Strontianite is an important raw material for the extraction of strontium. It is one of only a few strontium minerals, it is a member of the aragonite group. Aragonite group members: aragonite, strontianite, cerussite The ideal formula of strontianite is SrCO3, with molar mass 147.63 g, but calcium can substitute for up to 27% of the strontium cations, barium up to 3.3%. The mineral was named in 1791 for the locality, Argyllshire, where the element strontium had been discovered the previous year. Although good mineral specimens of strontianite are rare, strontium is a common element, with abundance in the Earth's crust of 370 parts per million by weight, 87 parts per million by moles, much more common than copper with only 60 parts per million by weight, 19 by moles. Strontium is never found free in nature; the principal strontium ores are celestine SrSO4 and strontianite SrCO3. The main commercial process for strontium metal production is reduction of strontium oxide with aluminium. Strontianite is an orthorhombic mineral, belonging to the most symmetrical class in this system, 2/m 2/m 2/m, whose general form is a rhombic dipyramid.
The space group is Pmcn. There are four formula units per unit cell and the unit cell parameters are a = 5.1 Å, b = 8.4 Å, c = 6.0 Å. Strontianite is isostructural with aragonite; when the CO3 group is combined with large divalent cations with ionic radii greater than 1.0 Å, the radius ratios do not permit stable 6-fold coordination. For small cations the structure is rhombohedral; this is the aragonite structure type with space group Pmcn. In this structure the CO3 groups lie perpendicular to the c axis, in two structural planes, with the CO3 triangular groups of one plane pointing in opposite directions to those of the other; these layers are separated by layers of cations. The CO3 group is non-planar; the groups are tilted such that the angle between a plane drawn through the oxygen atoms and a plane parallel to the a-b unit cell plane is 2°40’. Strontianite occurs in several different habits. Crystals are short prismatic parallel to the c axis and acicular. Calcium-rich varieties show steep pyramidal forms.
Crystals may be pseudo hexagonal due to equal development of different forms. Prism faces are striated horizontally; the mineral occurs as columnar to fibrous, granular or rounded masses. Strontianite is colourless, gray, light yellow, green or brown, colourless in transmitted light, it may be longitudinally zoned. It is transparent to translucent, with a vitreous lustre, resinous on broken surfaces, a white streak, it is a biaxial mineral. The direction perpendicular to the plane containing the two optic axes is called the optical direction Y. In strontianite Y is parallel to the b crystal axis; the optical direction Z lies in the plane containing the two optic axes and bisects the acute angle between them. In strontianite Z is parallel to the a crystal axis; the third direction X, perpendicular both to Y and to Z, is parallel to the c crystal axis. The refractive indices are close to nα = 1.52, nβ = 1.66, nγ = 1.67, with different sources quoting different values: nα = 1.520, nβ = 1.667, nγ = 1.669 nα = 1.516 – 1.520, nβ = 1.664 – 1.667, nγ = 1.666 – 1.668 nα = 1.517, nβ = 1.663, nγ = 1.667 The maximum birefringence δ is 0.15 and the measured value of 2V is 7°, calculated 12° to 8°.
If the colour of the incident light is changed the refractive indices are modified, the value of 2V changes. This is known as dispersion of the optic axes. For strontianite the effect is weak, with 2V larger for violet light than for red light r < v. Strontianite is always fluorescent, it fluoresces bright yellowish white under shortwave and longwave ultraviolet radiation. If the luminescence persists after the ultraviolet source is switched off the sample is said to be phosphorescent. Most strontianite phosphoresces a strong, medium duration, yellowish white after exposure to all three wavelengths, it is fluorescent and phosphorescent in X-rays and electron beams. All materials will glow red hot. Strontianite is sometimes thermoluminescent. Cleavage is nearly perfect parallel to one set of prism faces, poor on. Traces of cleavage have been observed on. Twinning is common, with twin plane; the twins are contact twins. Penetration twins of strontainite are rarer. Repeated twins are made up of three or more individuals twinned according to the same law.
If all the twin planes are parallel the twin is polysynthetic, otherwise it is cyclic. In strontianite repeated twinning forms cyclic twins with three or four individuals, or polysynthetic twins; the mineral is brittle, breaks with a subconchoidal to uneven fracture. It is quite soft, with a Mohs hardness between calcite and fluorite; the specific gravity of the pure end member with no calcium substituting for strontium is 3.78, but most samples contain some calcium, lighter than strontium, giving a lower specific gravity, in the range 3.74 to 3.78. Substitutions of the heavier ions barium and/or lead increase the specific gravity, although such substitutions are
Ultraviolet designates a band of the electromagnetic spectrum with wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays. UV radiation is present in sunlight, contributes about 10% of the total light output of the Sun, it is produced by electric arcs and specialized lights, such as mercury-vapor lamps, tanning lamps, black lights. Although long-wavelength ultraviolet is not considered an ionizing radiation because its photons lack the energy to ionize atoms, it can cause chemical reactions and causes many substances to glow or fluoresce; the chemical and biological effects of UV are greater than simple heating effects, many practical applications of UV radiation derive from its interactions with organic molecules. Suntan and sunburn are familiar effects of over-exposure of the skin to UV, along with higher risk of skin cancer. Living things on dry land would be damaged by ultraviolet radiation from the Sun if most of it were not filtered out by the Earth's atmosphere.
More energetic, shorter-wavelength "extreme" UV below 121 nm ionizes air so that it is absorbed before it reaches the ground. Ultraviolet is responsible for the formation of bone-strengthening vitamin D in most land vertebrates, including humans; the UV spectrum thus has effects both harmful to human health. The lower wavelength limit of human vision is conventionally taken as 400 nm, so ultraviolet rays are invisible to humans, although some people can perceive light at shorter wavelengths than this. Insects and some mammals can see near-UV. Ultraviolet rays are invisible to most humans; the lens of the human eye blocks most radiation in the wavelength range of 300–400 nm. Humans lack color receptor adaptations for ultraviolet rays; the photoreceptors of the retina are sensitive to near-UV, people lacking a lens perceive near-UV as whitish-blue or whitish-violet. Under some conditions and young adults can see ultraviolet down to wavelengths of about 310 nm. Near-UV radiation is visible to insects, some mammals, birds.
Small birds have a fourth color receptor for ultraviolet rays. "Ultraviolet" means "beyond violet", violet being the color of the highest frequencies of visible light. Ultraviolet has a higher frequency than violet light. UV radiation was discovered in 1801 when the German physicist Johann Wilhelm Ritter observed that invisible rays just beyond the violet end of the visible spectrum darkened silver chloride-soaked paper more than violet light itself, he called them "oxidizing rays" to emphasize chemical reactivity and to distinguish them from "heat rays", discovered the previous year at the other end of the visible spectrum. The simpler term "chemical rays" was adopted soon afterwards, remained popular throughout the 19th century, although some said that this radiation was different from light; the terms "chemical rays" and "heat rays" were dropped in favor of ultraviolet and infrared radiation, respectively. In 1878 the sterilizing effect of short-wavelength light by killing bacteria was discovered.
By 1903 it was known. In 1960, the effect of ultraviolet radiation on DNA was established; the discovery of the ultraviolet radiation with wavelengths below 200 nm, named "vacuum ultraviolet" because it is absorbed by the oxygen in air, was made in 1893 by the German physicist Victor Schumann. The electromagnetic spectrum of ultraviolet radiation, defined most broadly as 10–400 nanometers, can be subdivided into a number of ranges recommended by the ISO standard ISO-21348: A variety of solid-state and vacuum devices have been explored for use in different parts of the UV spectrum. Many approaches seek to adapt visible light-sensing devices, but these can suffer from unwanted response to visible light and various instabilities. Ultraviolet can be detected by suitable photodiodes and photocathodes, which can be tailored to be sensitive to different parts of the UV spectrum. Sensitive ultraviolet photomultipliers are available. Spectrometers and radiometers are made for measurement of UV radiation.
Silicon detectors are used across the spectrum. Vacuum UV, or VUV, wavelengths are absorbed by molecular oxygen in the air, though the longer wavelengths of about 150–200 nm can propagate through nitrogen. Scientific instruments can therefore utilize this spectral range by operating in an oxygen-free atmosphere, without the need for costly vacuum chambers. Significant examples include 193 nm photolithography equipment and circular dichroism spectrometers. Technology for VUV instrumentation was driven by solar astronomy for many decades. While optics can be used to remove unwanted visible light that contaminates the VUV, in general, detectors can be limited by their response to non-VUV radiation, the development of "solar-blind" devices has been an important area of research. Wide-gap solid-state devices or vacuum devices with high-cutoff photocathodes can be attractive compared to silicon diodes. Extreme UV is characterized by a transition in the physics of interaction with matter. Wavelengths longer than about 30 nm interact with the outer valence electrons of atoms, while wavelengths shorter than that interact with inner-shell electrons and nuclei.
The long end of the EUV spectrum is set by a prominent He+ spectr
Alabaster is a mineral or rock, soft used for carving, is processed for plaster powder. Archaeologists and the stone processing industry use the word differently from geologists; the former use is in a wider sense that includes varieties of two different minerals: the fine-grained massive type of gypsum and the fine-grained banded type of calcite. Geologists define alabaster only as the gypsum type. Chemically, gypsum is a hydrous sulfate of calcium. Both types of alabaster have similar properties, they are lightly colored and soft stones. They have been used throughout history for carving decorative artifacts; the calcite type is denominated "onyx-marble", "Egyptian alabaster", "Oriental alabaster" and is geologically described as either a compact banded travertine or "a stalagmitic limestone marked with patterns of swirling bands of cream and brown". "Onyx-marble" is a traditional, but geologically inaccurate, name because both onyx and marble have geological definitions that are distinct from the broadest definition of "alabaster".
In general, ancient alabaster is calcite in the wider Middle East, including Egypt and Mesopotamia, while it is gypsum in medieval Europe. Modern alabaster is calcite but may be either. Both are easy to work and soluble in water, they have been used for making a variety of indoor artwork and carving, they will not survive long outdoors. The two kinds are distinguished by their different hardnesses: gypsum alabaster is so soft that a fingernail scratches it, while calcite cannot be scratched in this way, although it yields to a knife. Moreover, calcite alabaster, being a carbonate, effervesces when treated with hydrochloric acid, while gypsum alabaster remains unaffected; the origin of "alabaster" is in Middle English through Old French "alabastre", in turn derived from Latin "alabaster", that from Greek "ἀλάβαστρος" or "ἀλάβαστος". The Greek words denoted a vase of alabaster; the name may be derived further from ancient Egyptian "a-labaste", which refers to vessels of the Egyptian goddess Bast.
She was represented as a lioness and depicted as such in figures placed atop these alabaster vessels. Ancient Roman authors, Pliny the Elder and Ptolemy, wrote that the stone used for ointment jars called alabastra came from a region of Egypt known as Alabastron or Alabastrites; the purest alabaster is a snow-white material of fine uniform grain, but it is associated with an oxide of iron, which produces brown clouding and veining in the stone. The coarser varieties of gypsum alabaster are converted by calcination into plaster of Paris, are sometimes known as "plaster stone"; the softness of alabaster enables it to be carved into elaborate forms, but its solubility in water renders it unsuitable for outdoor work. If alabaster with a smooth, polished surface is washed with dishwashing liquid, it will become rough and whiter, losing most of its translucency and lustre; the finer kinds of alabaster are employed as an ornamental stone for ecclesiastical decoration and for the rails of staircases and halls.
Alabaster is mined and sold in blocks to alabaster workshops. There they are cut to the needed size, are processed in different techniques: turned on a lathe for round shapes, carved into three-dimensional sculptures, chiselled to produce low relief figures or decoration. In order to diminish the translucency of the alabaster and to produce an opacity suggestive of true marble, the statues are immersed in a bath of water and heated gradually—nearly to the boiling point—an operation requiring great care, because if the temperature is not regulated the stone acquires a dead-white, chalky appearance; the effect of heating appears to be a partial dehydration of the gypsum. If properly treated, it closely resembles true marble and is known as "marmo di Castellina". Alabaster is a porous stone and can be "dyed" into any colour or shade, a technique used for centuries. For this the stone needs to be immersed in various pigmentary solutions and heated to a specific temperature; the technique can be used to disguise alabaster.
In this way a misleading imitation of coral, called "alabaster coral" is produced. Only one type is sculpted in any particular cultural environment, but sometimes both have been worked to make similar pieces in the same place and time; this was the case with small flasks of the alabastron type made in Cyprus from the Bronze Age into the Classical period. When cut in thin sheets, alabaster is translucent enough to be used for small windows, it was used for this purpose in Byzantine churches and in medieval ones in Italy. Large sheets of Aragonese gypsum alabaster are used extensively in the contemporary Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, dedicated in 2002 by the Los Angeles, California Archdiocese; the cathedral incorporates special cooling to prevent the panes from turning opaque. The ancients used the calcite type, while the modern Los Angeles cathedral is using gypsum alabaster. There are multiple examples of alabaster windows in ordinary village churches and monasteries in northern Spain.
Calcite alabaster, harder than the gypsum variety, was the kind used in ancient Egypt and the wider Middle East, is used in modern times. It is found as either a stalagmitic deposit from the floor and walls of limestone caverns, or as a kind of travertine deposited in springs of calcareous water, its deposition in successive layers give
An alloy is a combination of metals and of a metal or another element. Alloys are defined by a metallic bonding character. An alloy may be a mixture of metallic phases. Intermetallic compounds are alloys with a defined crystal structure. Zintl phases are sometimes considered alloys depending on bond types. Alloys are used in a wide variety of applications. In some cases, a combination of metals may reduce the overall cost of the material while preserving important properties. In other cases, the combination of metals imparts synergistic properties to the constituent metal elements such as corrosion resistance or mechanical strength. Examples of alloys are steel, brass, duralumin and amalgams; the alloy constituents are measured by mass percentage for practical applications, in atomic fraction for basic science studies. Alloys are classified as substitutional or interstitial alloys, depending on the atomic arrangement that forms the alloy, they can be heterogeneous or intermetallic. An alloy is a mixture of chemical elements, which forms an impure substance that retains the characteristics of a metal.
An alloy is distinct from an impure metal in that, with an alloy, the added elements are well controlled to produce desirable properties, while impure metals such as wrought iron are less controlled, but are considered useful. Alloys are made by mixing two or more elements, at least one of, a metal; this is called the primary metal or the base metal, the name of this metal may be the name of the alloy. The other constituents may or may not be metals but, when mixed with the molten base, they will be soluble and dissolve into the mixture; the mechanical properties of alloys will be quite different from those of its individual constituents. A metal, very soft, such as aluminium, can be altered by alloying it with another soft metal, such as copper. Although both metals are soft and ductile, the resulting aluminium alloy will have much greater strength. Adding a small amount of non-metallic carbon to iron trades its great ductility for the greater strength of an alloy called steel. Due to its very-high strength, but still substantial toughness, its ability to be altered by heat treatment, steel is one of the most useful and common alloys in modern use.
By adding chromium to steel, its resistance to corrosion can be enhanced, creating stainless steel, while adding silicon will alter its electrical characteristics, producing silicon steel. Like oil and water, a molten metal may not always mix with another element. For example, pure iron is completely insoluble with copper; when the constituents are soluble, each will have a saturation point, beyond which no more of the constituent can be added. Iron, for example, can hold a maximum of 6.67% carbon. Although the elements of an alloy must be soluble in the liquid state, they may not always be soluble in the solid state. If the metals remain soluble when solid, the alloy forms a solid solution, becoming a homogeneous structure consisting of identical crystals, called a phase. If as the mixture cools the constituents become insoluble, they may separate to form two or more different types of crystals, creating a heterogeneous microstructure of different phases, some with more of one constituent than the other phase has.
However, in other alloys, the insoluble elements may not separate until after crystallization occurs. If cooled quickly, they first crystallize as a homogeneous phase, but they are supersaturated with the secondary constituents; as time passes, the atoms of these supersaturated alloys can separate from the crystal lattice, becoming more stable, form a second phase that serve to reinforce the crystals internally. Some alloys, such as electrum, an alloy consisting of silver and gold, occur naturally. Meteorites are sometimes made of occurring alloys of iron and nickel, but are not native to the Earth. One of the first alloys made by humans was bronze, a mixture of the metals tin and copper. Bronze was an useful alloy to the ancients, because it is much stronger and harder than either of its components. Steel was another common alloy. However, in ancient times, it could only be created as an accidental byproduct from the heating of iron ore in fires during the manufacture of iron. Other ancient alloys include pewter and pig iron.
In the modern age, steel can be created in many forms. Carbon steel can be made by varying only the carbon content, producing soft alloys like mild steel or hard alloys like spring steel. Alloy steels can be made by adding other elements, such as chromium, vanadium or nickel, resulting in alloys such as high-speed steel or tool steel. Small amounts of manganese are alloyed with most modern steels because of its ability to remove unwanted impurities, like phosphorus and oxygen, which can have detrimental effects on the alloy. However, most alloys were not created until the 1900s, such as various aluminium, titanium and magnesium alloys; some modern superalloys, such as incoloy and hastelloy, may consist of a multitude of different elements. As a noun, the term alloy is used to describe a mixture of atoms in which the primary constituent is a metal; when used as a verb, the term refers to the act of mixing a metal with other elements. The primary metal is called the matrix, or the solvent; the secondary constituents are called s
Anhydrite, or anhydrous calcium sulfate, is a mineral with the chemical formula CaSO4. It is in the orthorhombic crystal system, with three directions of perfect cleavage parallel to the three planes of symmetry, it is not isomorphous with the orthorhombic barium and strontium sulfates, as might be expected from the chemical formulas. Distinctly developed crystals are somewhat rare, the mineral presenting the form of cleavage masses; the Mohs hardness is 3.5, the specific gravity is 2.9. The color is sometimes greyish, bluish, or purple. On the best developed of the three cleavages, the lustre is pearly; when exposed to water, anhydrite transforms to the more occurring gypsum, by the absorption of water. This transformation is reversible, with gypsum or calcium sulfate hemihydrate forming anhydrite by heating to around 200 °C under normal atmospheric conditions. Anhydrite is associated with calcite and sulfides such as galena, chalcopyrite and pyrite in vein deposits. Anhydrite is most found in evaporite deposits with gypsum.
In this occurrence, depth is critical since nearer the surface anhydrite has been altered to gypsum by absorption of circulating ground water. From an aqueous solution, calcium sulfate is deposited as crystals of gypsum, but when the solution contains an excess of sodium or potassium chloride, anhydrite is deposited if the temperature is above 40 °C; this is one of the several methods by which the mineral has been prepared artificially and is identical with its mode of origin in nature. The mineral is common in salt basins. Anhydrite occurs in a tidal flat environment in the Persian Gulf sabkhas as massive diagenetic replacement nodules. Cross sections of these nodular masses have a netted appearance and have been referred to as chicken-wire anhydrite. Nodular anhydrite occurs as replacement of gypsum in a variety of sedimentary depositional environments. Massive amounts of anhydrite occur. Anhydrite is 1–3% of the minerals in salt domes and is left as a cap at the top of the salt when the halite is removed by pore waters.
The typical cap rock is a salt, topped by a layer of anhydrite, topped by patches of gypsum, topped by a layer of calcite. Interaction with oil can reduce SO4 creating calcite and hydrogen sulfide. Anhydrite has been found in some igneous rocks, for example in the intrusive dioritic pluton of El Teniente, Chile and in trachyandesite pumice erupted by El Chichón volcano, Mexico; the name anhydrite was given by A. G. Werner in 1804, because of the absence of water of crystallization, as contrasted with the presence of water in gypsum; some obsolete names for the species are karstenite. A peculiar variety occurring as contorted concretionary masses is known as tripe-stone, a scaly granular variety, from Volpino, near Bergamo, in Lombardy, as vulpinite. A semi-transparent light blue-grey variety from Peru is referred to by the trade name angelite; the Catalyst Science Discovery Centre in Widnes, has a relief carving of an anhydrite kiln, made from a piece of anhydrite, for the United Sulphuric Acid Corporation.
Spencer, Leonard James. Anhydrite. 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica Mineralgalleries.com Minerals.net
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents are arranged in a ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions. In addition, macroscopic single crystals are identifiable by their geometrical shape, consisting of flat faces with specific, characteristic orientations; the scientific study of crystals and crystal formation is known as crystallography. The process of crystal formation via mechanisms of crystal growth is called crystallization or solidification; the word crystal derives from the Ancient Greek word κρύσταλλος, meaning both "ice" and "rock crystal", from κρύος, "icy cold, frost". Examples of large crystals include snowflakes and table salt. Most inorganic solids are not crystals but polycrystals, i.e. many microscopic crystals fused together into a single solid. Examples of polycrystals include most metals, rocks and ice. A third category of solids is amorphous solids, where the atoms have no periodic structure whatsoever.
Examples of amorphous solids include glass and many plastics. Despite the name, lead crystal, crystal glass, related products are not crystals, but rather types of glass, i.e. amorphous solids. Crystals are used in pseudoscientific practices such as crystal therapy, along with gemstones, are sometimes associated with spellwork in Wiccan beliefs and related religious movements; the scientific definition of a "crystal" is based on the microscopic arrangement of atoms inside it, called the crystal structure. A crystal is a solid where the atoms form a periodic arrangement.. Not all solids are crystals. For example, when liquid water starts freezing, the phase change begins with small ice crystals that grow until they fuse, forming a polycrystalline structure. In the final block of ice, each of the small crystals is a true crystal with a periodic arrangement of atoms, but the whole polycrystal does not have a periodic arrangement of atoms, because the periodic pattern is broken at the grain boundaries.
Most macroscopic inorganic solids are polycrystalline, including all metals, ice, etc. Solids that are neither crystalline nor polycrystalline, such as glass, are called amorphous solids called glassy, vitreous, or noncrystalline; these have no periodic order microscopically. There are distinct differences between crystalline solids and amorphous solids: most notably, the process of forming a glass does not release the latent heat of fusion, but forming a crystal does. A crystal structure is characterized by its unit cell, a small imaginary box containing one or more atoms in a specific spatial arrangement; the unit cells are stacked in three-dimensional space to form the crystal. The symmetry of a crystal is constrained by the requirement that the unit cells stack with no gaps. There are 219 possible crystal symmetries, called crystallographic space groups; these are grouped into 7 crystal systems, such as hexagonal crystal system. Crystals are recognized by their shape, consisting of flat faces with sharp angles.
These shape characteristics are not necessary for a crystal—a crystal is scientifically defined by its microscopic atomic arrangement, not its macroscopic shape—but the characteristic macroscopic shape is present and easy to see. Euhedral crystals are those with well-formed flat faces. Anhedral crystals do not because the crystal is one grain in a polycrystalline solid; the flat faces of a euhedral crystal are oriented in a specific way relative to the underlying atomic arrangement of the crystal: they are planes of low Miller index. This occurs; as a crystal grows, new atoms attach to the rougher and less stable parts of the surface, but less to the flat, stable surfaces. Therefore, the flat surfaces tend to grow larger and smoother, until the whole crystal surface consists of these plane surfaces. One of the oldest techniques in the science of crystallography consists of measuring the three-dimensional orientations of the faces of a crystal, using them to infer the underlying crystal symmetry.
A crystal's habit is its visible external shape. This is determined by the crystal structure, the specific crystal chemistry and bonding, the conditions under which the crystal formed. By volume and weight, the largest concentrations of crystals in the Earth are part of its solid bedrock. Crystals found in rocks range in size from a fraction of a millimetre to several centimetres across, although exceptionally large crystals are found; as of 1999, the world's largest known occurring crystal is a crystal of beryl from Malakialina, Madagascar, 18 m long and 3.5 m in diameter, weighing 380,000 kg. Some crystals have formed by magmatic and metamorphic processes, giving origin to large masses of crystalline rock; the vast majority of igneous rocks are formed from molten magma and the degree of crystallization depends on the conditions under which they solidified. Such rocks as granite, which have cooled slowly and under great pressures, have crystallized.
Put-in-Bay is a village located on South Bass Island in Put-in-Bay Township, Ottawa County, United States 35 miles east of Toledo. The population was 138 at the 2010 census; the village is recreational destination. Ferry and airline services connect the community with Catawba Island, Kelleys Island, Port Clinton, Sandusky, Ohio; the bay played a significant role in the War of 1812 as the location of the squadron of U. S. naval commander Oliver Hazard Perry, who sailed from the port on September 10, 1813, to engage a British squadron just north of the island in the Battle of Lake Erie. Put-in-Bay is located 15 miles northwest of Sandusky, at 41°39′11″N 82°49′3″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 0.63 square miles, of which 0.45 square miles is land and 0.18 square miles is water. The name "Put-in-Bay" only referred to the bay itself. In the later-1700s, the schooners sailing on Lake Erie would put in to this bay, to wait out bad weather on Lake Erie. In 1820 and 1830, the island was under the jurisdiction of Ohio.
Put-in-Bay Township was established after 1830. The island was only sparsely inhabited and there was no actual village prior to the creation of the township; the first known Caucasian resident on the island was Alexander Ewen, who had about 1,000 hogs roaming the island in 1810. As of the census of 2010, there were 138 people, 70 households, 43 families residing in the village; the population density was 306.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 263 housing units at an average density of 584.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 100.0% White. There were 70 households of which 17.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.9% were married couples living together, 4.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 38.6% were non-families. 32.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.94 and the average family size was 2.44.
The median age in the village was 54.7 years. 15.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 52.9% male and 47.1% female. The village is home to Put-in-Bay High School. Aside from South Bass Island, Put-In-Bay Local School District covers the Lake Erie Islands of Buckeye Island, Gibraltar Island, Green Island, Mouse Island, Rattlesnake Island, Starve Island though most of these islands are uninhabited. SR 357 Put-in-Bay Airport offers a single, paved 2870-foot runway in addition to a helipad. North Bass Island Airport located on North Bass Island, offers a 1,804 ft paved airstrip. For most of its history, the island's primary industry continues to be today; the tourist season runs between April and October. The most common methods of transportation to and from the island are via ferry boat, propeller-driven aircraft and private boat. One of the world's largest hotels, the Hotel Victory, opened its 625 rooms to the public in 1892; the four-story hotel featured a one-thousand-seat dining room.
However, on August 14, 1919, the giant hotel burned to the ground. Today only parts of the foundations can be seen at the state campground. Put-in-Bay is the site of Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial commemorating Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry's September 10, 1813, naval victory over British ships in the War of 1812. Construction of the monument began in 1912 and it opened to the public on June 13, 1915, it is 352 feet tall and made up of 78 layers of pink granite, topped with an eleven ton bronze urn. Its height makes it the highest open-air observatory operated by the U. S. National Park Service; the remains of six naval officers, three British and three Americans, were interred beneath the floor of the monument's rotunda. Other historical sites include: Stonehenge Estate – An estate with 19th-century buildings that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Perry's Cave – Cave discovered by Native Americans. Perry sent men here during the War of 1812. Has an underground lake from which Perry's men obtained drinking water, after drinking from the bacteria filled Lake Erie water and getting sick.
The water in the cave was clean and thus by drinking it, his men returned to health in order to win the battle. Heineman's Crystal Cave -- the world's largest geode. Lake Erie Islands Historical Society – 6,000 square foot museum that houses artifacts and genealogical data pertinent to the Lake Erie Islands. There are under 150 full-time residents. Supplies and perishables are flown to the island during the winter months along with the mail and bank employees who staff the island's only bank until the spring; the island has a single school, used for grades kindergarten through 12 and serves the educational requirements of Middle Bass and North Bass islands. These students arrive by plane, boat or ATV across the frozen lake depending on the season and weather. Put-in-Bay has one grocery store, one