The Celsius scale known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale. As an SI derived unit, it is used worldwide. In the United States, the Bahamas, the Cayman Islands and Liberia, Fahrenheit remains the preferred scale for everyday temperature measurement; the degree Celsius can refer to a specific temperature on the Celsius scale or a unit to indicate a difference between two temperatures or an uncertainty. It is named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius. Before being renamed to honor Anders Celsius in 1948, the unit was called centigrade, from the Latin centum, which means 100, gradus, which means steps. From 1743, the Celsius scale is based on 0 °C for the freezing point of water and 100 °C for the boiling point of water at 1 atm pressure. Prior to 1743, the scale was based on the boiling and melting points of water, but the values were reversed; the 1743 scale reversal was proposed by Jean-Pierre Christin. By international agreement, between 1954 and 2019 the unit degree Celsius and the Celsius scale were defined by absolute zero and the triple point of Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water, a defined water standard.
This definition precisely related the Celsius scale to the Kelvin scale, which defines the SI base unit of thermodynamic temperature with symbol K. Absolute zero, the lowest temperature possible, is defined as being 0 K and −273.15 °C. Until 19 May 2019, the temperature of the triple point of water was defined as 273.16 K. This means that a temperature difference of one degree Celsius and that of one kelvin are the same. On 20 May 2019, the kelvin was redefined so that its value is now determined by the definition of the Boltzmann constant rather than being defined by the triple point of VSMOW; this means. The newly-defined exact value of the Boltzmann constant was selected so that the measured value of the VSMOW triple point is the same as the older defined value to within the limits of accuracy of contemporary metrology; the degree Celsius remains equal to the kelvin, 0 K remains −273.15 °C. In 1742, Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius created a temperature scale, the reverse of the scale now known as "Celsius": 0 represented the boiling point of water, while 100 represented the freezing point of water.
In his paper Observations of two persistent degrees on a thermometer, he recounted his experiments showing that the melting point of ice is unaffected by pressure. He determined with remarkable precision how the boiling point of water varied as a function of atmospheric pressure, he proposed that the zero point of his temperature scale, being the boiling point, would be calibrated at the mean barometric pressure at mean sea level. This pressure is known as one standard atmosphere; the BIPM's 10th General Conference on Weights and Measures defined one standard atmosphere to equal 1,013,250 dynes per square centimeter. In 1743, the Lyonnais physicist Jean-Pierre Christin, permanent secretary of the Académie des sciences, belles-lettres et arts de Lyon, working independently of Celsius, developed a scale where zero represented the freezing point of water and 100 represented the boiling point of water. On 19 May 1743 he published the design of a mercury thermometer, the "Thermometer of Lyon" built by the craftsman Pierre Casati that used this scale.
In 1744, coincident with the death of Anders Celsius, the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus reversed Celsius's scale. His custom-made "linnaeus-thermometer", for use in his greenhouses, was made by Daniel Ekström, Sweden's leading maker of scientific instruments at the time, whose workshop was located in the basement of the Stockholm observatory; as happened in this age before modern communications, numerous physicists and instrument makers are credited with having independently developed this same scale. The first known Swedish document reporting temperatures in this modern "forward" Celsius scale is the paper Hortus Upsaliensis dated 16 December 1745 that Linnaeus wrote to a student of his, Samuel Nauclér. In it, Linnaeus recounted the temperatures inside the orangery at the University of Uppsala Botanical Garden:...since the caldarium by the angle of the windows from the rays of the sun, obtains such heat that the thermometer reaches 30 degrees, although the keen gardener takes care not to let it rise to more than 20 to 25 degrees, in winter not under 15 degrees...
Since the 19th century, the scientific and thermometry communities worldwide have used the phrase "centigrade scale". Temperatures on the centigrade scale were reported as degrees or, when greater specificity was desired, as degrees centigrade; because the term centigrade was the Spanish and French language name for a unit of angular measurement and had a similar connotation in other languages, the term centesimal degree was used when precise, unambiguous language was required by international standards bodies such as the BIPM. More properly, what was defined as "centigrade" would now be "hectograde". To eliminate any confusion, the 9th CGPM and the CIPM (Comité interna
Narjiss Nejjar is a Moroccan filmmaker and screenwriter. Her film Les Yeux Secs was screened at Cannes in 2003. Nejjar was a student at ESRA in Paris. In 1994, she directed her first documentary L’exigence de la Dignite, she has worked on documentaries as well as fiction films. The film was screened at the 2003 Cannes film festival and the 4th International Festival of Rabat Film where she received the grand prize, she is the author of the novel Cahier d'empreintes. Nejjar is the daughter to the novelist Noufissa Sbai. L’exigence de la Dignite Khaddouj, Memoire de Targha Les Salines Le septième ciel Le miroir du fou Les Yeux Secs Wake Up Morocco Terminus des anges L'amante du rif Cinema of Morocco Narjiss Nejjar on IMDb Narjiss Nejjar at Allocine
George Payne McLean was the 59th Governor of Connecticut, a United States Senator from Connecticut. McLean was born in Simsbury, one of five children of Dudley B. McLean and Mary McLean, his sister Sarah Pratt McLean Greene became a novelist. McLean attended the common schools in Simsbury. At the age of fifteen he entered Hartford High School, he graduated in 1876. Upon graduation he took a job as a reporter for the Hartford Evening Post. Leaving the paper in 1879, he entered the Hartford law office of Henry C. Robinson and trained as a lawyer in that office, he remained there eight years, combining his apprenticeship with Robinson with a part-time job in financial management at Trinity College in Hartford. During this time he was admitted to the bar. A confirmed bachelor until he was forty-nine, he married his longtime Simsbury sweetheart Juliette Goodrich on April 10, 1907, she was forty-two. They had no children, he died on June 6, 1932 and she on October 21, 1950. They are buried in Simsbury Cemetery.
McLean was a member of the Connecticut House of Representatives in 1883 and 1884, He served as clerk of the State Board of Pardons from 1884 to 1901. He was a member of the state senate in 1886, he was a member of the Connecticut State Senate from 1889 to 1891. In 1890, he was elected Connecticut's Secretary of State, but never took office because of the deadlocked Legislature of 1891-1893; as a result, McLean was able to accept President Benjamin Harrison's appointment in 1892 to be United States attorney for his home state from 1892 to 1896. He resumed the practice of law in Hartford Elected the 59th Governor of Connecticut in 1901 and 1902, McLean served beginning on January 9, 1901. During his tenure, the governor's administrative staff was restructured, as well the state militia. McLean did not seek reelection due to ill health, left the governor's office on January 7, 1903. McLean was elected as a Republican to the U. S. Senate in 1910 and served from 1911 to 1929, he was reelected in 1916 and 1922.
While in the Senate, he was chairman of the Committee on Forest Reservations and Game Protection and a member of the Committee on Banking and Currency and the Committee on Manufactures. He declined to run for reelection in 1928. McLean's most lasting legislative achievement was the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918. Concern had been growing nationally about the mass killing of birds for hat-making uses and for food; some of the provisions in the act proved controversial in their expansion of federal powers and were declared unconstitutional by various courts. With the advice of Elihu Root, McLean introduced new legislation giving the president the power to negotiate a treaty to regulate the hunting of migratory birds; the Migratory Bird Treaty with Great Britain was signed in 1916, the Migratory Bird Treaty Act to ratify and implement the treaty was passed in 1918. The resulting federal limitations on hunting were upheld by the Supreme Court in 1920 in the Missouri v. Holland decision. McLean resumed the practice of law in Hartford, died of heart disease in Simsbury, on June 6, 1932.
He is interred at Simsbury Cemetery. His will established the non-profit McLean Fund, which has since operated two enterprises in his home town of Simsbury - a senior living community and elder-care services provider and a private game refuge; the McLean Game Refuge consists of over 4,200 acres of land in Simsbury and Granby and is open to the public. The McLean senior living organization consists of an independent living community and a multi-faceted elder-care service provider that offers services ranging from visiting nurses and adult day care to assisted living, long-term care, hospice. United States Congress. "George P. McLean". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress; the Political Graveyard Govtrack US Congress Connecticut State Library National Governors Association George P. McLean at Find a Grave