Celestial globe

Celestial globes show the apparent positions of the stars in the sky. They omit the Sun and planets because the positions of these bodies vary relative to those of the stars, but the ecliptic, along which the Sun moves, is indicated. There is an issue regarding the “handedness” of celestial globes. If the globe is constructed so that the stars are in the positions they occupy on the imaginary celestial sphere the star field will appear reversed on the surface of the globe; this is because the view from Earth, positioned at the centre of the celestial sphere, is of the gnomonic projection inside of the celestial sphere, whereas the celestial globe is orthographic projection as viewed from the outside. For this reason, celestial globes are produced in mirror image, so that at least the constellations appear as viewed from earth; some modern celestial globes address this problem by making the surface of the globe transparent. The stars can be placed in their proper positions and viewed through the globe, so that the view is of the inside of the celestial sphere.

However, the proper position from which to view the sphere would be from its centre, but the viewer of a transparent globe must be outside it, far from its centre. Viewing the inside of the sphere from the outside, through its transparent surface, produces serious distortions. Opaque celestial globes that are made with the constellations placed, so they appear as mirror images when directly viewed from outside the globe, are viewed in a mirror, so the constellations have their familiar appearances. Written material on the globe, e.g. constellation names, is printed in reverse, so it can be read in the mirror. Armillary sphere De sphaera mundi

Premier of North Korea

The Premier of the Cabinet is nominally the non-executive head of government of North Korea. The office is alternatively known as Prime Minister of North Korea; the current premier is Kim Jae-ryong. Under the 1948 Constitution of the DPRK, the Premier was the highest state post in North Korea. Kim Il-sung himself inaugurated the post, keeping it for 24 years until 1972, while the ceremonial role of the head of State rested in the Chairman of the Standing Committee of the Supreme People's Assembly; the 1972 Constitution created the post of President of the DPRK, which replaced the premiership as the top state post. The executive presidency was created with Kim in mind, he transferred to that post soon after the Constitution was promulgated; the Premier was now the head of the Administration Council, but most of the powers of the former cabinet were passed to the Central People's Committee, the highest ruling council chaired by the president himself. The first premier after Kim Il-sung was his long-time ally Kim Il.

The post was officially known as Premier of the Administration Council. After Kim Il-sung died, the post of president remained vacant as Kim Jong-il planned a new State reorganization. A constitution revision in 1998 abolished both the Central People's Committee and the Administration Council, re-creating the Cabinet; the Premier represents and oversees the cabinet, charged with executing the policies decided by the Central Committee of the Workers' Party of Korea. The office has no policy-making authority of its own; the Premier is nominally part of a triumvirate overseeing North Korea's executive branch, alongside the President of the Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly and the Chairman of the State Affairs Commission. In practice, the SAC chairman, constitutionally defined as "the highest post in the state," exercises absolute control over the government and the country. On paper, the SAC chairman, SPA Presidium president and Premier have powers equivalent to one-third of those of a president's powers in most presidential systems.

The SPA presidium chairman conducts foreign relations, the premier handles domestic matters and heads the government, the SAC chairman commands the armed forces. However, the Premier ranks as the lowest of the three: Kim Jong-il was NDC Chairman without interruption from 1993 until 2011, Kim Yong-nam was President of the SPA Presidium from 1998 to 2019, while there have been six premiers since Kim Il-sung's death; the following is a list of premiers of North Korea since its founding in 1948. The First Vice Premier of the Cabinet is the designation for the most senior Vice Premier; the Premier is represented by a number of vice premiers, who act as a high-ranking executive assistant to the Premier. Prime Minister of Imperial Korea Government of North Korea List of leaders of North Korea List of heads of state of North Korea President of North Korea Eternal President of the Republic Politics of North Korea

Battle of Kokenhausen

The Battle of Kokenhausen was a major battle opening the Polish–Swedish War. It took place on 23 June 1601 near Koknese in Livonia. In the battle, Polish forces defeated the Swedish relief force and captured the besieging force, relieving the Polish garrison; the battle is notable as one of the greatest victories of the Polish hussars, who defeated their numerically superior Swedish adversaries. Kokenhausen was one of three major forts blocking the Swedish progress on the line of the Daugava River. Swedish forces of about 2,000 under Carl Carlsson Gyllenhielm had been blockading the fortified town of Kokenhausen, located on Daugava River, between Riga and Daugavpils - since 10 March - after the arrival of Duke Charles with heavy artillery - laying a siege to it since 28 March. On 1 April the Swedes had taken the town but not the inner castle, still defended by a Polish-Lithuanian garrison. Charles left about 2,600 strong besieging force, moved north to Erlaa; the Polish-Lithuanian relief army of 800 men under Krzysztof Mikołaj "the Thunderbolt" Radziwiłł arrived around 11 May and in turn started to besiege the Swedes.

The Swedes decided to prioritize the relief of the Kokenhausen siege force. They have been reinforcing it with supplies through the river, but many of them have been captured by Commonwealth troops on May 29. A major Swedish relief force of about 2,000 under Carl Gyllenhielm has been defeated at Erlaa by 1,000 Poles under Jan Siciński in early June. Emboldened by the victory, other Polish detachments captured some nearby strongholds and harassed the Swedish units; the Poles did not assault Kokenhausen, however, as they were waiting for more artillery, were content to starve the Swedes out. The Swedes did not give up on securing the site and reinforced to 5,000 the Swedes under Gyllenhielm arrived on the morning of 23 June at Kokenhausen and attempted to break the Polish encirclement; the field of battle was raised along its edge with the Daugava for some one and a half kilometers to a width of about half a kilometer with the side nearest the river being steep and falling more towards the field.

Gyllenhielm had 4000 cavalry and 17 cannons. Radziwiłł left about 500 infantry under Otto Denhoff with orders to maintain the siege, 150 men to guard the camp,and took the field with the rest. In addition to Grand Lithuanian Hetman Radziwiłł, the Polish-Lithuanian forces included the Field Lithuanian Hetman, Jan Karol Chodkiewicz. Polish-Lithuanian cavalry first broke the Swedish left flank; the Swedish counterattack on the right flank, which while successful, was in turn broken by the Polish hussar counterattack. The Swedish infantry still held against the Polish cavalry, until being broken by the artillery fire. Gyllenhielm gathered some 2,000 cavalry but his troops refused to return to aid the infantry, he was forced to retreat; the Poles and Lithuanians lost about 200 men, the Swedes - 2,000. After the battle, the Swedish force besieging the Kokenhausen castle, which took no part in the battle, surrendered to the Commonwealth. Swedish siege artillery was captured. Both the hussar charges and artillery fire proved decisive in this engagement.

The battle is notable as one of the greatest victories of the Polish hussars, who defeated their numerically superior Swedish adversaries. Map - Livonia at the start of the 17th Century Winged Hussars, Radoslaw Sikora, Bartosz Musialowicz, BUM Magazine, 2016