The local tradition prevalent at the time of the oratorys discovery attributed it to one Griffith More, being a funerary chapel built by him or his family at their burial place. The oratory overlooks the harbour at Ard na Caithne on the Dingle Peninsula, there exist several interpretations as to the origin and meaning of the Irish placename Gallarus. Archaeologist Peter Harbison ventures the meaning to be something like the house or shelter for foreigner, for lexicologist Pádraig Ó Siochfhradha, the name does not refer to a foreign settlement but to a rocky headland ». The oratory is built of cut stones from the Dingle Beds of the Upper Silurian Old Red Sandstone. Charles Smith, who discovered the edifice in 1756, described the stone as a brown free-stone, brought from the cliffs of the sea shore, the stones are cut on every side and end so as to fit perfectly together. They exhibit smoothly finished outside facings that follow the slant of the wall, a thin layer of lime mortar is used to bond the stones together and to fill in small hollows in the inner faces.
The oratory’s shape has been compared to that of a boat because of its sloping side walls. The stones are positioned on each course with their edges projecting inward by an increment as the wall rise. Besides, they are laid at an angle, lower on the outside than on the inside. Both techniques can still be seen in the modern agricultural clocháns of the Dingle peninsula, the edifice has two side walls and two end walls and converging at the top, each of one piece, playing a dual role as load-bearing wall and corbelled half-vault. Some slight sagging has occurred across the length of the roof slope. The interior room is approximately 4.8 metres by 3 metres and it is dimly lit, with only a tiny round-headed window in the east wall, opposite the entrance door. The window splays more widely towards the inside of the wall, the doorway is 1.67 m high. On the inside over the lintel, two holed stones project out from the wall, possibly for the attachment of a wooden door. Minor trial cuttings carried out at Gallarus in November 1970 yielded no finds or evidence of features or activity which might shed light on the period of construction and use of the oratory.
Antiquarian Charles Smith is the originator of the claim that the building is an early Irish stone church although no information is available prior to 1756 regarding its use. Two and a half later, the general public and visitors to the site are still served the myth of a church built between the 6th century and 9th century. However, this does not accord with lexicologist Padraig O Siochfhradhas translation of the name as rocky headland
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, and the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, and Northern Ireland, in 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.4 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.6 million live in the Republic of Ireland, the islands geography comprises relatively low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland. The island has lush vegetation, a product of its mild, thick woodlands covered the island until the Middle Ages. As of 2013, the amount of land that is wooded in Ireland is about 11% of the total, there are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is moderate and classified as oceanic.
As a result, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, summers are cooler than those in Continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant, the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century CE, the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the Norman invasion in the 12th century, England claimed sovereignty over Ireland, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, with the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s and this subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures, especially in the fields of literature.
Alongside mainstream Western culture, an indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music. The culture of the island shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, and sports such as association football, horse racing. The name Ireland derives from Old Irish Eriu and this in turn derives from Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, which is the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning fat, during the last glacial period, and up until about 9000 years ago, most of Ireland was covered with ice, most of the time
Kells, County Meath
Kells is a town in County Meath, Ireland. The town lies off the M3 motorway,16 km from Navan and 65 km from Dublin and it is best known as the site of Kells Abbey, from which the Book of Kells takes its name. The settlement was known by the Irish name Ceannanas or Ceannanus. From the 12th century onward, the settlement was referred to in English and Anglo-Norman as Kenenus, Kenles, Kellis and it has been suggested that Kenlis and Kells come from an alternative Irish name, Ceann Lios, meaning head fort. Kells and Headfort all feature in the titles taken by the Taylor family, in 1929, Ceannanus Mór was made the towns official name in both Irish and English. Following the creation of the Irish Free State, a number of towns were renamed likewise, ceanannas has been the official Irish-language form of the place name since 1969. In 1993, Kells was re-adopted as the official name in English. The monastery at Kells is thought to have been founded around 804 A. D. by monks from St Colmcilles monastery in Iona who were fleeing Viking invasions.
In 1152, the Synod of Kells completed the transition of the Colmcilles establishment from a church to a diocesan church. A synod reduced the status of Kells to that of a parish, following the Norman invasion of Ireland, Hugh de Lacy was granted the Lordship of Meath in 1182. The religious establishments at Kells continued to flourish under their Anglo-Norman overlords, Kells became a border town garrison of the Pale and was the scene of many battles, between Bréifne Irish and Hiberno-Normans, both of whom had heavily intermarried. From 1561 to 1800 Kells returned two Members of Parliament, during the rebellion of 1641, Kells was burned by the OReilly clan during their attacks on the Pale. The period of the Great Famine saw the population of Kells drop by 38% as measured by the records of 1841 and 1851. The Workhouse and the Fever Hospital were described as full to overflowing, the Abbey of Kells, with its round tower, is associated with St Colmcille, the Book of Kells, now kept at Trinity College Dublin and the Kells Crozier, exhibited at the British Museum.
The round tower and five large Celtic crosses can still be viewed today, four of the crosses are in the churchyard of St Columbas church. The other Celtic cross was positioned in the middle of a busy crossroads until an accident involving a school bus and it now stands in front of a former courthouse. A roof protects the cross from the elements, curiously, a replica is completely safe from the elements inside the museum. Close by the graveyard of St. Columbas church stands a stone roofed Oratory
The monastery of Clonmacnoise is situated in County Offaly, Ireland on the River Shannon south of Athlone. Clonmacnoise was founded in 544 by St. Ciarán, a man from Rathcroghan. Until the 9th century it had associations with the kings of Connacht. From the ninth until the eleventh century it was allied with the kings of Meath, many of the high kings of Tara and Connacht were buried here. In the modern day, the stands as a preserved ruin under the management of the Office of Public Works. An interpretive center and facilities for visitors have been built around the site, the graveyard surrounding the site continues to be in use and religious services are held regularly on the site in a modern chapel. This was a wooden structure and the first of many small churches to be clustered on the site. Diarmuid was to be the first Christian crowned High King of Ireland, in September 549, not yet thirty-three years of age, Ciarán died of a plague, and was reportedly buried under the original wooden church, now the site of the 9th-century stone oratory, Temple Ciarán.
While he was there he prophesied about the debates in the churches of Ireland about the dating of Easter. Towards the close of the century a plague carried off a large number of its students. Clonmacnoises period of greatest growth came between the 8th and 12th centuries and it was attacked frequently during these four centuries, mostly by the English, the Irish, the Vikings and Normans. The Book of the Dun Cow a vellum manuscript dating to the 12th century, was written here, by the 12th century Clonmacnoise began to decline. The reasons were varied, but without doubt the most debilitating factor was the growth of the town of Athlone to the north of the site from the late-12th century. Athlone became the trading town for the midlands of Ireland. The influx of religious orders such as the Franciscans, Benedictines, Cluniacs. Irelands move from a framework to a diocesan one in the twelfth century similarly diminished the sites religious standing, as it was designated the seat of a small. In 1552 the English garrison at Athlone destroyed and looted Clonmacnoise for the final time, the monastery ruins were one of the stops on the itinerary of Pope John Paul II during his visit to Ireland in 1979.
The site includes the ruins of a cathedral, seven churches, most of the churches have recently undergone comprehensive conservation works, mostly re-pointing, with the Nuns Church, currently under wraps while it too undergoes the same process
Great Britain, known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2, Great Britain is the largest European island, in 2011 the island had a population of about 61 million people, making it the worlds third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan. The island of Ireland is situated to the west of it, the island is dominated by a maritime climate with quite narrow temperature differences between seasons. Politically, the island is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, most of England and Wales are on the island. The term Great Britain often extends to surrounding islands that form part of England and Wales. A single Kingdom of Great Britain resulted from the union of the Kingdom of England, the archipelago has been referred to by a single name for over 2000 years, the term British Isles derives from terms used by classical geographers to describe this island group.
By 50 BC Greek geographers were using equivalents of Prettanikē as a name for the British Isles. However, with the Roman conquest of Britain the Latin term Britannia was used for the island of Great Britain, the oldest mention of terms related to Great Britain was by Aristotle, or possibly by Pseudo-Aristotle, in his text On the Universe, Vol. III. To quote his works, There are two large islands in it, called the British Isles and Ierne. The name Britain descends from the Latin name for Britain, Britannia or Brittānia, Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne. The French form replaced the Old English Breoton, Bryten, Britannia was used by the Romans from the 1st century BC for the British Isles taken together. It is derived from the writings of the Pytheas around 320 BC. Marcian of Heraclea, in his Periplus maris exteri, described the group as αἱ Πρεττανικαὶ νῆσοι. The peoples of these islands of Prettanike were called the Πρεττανοί, Priteni is the source of the Welsh language term Prydain, which has the same source as the Goidelic term Cruithne used to refer to the early Brythonic-speaking inhabitants of Ireland.
The latter were called Picts or Caledonians by the Romans, the Greco-Egyptian scientist Ptolemy referred to the larger island as great Britain and to Ireland as little Britain in his work Almagest. The name Albion appears to have out of use sometime after the Roman conquest of Britain. After the Anglo-Saxon period, Britain was used as a term only. It was used again in 1604, when King James VI and I styled himself King of Great Brittaine, Great Britain refers geographically to the island of Great Britain, politically to England and Wales in combination
A Pictish stone is a type of monumental stele, generally carved or incised with symbols or designs. The earlier stones have no parallels from the rest of the British Isles, in The Early Christian Monuments of Scotland J Romilly Allen and Joseph Anderson first classified Pictish stones into three groups. Critics have noted weaknesses in this system but it is widely known, in particular, the classification may be misleading for the many incomplete stones. Allen and Anderson regarded their classes as coming from distinct periods in sequence, Class 1 — unworked stones with symbols only incised. There is no cross on either side, Class 1 stones date back to the 6th, 7th and 8th century. Class 2 — stones of more or less rectangular shape with a large cross, the symbols, as well as Christian motifs, are carved in relief and the cross with its surroundings is filled with designs. Class 2 stones date from the 8th and 9th century, Class 3 — these stones feature no idiomatic Pictish symbols. The stones can be cross-slabs, recumbent gravemarkers, free-standing crosses and they originate in the 8th or 9th century.
Historic Scotland describes this class as too simplistic and says Nowadays this is not considered a useful category, a surviving fragment may belong to a monument that did include Christian imagery. Later Scottish stones merge into wider medieval British and European traditions, many Christian stones from Class II and Class III fall more easily into recognisable categories such as gravestones. A small number of Pictish stones have been associated with burials. Some stones may have marked tribal or lineage territories, some were re-used for other purposes, such as the two Congash Stones near Grantown-on-Spey, now placed as portal stones for an old graveyard. The shaft of an old cross is lying in the field, another Pictish stone, the Dunachton Stone near Kincraig, was used as a door lintel in a barn. This was discovered when the building was dismantled in 1870, the stone was re-erected in the field. Recently it fell, after being photographed in 2007, but was re-erected again a few years by the owner of Dunachton Lodge.
Class I and II stones contain symbols from a set of standard ideograms, many unique to Pictish art. The exact number of distinct Pictish symbols is uncertain as there is debate as to what constitutes a Pictish symbol. The more inclusive estimates are in excess of sixty different symbols, there are representations of everyday objects such as the mirror and comb, which could have been used by high-status Picts
Kingswood or Kingswood with Burgh Heath is a large village on the North Downs in the Borough of Reigate and Banstead in Surrey, England. Part of the London commuter belt, Kingswood is just to the east of the A217 separating it from Tadworth and has a railway station, Burgh Heath in its north is combined with it to form a ward. Reigate is 3.6 miles south of its centre and London is 15.5 miles to the north northeast, Kingswood with Burgh Heath had a population of 6,891 in 2011. From Domesday Kingswood, including Lower Kingswood and much of Burgh Heath was a part of the parish of Ewell. Between it the Banstead commons of Banstead including what is now Tadworth stretched to Reigate forming a buffer particularly for the parish of Walton-on-the-Hill, the wider Copthorne Hundred was a royal hundred. Kingswood by being a liberty was excluded and that hundred around on all sides but the south was worth almost £48 in the 14th century and £136 16s. Burgh Heath however was recorded, appearing as Burgh, held in 1086 by Hugh of Port of Bishop Odo of Bayeux, his overlord, mention occurs towards the close of the reign of Edward I of England.
The subsequent history of this chapel is obscure, nonetheless on the Dissolution of the Monasteries King Henry VIII seized Kingswood Manor that comprised almost all the land of Kingswood, earlier valued at £14 6s. 8d in 1535, annexing it to the honour of Hampton Court, queen Elizabeth I bestowed it to the first Lord Howard of Effingham for annual service of 1⁄40 of a knights fee, kept until sold by his grandson who was Earl of Nottingham. In 1632 and from 1669–1812 St Mary the Virgin Church, Ewell maintained separate Kingswood books with all the conformist births, Kingswood Warren was built about 1850, see Landmarks. Malden states in 1911 that the old church in 1911 was used as a parish room, Kingswood Methodist chapel was built by the late H. Fowker however has been converted. Kingswood became in 1899 the terminus of a branch of the South Eastern and Chatham Railway, writing in 1911, Malden states, the neighbourhood which used to be singularly sequestered and rural is fast becoming residential, especially since the opening of the railway.
But the majority of the new houses are in the part of Banstead included in the parish of Kingswood. Lower Kingswood School was built in 1893 and enlarged in 1903, Tadworth and Kingswood School was built in 1875. Kingswood is today characterised by housing which is described as arcadian, the entire ward sits on top of the North Downs and, taken as a whole, slopes gradually from 200m AOD in the south to 170m AOD in Upper Kingswood in the north. Kingswood is rectangular, less than 3 miles from north to south, the main street is on average at a modest 166m AOD, with the central, station section at 147-152m AOD. Below to the northeast and northwest are Sutton and Epsom at 30-40m at their centres, the folding landscape around both explains the misnomer among the names. This area had a population of 2,839 forming 1,055 households at the time of the 2001 Census, Reigate is 4 miles south of its centre and London is 15.5 miles to the NNE
In the visual arts, interlace is a decorative element found in medieval art. In interlace, bands or portions of other motifs are looped, interlacing is common in the Migration period art of Northern Europe, especially in the Insular art of the British Isles and Norse art of the Early Middle Ages and in Islamic art. Intricate braided and interlaced patterns, called plaits in British usage, are found in late Roman art in many parts of Europe, in mosaic floors and other media. Interlace is a key feature of the Style II animal style decoration of Migration Period art, and is found widely across Northern Europe, typically the long ribbons eventually terminate in an animals head. Artist George Bain has characterised the early Insular knotwork found in the 7th-century Book of Durrow, whether Coptic braid patterns were transmitted directly to Hiberno-Scottish monasteries from the eastern Mediterranean or came via Lombardic Italy is uncertain. Art historian James Johnson Sweeney argued for direct communication between the scriptoria of Early Christian Ireland and the Coptic monasteries of Egypt.
This new style featured elongated beasts intertwined into symmetrical shapes, the most elaborate interlaced zoomorphics occur in Viking Age art of the Urnes style, where tendrils of foliate designs intertwine with the stylized animals. Whole carpet pages were illuminated with abstract patterns, including use of interlace. In Romanesque art these became typical, and the generally much less complex. Some animal forms are found, geometric interlacing patterns are common in Islamic ornament. They can be considered a type of arabesque. Interlaced elaborations are found in Kufic calligraphy and knotwork are often found in Byzantine art, continuing Roman usage, but they are not given great prominence. One notable example of a local usage of interlace is the three-ribbon interlace found in the early medieval Croatia on stone carvings from the 9th to 11th centuries. Celtic art Celtic knot Croatian interlace Endless knot Islamic interlace patterns List of Hiberno-Saxon illustrated manuscripts Runestone styles Strapwork Bain, Celtic Art, The Methods of Construction.
Mitchell, G. Frank, Peter Harbison, Liam de Paor, Maire de Paor, treasures of Irish Art,1500 B. C. to 1500 A. D. From the Collections of the National Museum of Ireland, Royal Irish Academy, & Trinity College, metropolitan Museum of Art & Alfred A. Knopf, New York. CS1 maint, Multiple names, authors list Illustrated article by Peter Hubert on the origins of interlace sculpture
Saint Patrick was a fifth-century Romano-British Christian missionary and bishop in Ireland. Known as the Apostle of Ireland, he is the patron saint of Ireland, along with saints Brigit of Kildare. He is venerated in the Anglican Communion, the Old Catholic Church and in the Eastern Orthodox Church as equal-to-the-apostles and Enlightener of Ireland. The dates of Patricks life cannot be fixed with certainty but there is agreement that he was active as a missionary in Ireland during the second half of the 5th century. He has been generally so regarded ever since, despite evidence of some earlier Christian presence in Ireland, after becoming a cleric, he returned to northern and western Ireland. In life, he served as a bishop, but little is known about the places where he worked, by the seventh century, he had already come to be revered as the patron saint of Ireland. Saint Patricks Day is observed on 17 March, the date of his death. It is celebrated inside and outside Ireland as a religious and cultural holiday, in the dioceses of Ireland, it is both a solemnity and a holy day of obligation, it is a celebration of Ireland itself.
Two Latin works survive which are accepted as having been written by St. Patrick. These are the Declaration and the Letter to the soldiers of Coroticus, the Declaration is the more biographical of the two. In it, Patrick gives an account of his life. Most available details of his life are from subsequent hagiographies and annals, the only name that Patrick uses for himself in his own writings is Pātricius, which gives Old Irish Pátraic and Modern Irish Pádraig, English Patrick and Welsh Padrig. Hagiography records other names he is said to have borne, Magonus appears in the ninth century Historia Brittonum as Maun, descending from British *Magunos, meaning servant-lad. Succetus, which appears in Muirchú moccu Machthenis seventh century Life as Sochet, is identified by Mac Neill as a word of British origin meaning swineherd. The dates of Patricks life are uncertain, there are conflicting regarding the year of his death. His own writings provide no evidence for any dating more precise than the 5th century generally, the Letter to Coroticus implies that the Franks were still pagans at the time of writing, their conversion to Christianity is dated to the period 496–508.
The Irish annals for the century date Patricks arrival in Ireland at 432. The date 432 was probably chosen to minimise the contribution of Palladius, who was known to have sent to Ireland in 431
Iona is a small island in the Inner Hebrides off the Ross of Mull on the western coast of Scotland. It was a centre of Gaelic monasticism for four centuries and is renowned for its tranquility. It is a popular tourist destination and a place for retreats and its modern Gaelic name means Iona of Columba. The Hebrides have been occupied by the speakers of languages since the Iron Age. Nonetheless few, if any, can have accumulated so many different names over the centuries as the now known in English as Iona. The earliest forms of the name enabled place-name scholar William J. Watson to show that the name meant something like yew-place. The element Ivo-, denoting yew, occurs in Ogham inscriptions and in Gaulish names and it is possible that the name is related to the mythological figure, Fer hÍ mac Eogabail, foster-son of Manannan, the forename meaning man of the yew. The possible confusion results from ì, despite its original etymology, eilean Idhe means the isle of Iona, known as Ì nam ban bòidheach.
The modern English name comes of yet another variant, iouas change to Iona, attested from c.1274, results from a transcription mistake resulting from the similarity of n and u in Insular Minuscule. Iona lies about 2 kilometres from the coast of Mull and it is about 2 kilometres wide and 6 kilometres long with a resident population of 125. The geology of the island consists mainly of Precambrian Lewisian gneiss with Torridonian sedimentary rocks on the eastern side, like other places swept by ocean breezes, there are few trees, most of them are near the parish church. Ionas highest point is Dùn Ì,101 metres, an Iron Age hill fort dating from 100 BC – AD200. Ionas geographical features include the Bay at the Back of the Ocean and Càrn Cùl ri Éirinn, the main settlement, located at St. Ronans Bay on the eastern side of the island, is called Baile Mòr and is known locally as The Village. The primary school, post office, the two hotels, the Bishops House and the ruins of the Nunnery are here. The Abbey and MacLeod Centre are a short walk to the north, port Bàn beach on the west side of the island is home to the Iona Beach Party.
The steamer Cathcart Park carrying a cargo of salt from Runcorn to Wick ran aground on Soa on 15 April 1912, in the early Historic Period Iona lay within the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata. The island was the site of an important monastery during the Early Middle Ages. Columba and twelve companions went into exile on Iona and founded a monastery there, many satellite institutions were founded, and Iona became the centre of one of the most important monastic systems in Great Britain and Ireland
Halo (religious iconography)
A halo is a ring of light that surrounds a person in art. They have been used in the iconography of many religions to indicate holy or sacred figures, halos may be shown as almost any colour or combination of colours, but are most often depicted as golden, yellow or white when representing light or red when representing flames. Homer describes a light around the heads of heroes in battle. 450-30 BC, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Colossus of Rhodes was a statue of the sun-god Helios and had his usual radiate crown. Hellenistic rulers are shown wearing radiate crowns that seem clearly to imitate this effect. The rulers of the Kushan Empire were perhaps the earliest to give themselves haloes on their coins, in Chinese and Japanese Buddhist art the halo has been used since the earliest periods in depicting the image of Amitabha Buddha and others. Thin lines of gold often radiate outwards or inwards from the rim of the halo, elaborate haloes and especially aureoles appear in Hindu sculpture, where they tend to develop into architectural frames in which the original idea can be hard to recognise.
Theravada Buddhism and Jainism did not use the halo for many centuries, in Asian art, the nimbus is often imagined as consisting not just of light, but of flames. This type seems to first appear in Chinese bronzes of which the earliest surviving examples date from before 450 and this type is very rarely found, and on a smaller scale, in medieval Christian art. Sometimes a thin line of flames rise up from the edges of a halo in Buddhist examples. In Tibetan paintings the flames are shown as blown by a wind. Halos are found in Islamic art from various places and periods, especially in Persian miniatures and Moghul, flaming halos derived from Buddhist art surround angels, and similar ones are often seen around Muhammad and other sacred human figures. The halo represents an aura or glow of sanctity which was conventionally drawn encircling the head, though Roman paintings have largely disappeared, save some fresco decorations, the haloed figure remains fresh in Roman mosaics. In a 2nd-century AD Roman floor mosaic preserved at Bardo, significantly, the triton and nereid who accompany the sea-god are not haloed.
In a late 2nd century AD floor mosaic from Thysdrus, El Djem, another haloed Apollo in mosaic, from Hadrumentum, is in the museum at Sousse. The conventions of representation, head tilted, lips slightly parted, large-eyed. The halo was incorporated into Early Christian art sometime in the 4th century with the earliest iconic images of Christ, initially the only figure shown with one. At least in Orthodox images, each bar of cross is composed of three lines, symbolising the dogmas of the Trinity, the oneness of God and the two natures of Christ