spanish colonial style, San Jose, La Recoleta, La Immaculada Concepcion, San Antonio, although all were built in the seventeenth century, the latter three are the most outstanding due to their sculpted facades and ornamentation. The facades of three churches were left unfinished, most likely due to lack of funds. The façade of the Cathedral is the most elegantly decorated, to the extent that it was completed, El Belen has a completed façade of the main building, but the tower is half finished