Cell biology is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell known as the basic unit of life. Cell biology encompasses both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can be divided into many sub-topics which may include the study of cell metabolism, cell communication, cell cycle, cell composition; the study of cells is performed using several techniques such as cell culture, various types of microscopy, cell fractionation. These have allowed for and are being used for discoveries and research pertaining to how cells function giving insight into understanding larger organisms. Knowing the components of cells and how cells work is fundamental to all biological sciences while being essential for research in biomedical fields such as cancer, other diseases. Research in cell biology is interconnected to other fields such as genetics, molecular genetics, molecular biology, medical microbiology and cytochemistry. Cells were first seen in 17th century Europe with the invention of the compound microscope.
In 1665, Robert Hooke termed the building block of all living organisms as "cells" after looking at a piece of cork and observing a cell-like structure, the cells were dead and gave no indication to the actual overall components of a cell. A few years in 1674, Anton Van Leeuwenhoek was the first to analyze live cells in his examination of algae. All of this preceded the cell theory which states that all living things are made up of cells and that cells are the functional and structural unit of organisms; this was concluded by plant scientist, Matthias Schleiden and animal scientist, Theodor Schwann in 1839, who viewed live cells in plant and animal tissue, respectively. 19 years Rudolf Virchow further contributed to the cell theory, adding that all cells come from the division of pre-existing cells. Although accepted, there have been many studies that question the validity of the cell theory. Viruses, for example, lack common characteristics of a living cell, such as membranes, cell organelles, the ability to reproduce by themselves.
Scientists have struggled to decide whether viruses are alive or not and whether they are in agreement with the cell theory. Modern-day cell biology research looks at different ways to culture and manipulate cells outside of a living body to further research in human anatomy and physiology, to derive medications; the techniques by which cells are studied have evolved. Due to advancements in microscopy and technology have allowed for scientists to hold a better understanding of the structure and function of cells. Many techniques used to study cell biology are listed below: Cell culture: Utilizes growing cells on media which allows for a large amount of a specific cell type and an efficient way to study cells. Fluorescence microscopy: Fluorescent markers such as GFP, are used to label a specific component of the cell. Afterwards, a certain light wavelength is used to excite the fluorescent marker which can be visualized. Phase-contrast microscopy: Uses the optical aspect of light to represent the solid and gas phase changes as brightness differences.
Confocal microscopy: Combines fluorescence microscopy with imaging by focusing light and snap shooting instances to form a 3-D image. Transmission electron microscopy: Involves metal staining and the passing of electrons through the cells, which will be deflected upon interaction with metal; this forms an image of the components being studies. Cytometry: The cells are placed in the machine which uses a beam to scatter the cells based on different aspects and can therefore separate them based on size and content. Cells may be tagged with GFP-florescence and can be separated that way as well. Cell fractionation: This process requires breaking up the cell using high temperature or sonification followed by centrifugation to separate the parts of the cell allowing for them to be studied separately. There are two fundamental classifications of cells: eukaryotic. Prokaryotic cells are distinguished from eukaryotic cells by the absence of a cell nucleus or other membrane bound organelle. Prokaryotic cells are much smaller than eukaryotic cells.
The study of eukaryotic cells is the main focus of cytologists, whereas prokaryotic cells are the focus of microbiologists. Prokaryotic cells include Bacteria and Archaea, lack an enclosed cell nucleus, they both reproduce through binary fission. Bacteria, the most prominent type, have several different shapes which include spherical, rod-shaped. Bacteria can be classed as either gram positive or gram negative depending on the cell wall composition. Bacterial structural features include: Flagella: A tail-like structure. Ribosomes: Used for translation of RNA to protein. Nucleoid: Area designated to hold all the genetic material in a circular structure. There are many process. For instance, in a process termed conjugation, fertility factor allows the bacteria to possess a pilus which allows it to transmit DNA to another bacteria which lacks the F factor, permitting the transmittance of resistance allowing it to survive in certain environments. Eukaryotic cells can either be unicellular or multicellular and include animal, plant and protozoa cells which all contain organelles with various shapes and sizes.
These cells are composed of the following organelles: Nucleus: This functions as the genome and genetic information storage for the cell, containing all the DNA organized in the form of chromosomes. It is surrounded by a nuclear envelope, which includes nuclear pores allowing for transportation of proteins between th
The 2001 NCAA Division I Women's Volleyball Tournament began on November 29, 2001 with 64 teams and ended December 15 when Stanford defeated Long Beach State 3 games to 0 in San Diego, California for the program's fifth NCAA title. Led by future Olympians Logan Tom and Ogonna Nnamani, Stanford stunned unbeaten Long Beach State in the title match. Long Beach State was attempting to become the first program to go undefeated in more than one season, as they went 36-0 just 3 years before in 1998. On their way to the title, Stanford was able to knock off defending champion Nebraska in the national semifinals; the other semifinal participant, made the program's first NCAA Final Four appearance. The win gave Stanford head coach John Dunning, in his first year as Stanford's head coach, his third NCAA title as he won two with Pacific in the 1980s; this was the first year of rally point scoring in the NCAA Division I tournament, with games going to 30 points to win. Previous years used the side with 15 points needed to win.
Games were reduced to 25 points to win. Top ranked and undefeated Long Beach State defeated Arizona in three sets. Tayyiba Haneef led. Long Beach out-hit Arizona.384 to.216, out-blocked the Wildcats 10 to 8 and had 8 service aces while Arizona had just 3. Arizona was led by Shannon Torregrosas's 14 kills. Arizona ended their season at 25-5 with the program's first Final Four appearance. Long Beach upped their record to 33-0. Led by Logan Tom's 22 kills, Stanford knocked off defending national champion Nebraska in three sets. Ogonna Nnamani added. Stanford out-blocked Nebraska, 12 to 9, hit.270 as a team while Nebraska hit just.186. Nancy Metcalf led Nebraska with 14 kills as Nebraska ended their season at 31-2. Stanford advanced to the program's ninth NCAA title match. In the title match, Stanford stunned top ranked and undefeated Long Beach State in three sets. In game 1, Stanford went up 20-14 before Long Beach State closed the gap to 23-22. Down 26-24, Long Beach State rallied off four straight points, earned game point at 29-27.
The 49'ers squandered both opportunities, with a Logan Tom kill and a Long Beach hitting error tying it up at 29. A Tom kill gave Stanford the game, 31-29, it was the first time all season. In game 2, Stanford went up 11-7 extended the lead to 20-13. Stanford remained in control, going up 27-20 and earning game point at 29-23. Long Beach State, did not go away and reeled off five consecutive points to cut the deficit to 29-28; the comeback ended, however, on a 49er service error giving Stanford the game, 30-28. Game 3 remained midway through. Stanford led 15-14 at the media timeout, before a Logan Tom service ace gave the Cardinal some separation at 25-21. Stanford remained ahead, going up 28-24 after an Ogonna Nnamani kill, before earning championship point after a Tom kill. A Stanford block ended the match, 30-25, ending Long Beach State's undefeated season, while Stanford ended their season at 33-2 - with one of the losses coming from Long Beach State earlier in the year. Stanford won their fifth NCAA title.
The win over Long Beach improved Stanford's record to 2-0 against undefeated teams in the national championship, as Stanford beat undefeated UCLA in the 1992 final. Stanford head coach John Dunning became the first Division I coach to win the national championship at two different schools, as he led Pacific to back-to-back titles in 1985 and 1986
General Sir Edward Cooper Hodge was a British Army officer. Hodge was the son of Major Edward Hodge of the 7th Hussars, who distinguished himself in the Peninsula War and in the Waterloo Campaign; as a Lieutenant-Colonel, Edward Cooper Hodge commanded the 4th Regiment of Dragoon Guards at the Battle of Balaclava. He was subsequently placed in command of the 5th Dragoon Guards, rose to the rank of General. Hodge was the author of a diary, edited by the Marquess of Anglesey and published as Little Hodge: Being Extracts from the Diaries and Letters of Colonel Edward Cooper Hodge Written During the Crimean War, 1854-1856 He is buried in Brompton Cemetery, London. In 1860 Edward Cooper Hodge married Lucy Anne, second daughter of James Rimingt'on. Esq, of Broomhead Hall, Yorkshire "Period paintings, historical portraits and fine art in London - Major Edward Hodge", Miles Barton, archived from the original on 3 October 2011, retrieved 11 May 2015 "General Hodge", British Medals, retrieved 11 May 2015 "W.