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Celje

Celje is the third-largest town in Slovenia. It is a regional center of the traditional Slovenian region of Styria and the administrative seat of the City Municipality of Celje; the town of Celje is located below Upper Celje Castle at the confluence of the Savinja, Hudinja, Ložnica, Voglajna rivers in the lower Savinja Valley, at the crossing of the roads connecting Ljubljana, Maribor and the Central Sava Valley. It lies 238 m above mean sea level. Celje was known as Celeia during the Roman period. Early attestations of the name during or following Slavic settlement include Cylia in 452, ecclesiae Celejanae in 579, Zellia in 824, in Cilia in 1310, Cilli in 1311, Celee in 1575; the proto-Slovene name *Ceľe or *Celьje, from which modern Slovene Celje developed, was borrowed from Vulgar Latin Celeae. The name is of pre-Roman origin and its further etymology is unclear. In the local Slovene dialect, Celje is called Cele. In German it is called Cilli, it is known in Italian as Cilli or Celie; the first settlement in the area of Celje appeared during the Hallstatt era.

The settlement was known to Ancient Greek historians as Kelea. Once the area was incorporated in the Roman Empire in 15 BC, it was known as Civitas Celeia, it received municipal rights in AD 45 under the name municipium Claudia Celeia during the reign of the Roman Emperor Claudius. Records suggest that the town was rich and densely populated, secured with the walls and towers, containing multi-storied marble palaces, wide squares, streets, it was called the second. A Roman road through Celeia led from Aquileia to Pannonia. Celeia soon became a flourishing Roman colony, many great buildings were constructed, such as the temple of Mars, known across the Empire. Celeia was incorporated into Aquileia ca. 320 under the Roman Emperor Constantine I. The city was razed by Slavic tribes during the Migration period of the 5th and 6th centuries, but was rebuilt in the Early Middle Ages; the first mention of Celje in the Middle Ages was under the name of Cylie in Wolfhold von Admont's Chronicle, written between 1122 and 1137.

The town was the seat of the Counts of Celje from 1341 to 1456 It acquired market-town status in the first half of the 14th century and town privileges from Count Frederick II on 11 April 1451. After the Counts of Celje died out in 1456, the region was inherited by the Habsburgs of Austria and administered by the Duchy of Styria; the city walls and defensive moat were built in 1473. The town defended itself against Turks and in 1515 during great Slovene peasant revolt against peasants, who had taken Old Castle. Many local nobles converted to Protestantism during the Protestant Reformation, but the region was converted back to Roman Catholicism during the Counter-Reformation. Celje became part of the Habsburgs' Austrian Empire during the Napoleonic Wars. In 1867, after the defeat of Austria in the Austro-Prussian War, the town became part of Austria-Hungary; the first service on the Vienna-Trieste railway line came through Celje on 27 April 1846. In 1895, Celje secondary school, established in 1808, began to teach in Slovene.

At the end of the 19th century and in the early 20th century, Celje was a center of German nationalism which had repercussions for Slovenes. The 1910 census showed. A symbol of this was the German Cultural Center, built in 1906 and opened on 15 May 1907, today it is Celje Hall; the centuries-old German name of the town, sounded no longer German enough to some German residents, the form Celle being preferred by many. Population growth was steady during this period. In 1900, Celje had 6,743 inhabitants and by 1924 this had grown to 7,750; the National Hall, which hosts the Mayors Office and Town Council today, was built in 1896. The first telephone line was installed in 1902 and the city received electric power in 1913. Slovene and German ethnic nationalism increased during the early 20th centuries. With the collapse of Austria-Hungary in 1918 as a result of World War I, Celje became part of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. During this period, the town experienced a rapid industrialization and a substantial growth in population.

Celje was occupied by Nazi Germany in April 1941. The Gestapo arrived in Celje on 16 April 1941 and were followed three days by SS leader Heinrich Himmler, who inspected Stari pisker prison. During the war the city suffered from allied bombing, aimed at important communication lines and military installations; the National Hall was damaged. The toll of the war on the city was heavy; the city had a pre-war population of 20,000 and lost 575 people during the war between the ages of 20 and 30. More than 1,500 people were deported into the German interior of the Third Reich. Around 300 people were around 1,000 people imprisoned in Celje's prisons. An unknown number of citizens were forcibly conscripted into the German army. Around 600 "stolen children" were taken to Nazi Germany for Germanization. A monument in Celje called Vojna in mir by the sculptor Jakob Savinšek, commemorates the World War II era. After the end of the war, the remaining German-speaking portion of the populace was expelled. Anti-tank trenches and other sites were used to create 25 mass graves in Celje and its immediate surroundings and were filled with Croatian and Slovenian militia members that had collaborated with the Germans, as well as ethnic German

Superliner (railcar)

The Superliner is a type of bilevel intercity railroad passenger car used by Amtrak, the national rail passenger carrier in the United States. Amtrak ordered the cars to replace older single-level cars on its long-distance trains in the Western United States; the design was based on the Budd Hi-Level vehicles, employed by the Santa Fe Railway on its El Capitan trains. Pullman-Standard built 284 cars, known as Superliner I, from 1975 to 1981; the Superliner I cars were the last passenger cars built by Pullman. Car types include coaches, dining cars and sleeping cars. Most passenger spaces are on the upper level; the Sightseer Lounge observation cars have distinctive floor-to-ceiling windows on the upper level. Boarding is on the lower level; the first Superliner I cars entered service in February 1979, with deliveries continuing through 1981. Amtrak assigned the cars to both long-distance and short-distance trains in the Western United States; the first permanent assignment, in October 1979, was to the Chicago–Seattle Empire Builder.

Superliner II deliveries began in 1993. Tunnel clearances prevent their use on the Northeast Corridor. On May 1, 1971, Amtrak assumed control of all private sector intercity passenger rail service in the United States, with a mandate to reverse decades of decline, it retained about 184 of the 440 trains. To operate these trains, Amtrak inherited a fleet of 300 locomotives and 1,190 passenger cars, most of which dated from the 1940s and 1950s. No new sleeping cars had been built for service in the United States since 1955. Conventional single-level cars made up most of Amtrak's inherited fleet, but it included 73 Hi-Level cars from the Santa Fe; the Budd Company built these between 1954 and 1964. Michael R. Weinman, who worked at the design firm Louis T. Klauder & Associates, recalled that when Amtrak issued a request for proposal in 1973 for a "totally new" passenger car, it "was assumed" that the design would be bilevel. Thirteen companies responded to the RFP; the design was finished by mid-1974 and Amtrak invited four companies to bid on its construction: Boeing, Pullman-Standard, Rohr.

Pullman-Standard won the contract. Amtrak ordered 235 Superliner I cars from Pullman-Standard on April 2, 1975, with deliveries scheduled for between January 1977 and June 1978; the order consisted of 120 coaches, 55 sleepers, 34 diners, 26 lounges. Amtrak soon increased the order to 284 cars: it added 30 coaches, 15 sleepers, 5 diners, deleted 1 lounge; the initial order cost $143.6 million. The railroad asked its employees to name the new cars, announced the winning entry in its internal newsletter of June 1, 1977: "Vistaliner," harkening back to the Vista-Domes of the Chicago and Quincy Railroad, but the newsletter went on to note that the name was under copyright by another company, so the cars would be dubbed "Superliners," a name created by Needham, Harper & Steers Amtrak's advertising agency. As the cars arrived in 1978 and 1979, Amtrak put them into use on short-haul routes radiating from Chicago; the first coaches entered regular service on February 1979, running from Chicago to Milwaukee.

The coaches, led by an EMD F40PH locomotive, displaced the regular Turboliner equipment. The equipment continued to operate on the run for several weeks; the Illini and Shawnee trains received Superliner coaches soon after. A public unveiling took place at Union Station in Chicago on October 11, 1979, followed by a short trip over the Burlington Northern Railroad to Lisle; the following day, the Shawnee had the dubious distinction of the first Superliner accident, a collision with an Illinois Central Gulf Railroad freight train at Harvey, IL, which claimed the lives of 2 crew members of the freight train. Amtrak's first choice for Superliner assignments had been the financially-troubled Floridian, a Chicago–Florida long-distance train, but the two years' delay in delivery scuppered these plans. Amtrak turned next to the Empire Builder; this long-distance train ran between Chicago and Seattle through the plains of Montana and North Dakota. Winters in that part of the United States are harsh, featuring cold temperatures.

Traditional steam-heated equipment broke down, causing Amtrak to cancel service. The Superliners, with their electrical head-end power, were far better suited for the conditions; the Empire Builder became the first long-distance train to use Superliners, the first train permanently assigned them, on October 28, 1979. Amtrak's new national timetable depicted a Superliner coach on the front cover, the listing for the Empire Builder carried a heading which read "Amtrak's Superliner is Somethin' Special." At the same time, Superliners entered service on the short-haul Pacific International and Mount Rainier in the Pacific Northwest. With the Empire Builder in operation, Amtrak began re-equipping the remaining long-distance trains in the west; the second permanent Superliner train was the Desert Wind a day train between Los Angeles and Ogden, which gained coaches on June 30, 1980. The San Francisco Zephyr, a long-distance train on the traditional Overland Route between Chicago and Sa

Tommy Rall

Thomas Edward "Tommy" Rall is an American ballet dancer, tap dancer and acrobatic dancer, a prominent featured player in 1950s musical comedies. He became a successful operatic tenor in the 1960s, making appearances with the Opera Company of Boston, the New York City Opera, the American National Opera Company. Rall was born in Kansas City and raised in Seattle; as a child he had a crossed eye which made it hard for him to read books, so his mother enrolled him in dancing classes. In his early years he performed a dance and acrobatic vaudeville act in Seattle theaters and attempted small acting roles, his family moved to Los Angeles in the 1940s, Rall began to appear in small movie roles. His first film appearance was a short MGM film called Vendetta, he began taking tap dancing lessons and became a member of the jitterbugging Jivin' Jacks and Jills at Universal Studios. Rall joined Donald O'Connor, Peggy Ryan and Shirley Mills in several light wartime Andrews Sisters vehicles including Give Out, Sisters Get Hep to Love Mister Big, others.

He appeared in Song of Russia. Rall took ballet lessons and danced in classical and Broadway shows, including Milk and Honey, Call Me Madam and Cry for Us All. Jerry Herman said of Rall in Milk and Honey: " did extraordinary choreography for Tommy Rall, so admired by the audience that put his name on the marquee under the three stars, it was very earned by him. He was a terrific singer and dancer."He is best known for his acrobatic dancing in several classic musical films of the 1950s, including Kiss Me, Kate as "Bill", Seven Brides for Seven Brothers as "Frank", Invitation to the Dance,Merry Andrew as "Giacomo Gallini", My Sister Eileen as "Chick". Rall's film career waned, he had a role in the movie Funny Girl, as "The Prince" in a parody of the ballet Swan Lake. On Broadway he danced to acclaim as "Johnny" in Marc Blitzstein and Joseph Stein's 1959 musical Juno. Ken Mandelbaum wrote: "DeMille provided two fine ballets: her second act'Johnny' in which Tommy Rall danced out Johnny's emotions...was the evening's highlight."Rall was respected by his contemporaries—including dance greats Gene Kelly and Donald O'Connor—with the latter describing Rall as one of the “greatest dancers living...above Astaire and Kelly.”

Rall was married to his Juno co-star, Monte Amundsen. He is now married to former ballerina Karel Shimoff. In 2007, a dance instructor by the name of Fredric Brame was found to have been posing as Tommy Rall since the late 1960s, his biographies and playbills all support that Brame was Fredric Brame aka Tommy Rall by the credits listed. When Rall found out about the masquerade decades through a friend of the family, Rall contacted the Montgomery County Sheriff's office. No legal action was taken against Brame. Rall only wanted Brame to stop taking credit for his work and if he continued or did it again a lawsuit would be filed. Sources: TCM. Small Wonder Miss Liberty Call Me Madam Juno Milk and Honey Cafe Crown Cry for Us All Koegler, Horst. "Rall, Tommy", Dizionario della danza e del balletto, p. 392. Gremese Editore. ISBN 88-7742-262-9. Mordden, Ethan. Open a new window: the Broadway musical in the 1960s. Palgrave Macmillan, p. 102. ISBN 1-4039-6013-5 Tommy Rall on IMDb Tommy Rall at the Internet Broadway Database (vidéo Danse Routine - Tommy Rall & Ann Miller -Kiss me Kate film sur youtube.com: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-P84-_7kCiQ