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Cellular automaton

A cellular automaton is a discrete model studied in computer science, physics, complexity science, theoretical biology and microstructure modeling. Cellular automata are called cellular spaces, tessellation automata, homogeneous structures, cellular structures, tessellation structures, iterative arrays. A cellular automaton consists of a regular grid of cells, each in one of a finite number of states, such as on and off; the grid can be in any finite number of dimensions. For each cell, a set of cells called. An initial state is selected by assigning a state for each cell. A new generation is created, according to some fixed rule that determines the new state of each cell in terms of the current state of the cell and the states of the cells in its neighborhood; the rule for updating the state of cells is the same for each cell and does not change over time, is applied to the whole grid though exceptions are known, such as the stochastic cellular automaton and asynchronous cellular automaton. The concept was discovered in the 1940s by Stanislaw Ulam and John von Neumann while they were contemporaries at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

While studied by some throughout the 1950s and 1960s, it was not until the 1970s and Conway's Game of Life, a two-dimensional cellular automaton, that interest in the subject expanded beyond academia. In the 1980s, Stephen Wolfram engaged in a systematic study of one-dimensional cellular automata, or what he calls elementary cellular automata. Wolfram published A New Kind of Science in 2002, claiming that cellular automata have applications in many fields of science; these include cryptography. The primary classifications of cellular automata, as outlined by Wolfram, are numbered one to four, they are, in order, automata in which patterns stabilize into homogeneity, automata in which patterns evolve into stable or oscillating structures, automata in which patterns evolve in a chaotic fashion, automata in which patterns become complex and may last for a long time, with stable local structures. This last class are thought to be computationally universal, or capable of simulating a Turing machine.

Special types of cellular automata are reversible, where only a single configuration leads directly to a subsequent one, totalistic, in which the future value of individual cells only depends on the total value of a group of neighboring cells. Cellular automata can simulate a variety of real-world systems, including biological and chemical ones. One way to simulate a two-dimensional cellular automaton is with an infinite sheet of graph paper along with a set of rules for the cells to follow; each square is called a "cell" and each cell has two possible states and white. The neighborhood of a cell is the nearby adjacent, cells; the two most common types of neighborhoods are the von Neumann neighborhood and the Moore neighborhood. The former, named after the founding cellular automaton theorist, consists of the four orthogonally adjacent cells; the latter includes the von Neumann neighborhood as well as the four diagonally adjacent cells. For such a cell and its Moore neighborhood, there are 512 possible patterns.

For each of the 512 possible patterns, the rule table would state whether the center cell will be black or white on the next time interval. Conway's Game of Life is a popular version of this model. Another common neighborhood type is the extended von Neumann neighborhood, which includes the two closest cells in each orthogonal direction, for a total of eight; the general equation for such a system of rules is kks, where k is the number of possible states for a cell, s is the number of neighboring cells used to determine the cell's next state. Thus, in the two-dimensional system with a Moore neighborhood, the total number of automata possible would be 229, or 1.34×10154. It is assumed that every cell in the universe starts in the same state, except for a finite number of cells in other states. More it is sometimes assumed that the universe starts out covered with a periodic pattern, only a finite number of cells violate that pattern; the latter assumption is common in one-dimensional cellular automata.

Cellular automata are simulated on a finite grid rather than an infinite one. In two dimensions, the universe would be a rectangle instead of an infinite plane; the obvious problem with finite grids is. How they are handled will affect the values of all the cells in the grid. One possible method is to allow the values in those cells to remain constant. Another method is to define neighborhoods differently for these cells. One could say that they have fewer neighbors, but one would have to define new rules for the cells located on the edges; these cells are handled with a toroidal arrangement: when one goes off the top, one comes in at the corresponding position on the bottom, when one goes off the left, one comes in on the right. This can be visualized as taping the left and right edges of the rectangle to form a tube taping the top and bottom edges of the tube to form a torus. Universes of other dimensions are handled similarly; this solves bounda

Stoke Dry

Stoke Dry is a village and civil parish in the county of Rutland in the East Midlands of England, about three miles southwest of Uppingham. In 2007 it had a population of 39. At the 2011 census the population was included with the parish of Seaton. With only 14 homes this is a quiet village with a mediaeval church dedicated to Saint Andrew; the parish church has Romanesque chancel arch. A myth claims. Stoke Dry is known as the site of the Eyebrook Reservoir located at the bottom of the hill; the reservoir was used by Avro Lancasters flying from RAF Scampton as the final practice run for Guy Gibson's No. 617 Squadron RAF prior to Operation Chastise, the Dambusters attack on the Ruhr valley dams on the night of the 16/17 May 1943. In 2009 the village was one of three to become the first in the UK to benefit from superfast broadband using sub-loop unbundling

Bert Hopwood

Herbert "Bert" Hopwood was a British motorcycle designer. He helped with some of the most influential designs for the British motorcycle industry and worked for Ariel, Norton, BSA and Triumph. Hopwood left school at an early age to work for Ariel under designer Val Page. Following Jack Sangster's purchase of Triumph in 1936 he moved there under Edward Turner and help to develop the design for the Triumph Speed Twin which influenced many motorcycles of the time and since, his success led to an offer from rival manufacturer Norton in April 1947 where he designed the Norton Dominator engine. This came to a somewhat acrimonious end when the Technical Director refused to release the complete machine for production, despite Norton's financial situation; this was based on the allegation that the engine lacked power and the performance was below par as a result. It was subsequently produced with no alterations to the engine. In May 1948 he joined BSA, which subsequently purchased Triumph in 1951. April 1955 found him at Norton once more, still with Gilbert Smith as MD, but now under the aegis of AMC at Woolwich.

When GS retired in 1958 he and the financial director at Bracebridge Street, Alec Skinner, were allowed to get on with taking this part of AMC forward with much improved results. Together with Doug Hele, as Chief Engineer, good results were achieved. Sadly this was to no avail, as the parent company was in a situation which absorbed all the modest profits made by Norton & Francis-Barnett, the only profitable members. With the AMC implosion imminent, both Hopwood and Hele left for BSA-Triumph. Recruited by Edward Turner in May 1961 as his successor, Hopwood was installed as Triumph Director and general manager; the Norton Dominator, BSA Golden Flash and the BSA Rocket 3/Triumph Trident motorcycles were amongst the best known Hopwood designs. Hopwood wrote Whatever Happened to the British Motor Cycle Industry, published in 1981 by Haynes. A significant work of 315 pages with hundreds of illustrations, it was intended to provide a definitive account of what became of the British motorcycle industry but has been described by reviewers as an "autobiography of Bert Hopwood, who attempts to distance himself from the events leading up to the industry's demise."

Comments from his book on the collapse of the British motorcycle industry Bert Hopwood and the Norton Dominator Doug Hele on Bert Hopwood Reference to the "late Bert Hoopwood"

1788 in literature

This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1788. May – Joseph Johnson and Thomas Christie found the radical Analytical Review in London. May 10 – Sweden's Royal Dramatic Theatre is founded. Bernardin de St. Pierre – Paul et Virginie Charlotte Turner Smith – Emmeline. Edward Gibbon – Volumes IV, V, VI of The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire George HepplewhiteCabinet Maker and Upholsterers Guide Immanuel KantCritique of Practical Reason Hannah More – Thoughts on the Importance of the Manners of the Great to General Society Richard Porson – Letters to Archdeacon Travis Thomas Scott – Commentary on the Whole Bible January 22 – George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, English poet February 28 – Samuel Bamford, English writer and radical March 20 – Thomas Medwin, English poet and translator September 22 – Theodore Edward Hook, English man of letters and composer c. October 14 – Robert Millhouse, English weaver poet October 24 – Sarah Josepha Hale, American novelist and poet December 6 – Richard Harris Barham, English novelist and cleric March 31 – Frances Vane, Viscountess Vane, English memoirist May 17 – Dorothea Biehl, Danish dramatist and translator July 21 – Gaetano Filangieri, Italian philosopher August 16 – Francisco Javier Alegre, Mexican historian and translator September 16 – Andrea Spagni, Italian theologian October 13 – Robert Nugent, 1st Earl Nugent, Irish politician and poet

Chasing the Rise

Chasing The Rise is a metalcore band from Vilnius, formed in 2012. The band released their debut EP "The Dawn" in 2013, the follow-up EP "Chapters" in 2016. Chasing The Rise was formed in 2012, their debut EP. It was followed by the 2014 single "Internal Fight", with the accompanying music video. In 2016 the band released their second EP "Chapters", mixed and mastered by Andreas Magnusson. Two music videos were released from the EP - "Sleeper Awakens" and "Maybe It's Just Me". Chasing The Rise is a metalcore band, while mixing it with traces of melodic death metal, more with progressive metal on the "Chapters" EP. Vytis Gontis - Vocals Remigijus Juškėnas - Guitar Edgaras Kolomiecas - Guitar Andrej Chatkevič - Bass guitar Tomas Urbanavičius - Drums Edvardas Rogoža - Bass guitar Laisvis Norbutas - Drums


The Leuctridae are a family of stoneflies. They are known as rolled-winged stoneflies and needleflies; this family contains at least 390 species. These small stoneflies can reach a length of 5–13 mm, but most of the species are less than 1 centimeter long; the wings are slender and cylindrical dark brown in color. At rest, the wings appear to be wrapping their bodies; the adults develop in early spring, swarm and lay the eggs in the water. The slender, yellowish larvae are herbivorous, feeding on organic waste; the species of Leuctridae have a Holarctic distribution. Subfamilies and genera include: Subfamily Leuctrinae Klapálek 1905 Tribe Leuctrini Klapálek 1905 Genus Calileuctra Shepard & Baumann, 1995 Genus Despaxia Ricker, 1943 Genus Leuctra Stephens, 1836 Genus Moselia Ricker, 1943 Genus Pachyleuctra Despax, 1929 Genus Paraleuctra Hanson, 1941 Genus Perlomyia Banks, 1906 Genus Pomoleuctra Stark & Kyzar, 2001 Genus Rhopalopsole Klapálek, 1912 Genus Zealeuctra Ricker, 1952 Tribe Tyrrhenoleuctrini Genus Tyrrhenoleuctra Consiglio, 1957 Subfamily Megaleuctrinae Zwick 1973 Genus Megaleuctra Neave, 1934 Extinct genera Genus †Baltileuctra Chen, 2018 Genus †Euroleuctra Chen, 2018 Genus †Lycoleuctra Sinitshenkova, 1987 Genus †Rasnitsyrina Sinitshenkova, 2011 Biolib Tree of Life