Vegemite is a thick, black Australian food spread made from leftover brewers' yeast extract with various vegetable and spice additives. It was developed by Cyril Percy Callister in Melbourne, Victoria in 1922; the Vegemite brand was owned by Mondelez International until January 2017, when it was acquired by the Australian Bega Cheese group in a US$460,000,000 agreement for full Australian ownership after Bega would buy most of Mondelez International's Australia and New Zealand grocery and cheese business. A spread for sandwiches, toast and cracker biscuits as well as a filling for pastries, Vegemite is similar to British Marmite, New Zealand Marmite, Australian Promite, MightyMite, AussieMite, OzEmite, German Vitam-R, Swiss Cenovis. Vegemite is salty bitter and rich in glutamates – giving it an umami flavour similar to beef bouillon, it is vegan and halal. In 1919, following the disruption of British Marmite imports after World War I and prior to the introduction of Vegemite, Callister's employer, the Australian company Fred Walker & Co. gave him the task of developing a spread from the used yeast being dumped by breweries.
Callister had been hired by the chairman Fred Walker. Vegemite was registered as a trademark in Australia that same year. Callister used autolysis to break down the yeast cells from waste obtained from the Carlton & United brewery. Concentrating the clear liquid extract and blending with salt and onion extracts formed a sticky black paste. Following a competition to find a name for the new spread, the name "Vegemite" was selected by Fred Walker's daughter, Sheilah. Vegemite first appeared on the market in 1923 with advertising emphasising the value of Vegemite to children's health but failed to sell well. Faced with growing competition from Marmite, from 1928 to 1935 the product was renamed as "Parwill" to make use of the advertising slogan "Marmite but Parwill", a convoluted pun on the new name and that of its competitor; this attempt to expand market share was unsuccessful and the name was changed back to Vegemite, but did not recover lost market share. In 1925, Walker had established the Kraft Walker Cheese Co. as a joint venture company with J.
L. Kraft & Bros to market processed cheese and, following the failure of Parwill, in 1935 he used the success of Kraft Walker Cheese to promote Vegemite. In a two-year campaign to promote sales, Vegemite was given away free with Kraft Walker cheese products and this was followed by poetry competitions with imported American Pontiac cars being offered as prizes. Sales responded and in 1939 Vegemite was endorsed by the British Medical Association as a rich source of B vitamins. Rationed in Australia during World War II, Vegemite was included in Australian Army rations and by the late 1940s was used in nine out of ten Australian homes. In April 1984, a 115-gram jar of vegemite became the first product in Australia to be electronically scanned at a checkout. Vegemite is produced in Australia at Bega Cheese's Port Melbourne manufacturing facility, which produces more than 22 million jars per year. Unchanged from Callister's original recipe, Vegemite now far outsells Marmite and other similar spreads in Australia.
The billionth jar of Vegemite was produced in October 2008. Vegemite was produced in New Zealand for over 50 years, but as of August 2006 New Zealand production had ceased. A common way of eating Vegemite is on toasted bread with a layer of margarine. Only a small amount of Vegemite is required due to its strong flavour. A Vegemite sandwich may consist of two slices of buttered bread and cheese, but other ingredients such as lettuce and tomato can be added as well. Vegemite can be used as a filling for pastries, such as the cheesymite scroll, or it may be used in more exotic dishes; the official Vegemite website contains several recipes using Vegemite in foods such as pasta, pizzas and ice cream. Limited quantities of kosher Vegemite were first produced in the 1980s. Around 2009, Kraft contracted with the Kashrut Authority in New South Wales for their kashrut supervision services, by 2010, all jars and tubes of ordinary Vegemite were labelled with the authority's stamp. In 2010, Vegemite received halal certification.
Vegemite is one of the richest sources of B vitamins thiamine, riboflavin and folate. Unlike Marmite and some other yeast extracts, the base version contains no vitamin B12 although both B6 and vitamin B12 are added to the low-salt formulation; the main ingredient of Vegemite is yeast extract, which contains a high concentration of glutamic acid, the source of Vegemite's rich umami flavour. Vegemite does not contain any fat, added animal content, it contains gluten. Vegemite contains 3.45% sodium, which equates to a salt content of 8.6%. Australia only defines low salt foods, but by UK standards Vegemite is classified as a high salt content food; the low-salt version of Vegemite with a distinctive pale orange lid was introduced to the Australian domestic market in September 2014, offering a 25% reduction in sodium content. The low-salt version is fortified with vitamins B6 and vitamin B12. Vegemite contains 2.3% potassium. Promoted as a healthy food for children, during World War II advertising emphasised its medicinal value: Vegemite fights with the men up north!
If you are one of those who don't need Vegemite medicinally thousands of invalids are asking you to
Canton of Aargau
The canton of Aargau is one of the more northerly cantons of Switzerland. It is situated by the lower course of the Aare, why the canton is called Aar-gau, it is one of the most densely populated regions of Switzerland. The area of Aargau and the surrounding areas were controlled by the Helvetians, a member of the Celts, as far back as 200 BC being occupied by the Romans and by the 6th century, the Franks; the Romans built. The reconstructed Old High German name of Aargau is Argowe, first unambiguously attested in 795; the term described a territory only loosely equivalent to that of the modern canton, including the region between Aare and Reuss, including Pilatus and Napf, i.e. including parts of the modern cantons of Berne, Basel-Landschaft, Lucerne and Nidwalden, but not the parts of the modern canton east of the Reuss, which were part of Zürichgau. Within the Frankish Empire, the area was a disputed border region between the duchies of Alamannia and Burgundy. A line of the von Wetterau intermittently held the countship of Aargau from 750 until about 1030, when they lost it.
This division became the ill-defined outer border of the early Holy Roman Empire at its formation in the second half of the 10th century. Most of the region came under the control of the ducal house of Zähringen and the comital houses of Habsburg and Kyburg by about 1200. In the second half of the 13th century, the territory became divided between the territories claimed by the imperial cities of Berne and Solothurn and the Swiss canton of Unterwalden; the remaining portion corresponding to the modern canton of Aargau, remained under the control of the Habsburgs until the "conquest of Aargau" by the Old Swiss Confederacy in 1415. Habsburg Castle itself, the original seat of the House of Habsburg, was taken by Berne in April 1415; the Habsburgs had founded a number of monasteries, the closing of which by the government in 1841 was a contributing factor to the outbreak of the Swiss civil war – the "Sonderbund War" – in 1847. When Frederick IV of Habsburg sided with Antipope John XXIII at the Council of Constance, Emperor Sigismund placed him under the Imperial ban.
In July 1414, the Pope visited Bern and received assurances from them, that they would move against the Habsburgs. A few months the Swiss Confederation denounced the Treaty of 1412. Shortly thereafter in 1415, Bern and the rest of the Swiss Confederation used the ban as a pretext to invade the Aargau; the Confederation was able to conquer the towns of Aarau, Lenzburg and Zofingen along with most of the Habsburg castles. Bern kept the southwest portion, northward to the confluence of the Reuss; the important city of Baden was taken by a united Swiss army and governed by all 8 members of the Confederation. Some districts, named the Freie Ämter – Mellingen, Muri and Bremgarten, with the countship of Baden – were governed as "subject lands" by all or some of the Confederates. Shortly after the conquest of the Aargau by the Swiss, Frederick humbled himself to the Pope; the Pope ordered all of the taken lands to be returned. The Swiss refused and years after no serious attempts at re-acquisition, the Duke relinquished rights to the Swiss.
Bern's portion of the Aargau came to be known as the Unteraargau, though can be called the Berner or Bernese Aargau. In 1514 Bern expanded north into the Jura and so came into possession of several strategically important mountain passes into the Austrian Fricktal; this land was directly ruled from Bern. It was divided into seven rural bailiwicks and four administrative cities, Zofingen and Brugg. While the Habsburgs were driven out, many of their minor nobles were allowed to keep their lands and offices, though over time they lost power to the Bernese government; the bailiwick administration was based on a small staff of officials made up of Bernese citizens, but with a few locals. When Bern converted during the Protestant Reformation in 1528, the Unteraargau converted. At the beginning of the 16th century a number of anabaptists migrated into the upper Wynen and Rueder valleys from Zürich. Despite pressure from the Bernese authorities in the 16th and 17th centuries anabaptism never disappeared from the Unteraargau.
Bern used the Aargau bailiwicks as a source of grain for the rest of the city-state. The administrative cities remained economically only of regional importance. However, in the 17th and 18th centuries Bern encouraged industrial development in Unteraargau and by the late 18th century it was the most industrialized region in the city-state; the high industrialization led to high population growth in the 18th century, for example between 1764 and 1798, the population grew by 35%, far more than in other parts of the canton. In 1870 the proportion of farmers in Aarau, Lenzburg and Zofingen districts was 34–40%, while in the other districts it was 46–57%; the rest of the Freie Ämter were collectively administered as subject territories by the rest of the Confederation. Muri Amt was assigned to Zürich, Schwyz, Unterwalden and Glarus, while the Ämter of Meienberg and Villmergen were first given to Lucerne alone; the final boundary was set in 14
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
Swiss Armed Forces
The Swiss Armed Forces operates on land, in the air, in international waters. Under the country's militia system, professional soldiers constitute about 5 percent of the military and the rest are conscripts or volunteers aged 19 to 34; because of Switzerland's long history of neutrality, the armed forces do not take part in conflicts in other countries, but it does participate in international peacekeeping missions. Switzerland is part of the NATO Partnership for Peace programme; the structure of the Swiss militia system stipulates that the soldiers keep their own personal equipment, including all assigned weapons, at home. Compulsory military service applies with women serving voluntarily. Males receive initial orders at the age of 18 for military conscription eligibility screening. About two-thirds of young Swiss men are found suitable for service, while alternative service exists for those found unsuitable. Annually 20,000 persons are trained in basic training for 18 weeks; the reform "Army XXI" was adopted by popular vote in 2003.
It replaced the previous model "Army 95", reducing manpower from 400,000 to about 200,000 personnel, 120,000 receiving periodic military training and 80,000 reservists who have completed their total military training requirements. The land component of the Swiss Armed Forces originated from the cantonal troops of the Old Swiss Confederacy, called upon in cases of external threats by the Tagsatzung or by the canton in distress. In the federal treaty of 1815, the Tagsatzung prescribed cantonal troops to put a contingent of 2% of the population of each canton at the federation's disposition, amounting to a force of some 33,000 men; the cantonal armies were converted into the federal army with the constitution of 1848. From this time, it was illegal for the individual cantons to declare war or to sign capitulations or peace agreements. Paragraph 13 explicitly prohibited the federation from sustaining a standing army, the cantons were allowed a maximum standing force of 300 each. Paragraph 18 declared the "obligation" of every Swiss citizen to serve in the federal army if conscripted, setting its size at 3% of the population plus a reserve of one and one half that number, amounting to a total force of some 80,000..
The first complete mobilization, under the command of Hans Herzog, was triggered by the Franco-Prussian War in 1871. In 1875, the army was called in to crush a strike of workers at the Gotthard tunnel. Four workers were killed and 13 were wounded. Paragraph 19 of the revised constitution of 1874 extended the definition of the federal army to every able-bodied male citizen, swelling the size of the army from under 150,000 to more than 700,000, with population growth during the 20th century rising further to some 1.5 million, the second largest armed force per capita after the Israeli Defence Forces. A major manoeuvre commanded in 1912 by Ulrich Wille, a reputed Germanophile, convinced visiting European heads of state, in particular Kaiser Wilhelm II, of the efficacy and determination of Swiss defences. Wille was subsequently put in command of the second complete mobilization in 1914, Switzerland escaped invasion in the course of World War I. Wille ordered the suppression of the 1918 general strike with military force.
Three workers were killed, a rather larger number of soldiers died of the Spanish flu during mobilization. In 1932, the army was called to suppress an anti-fascist demonstration in Geneva; the troops shot dead 13 demonstrators, wounding another 65. This incident long damaged the army's reputation, leading to persistent calls for its abolition among left-wing politicians. In both the 1918 and the 1932 incidents, the troops deployed were consciously selected from rural regions such as the Berner Oberland, fanning the enmity between the traditionally conservative rural population and the urban working class; the third complete mobilization of the army took place during World War II under the command of Henri Guisan. The Patrouille des Glaciers race, created to test the abilities of soldiers, was created during the war. In the 1960s and 1970s, the armed forces were organised according to the "Armee 61" structure. Horse mounted cavalry were retained for combat roles until 1973, as were bicycle infantry battalions until 2001.
Since 1989, there have been several attempts to curb military activity or abolish the armed forces altogether. A notable referendum on the subject was held on 26 November 1989 and, although defeated, did see a significant percentage of the voters in favour of such an initiative. However, a similar referendum, called for before, but held shortly after the September 11 attacks in 2001 in the US, was defeated by over 77% of voters. In 1989, the status of the army as a national icon was shaken by a popular initiative aiming at its complete dissolution receiving 35.6% support. This triggered a series of reforms and, in 1995, the number of troops was reduced to 400,000. Article 58.1 of the 1999 constitution repeats that the army is "in principle" organized as a militia, implicitly allowing a small number of professional soldiers. A second initiative aimed at the army's dissolution in late 2001 received a mere 21.9% support. The army was shrunk again in 2004, to 220,000 men, including the reserves. In 2016, the Swiss Federal Assembly voted to further reduce the army from 140
Yeast extract is the common name for yeast products made by extracting the cell contents. They are used to create savory flavors and umami taste sensations, can be found in a large variety of packaged food, including frozen meals, snack foods, gravy and more. Yeast extracts in liquid form can be dried to a dry powder. Yeast extract consists of concentrations of yeast cells that are allowed to die and break up, so that the yeasts’ endogenous digestive enzymes break their proteins down into simpler compounds. Yeast extracts and fermented foods contain glutamic acid, an amino acid found in meat, cheese and vegetables, including mushrooms and tomatoes which adds an umami flavor. Skincare companies like Orved, Kiehl’s, REN, SkinCeuticals use yeast extract in their products. Yeast autolysates are used in AussieMite, Vegemite, New Zealand Marmite, Cenovis, Vitam-R, Maggi sauce. Bovril switched from beef extract to yeast extract for 2005 and most of 2006, but switched back; the general method for making yeast extract for food products such as Vegemite and Marmite on a commercial scale is to add heat to a suspension of yeast.
Yeast extract results from natural breakdown of yeast cells. The natural enzymes found in the yeast cell disintegrates the cell wall so the extract dissolves out. Removing the cell walls concentrates the flavors and changes the texture. Yeast extract is used as a flavoring in foods, it is a common ingredient in American barbecue-flavored potato chips such as Lay's. Vitam-R is a savory yeast extract spread made in Hameln, Germany by the company Vitam Hefe-Produkt GmbH, it was first developed by Rückforth AG in Stettin in 1925 following the discovery by Justus von Liebig that yeast could be concentrated. It is sometimes described as having a smoother flavor than similar products such as Marmite, Vegemite or Cenovis. Unlike those brands, Vitam-R is not an iconic part of its home country's cuisine, but it is described as having a love-it-or-hate-it flavor, it is both vegan and vegetarian and is sold in Reformhaus health-food stores. Herbst, Sharon. Food Lover's Companion. Hauppauge, New York: Barron's Educational Series, Inc. yeastextract.info: Homepage of Eurasyp http://savorytastealliance.com: Savory Taste Alliance
Marmite is a British food spread produced by Unilever. Marmite is made from a by-product of beer brewing. Other similar products include the Australian Vegemite, the Swiss Cenovis, the German Vitam-R. Marmite is a sticky, dark brown food paste with a distinctive, powerful flavour, salty; this distinctive taste is represented in the marketing slogan: "Love it or hate it." Such is its prominence in British popular culture that the product's name is used as a metaphor for something, an acquired taste or tends to polarise opinions. The image on the front of the jar shows a "marmite", a French term for a large, covered earthenware or metal cooking pot. Marmite was supplied in earthenware pots, but since the 1920s has been sold in glass jars. A similar spread named Marmite has been manufactured in New Zealand since 1919; this is the only product sold as Marmite in Australasia and the Pacific, whereas elsewhere in the world the British version predominates. The product, to become Marmite was invented during the late 19th century when German scientist Justus von Liebig discovered that brewer's yeast could be concentrated and eaten.
During 1902, the Marmite Food Extract Company was formed in Burton upon Trent, England with Marmite as its main product and Burton as the site of the first factory. The by-product yeast needed for the paste was supplied by Bass Brewery. By 1907, the product had become successful enough to warrant construction of a second factory at Camberwell Green in London. By 1912, the discovery of vitamins was a boost for Marmite, as the spread is a rich source of the vitamin B complex. British troops during World War I were issued Marmite as part of their rations. During the 1930s, Marmite was used by the English scientist Lucy Wills to treat a form of anaemia in mill workers in Bombay, she identified folic acid as the active ingredient. Marmite was used to treat malnutrition in Suriya-Mal workers during the 1934–5 malaria epidemic in Sri Lanka. Housewives were encouraged to spread Marmite thinly and to "use it sparingly just now" because of limited rations of the product. During 1990, Marmite Limited, which had become a subsidiary of Bovril Limited, was bought by CPC International Inc, which changed its name to Best Foods Inc during 1998.
Best Foods Inc subsequently merged with Unilever during 2000, Marmite is now a trademark owned by Unilever.. There are a number of similar yeast products available in other countries; the Australian product Vegemite is distributed in many countries, AussieMite is sold in Australia. Other products include OzeMite, made by Dick Smith Foods. Marmite is traditionally eaten as a savoury spread on bread, savoury biscuits or crackers, other similar baked products. Owing to its concentrated taste it is spread thinly with butter or margarine. Marmite can be made into a savoury hot drink by adding one teaspoon to a mug of hot water much like Oxo and Bovril. Marmite is paired with cheese, such as in a cheese sandwich, has been used as an additional flavouring in Mini Cheddars, a cheese-flavoured biscuit snack, it is one of Walkers Crisps flavours. Starbucks in the UK has a Marmite panini on its menu. Marmite has been used as an ingredient in cocktails, including the Marmite Cocktail and the Marmite Gold Rush.
While the process is secret, the general method for making yeast extract on a commercial scale is to add salt to a suspension of yeast, making the solution hypertonic, which results in the cells shrivelling. The dying yeast cells are heated to complete their breakdown, since yeast cells have thick cell walls which would detract from the smoothness of the end product, the husks are sieved out; as with other yeast extracts, Marmite contains free glutamic acids, which are analogous to monosodium glutamate. Presently, the main ingredients of Marmite are glutamic acid-rich yeast extract, with lesser quantities of sodium chloride, vegetable extract, spice extracts and celery extracts, although the precise composition is a trade secret. Vitamin B12 is not found in yeast extract, but is added to Marmite during manufacture. Marmite is rich in B vitamins including thiamin, niacin, folic acid and vitamin B12; the sodium content of the spread is high and has caused concern, although it is the amount per serving rather than the percentage in bulk Marmite, relevant.
The main ingredient of Marmite is yeast extract, which contains a high concentration of glutamic acid. Marmite is gluten free. However, Unilever will not confirm that it contains less than 20 parts per million of gluten, the current European standard and the proposed US FDA standard for gluten-free labelling. Marmite should be avoided if a person takes a MAOI antidepressant, such as phenelzine or tranylcypromine, as yeast extracts interact adversely with these types of medications due to their tyramine content. Marmite is presently fortified with added vitamins, resulting in it being banned temporarily in Denmark, which disallows foodstuffs that have been fortified until they have been tested; the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration stated during 2015 that Marmite had not been banned in the country, but that fortified foods need to be tested fo
Romandy is the French-speaking part of western Switzerland. In 2018, about 2.1 million people, or 25.1% of the Swiss population, lived in Romandy. The bulk of the romand population lives in the Arc Lémanique region along Lake Geneva, connecting Geneva and the Lower Valais; the adjective romand is a regional dialectal variant of roman. Use of the adjective romand in reference to the Franco-Provençal dialects can be traced to the 15th century; the term Suisse romande has become used since World War I. Suisse romande is used in contrast to Suisse alémanique, "Alemannic Switzerland", the term for Alemannic German speaking Switzerland. Formed by analogy is Suisse italienne, composed of Ticino and of a part of Grisons. In Swiss German, French-speaking Switzerland is known as Welschland or Welschschweiz, the French-speaking Swiss as Welsche, using the old Germanic term for "Celts" used in English of Welsh; the terms Welschland and Welschschweiz are used in written Swiss Standard German but in more formal contexts they are sometimes exchanged for französischsprachige Schweiz or französische Schweiz.
Simple Westschweiz "western Switzerland" may be used as a loose synonym. French is the only official language in the following cantons: In addition, three regions of French-German bilingual cantons have a French-speaking majority: "Romandy" is not an official territorial division of Switzerland any more than there is a clear linguistic boundary. In four Swiss cantons, French is the sole official language: Geneva, Neuchâtel, Jura. There are three cantons where French and German have co-official status: Bern and Valais; the linguistic boundary between French and German is known as Röstigraben. The term is humorous in origin and refers both to the geographic division and to perceived cultural differences between the Romandy and the German-speaking Swiss majority; the term can be traced to the WWI period, but it entered mainstream usage in the 1970s in the context of the Jurassic separatism virulent at the time. The linguistic boundary cuts across Switzerland north-to-south, forming the eastern boundary of the canton of Jura and encompassing the Bernese Jura, where the boundary frays to include a number of bilingual communities, the largest of, Biel/Bienne.
It follows the border between Neuchâtel and Bern and turns south towards Morat, again traversing an areal of traditional bilinguism including the communities of Morat and Fribourg. It divides the canton of Fribourg into a western French-speaking majority and an eastern German-speaking minority and follows the eastern boundary of Vaud with the upper Saane/Sarine valley of the Bernese Oberland. Cutting across the High Alps at Les Diablerets, the boundary separates the French-speaking Lower Valais from the Alemannic-speaking Upper Valais beyond Sierre, it cuts southwards into the High Alps again, separating the Val d'Anniviers from the Mattertal. The linguistic boundary in the Swiss Plateau would have more or less followed the Aare during the early medieval period, separating Burgundy from Alemannia; the Valais has a separate linguistic history. Traditionally speaking the Franco-Provençal or Patois dialects of Upper Burgundy, the romand population now speak a variety of Standard French. Today, the differences between Swiss French and Parisian French are minor and lexical, although in rural speakers, remnants of dialectal lexicon or phonology may remain more pronounced.
In particular, some parts of the Swiss Jura participate in the Frainc-Comtou dialect spoken in the Franche-Comté region of France. Since the 1970s, there has been a limited amount of linguistic revivalism. In this context, the Franco-Provençal dialects are called their area Arpitania; the cultural identity of the Romandy is supported by Télévision Suisse Romande, Radio Suisse Romande and the universities of Geneva, Fribourg and Neuchâtel. Most of the Romandy has been