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Censorship in Venezuela

Censorship in Venezuela refers to all actions which can be considered as suppression in speech in the country. Reporters Without Borders ranked Venezuela 137th out of 180 countries in its World Press Freedom Index 2015 and classified Venezuela's freedom of information in the "difficult situation" level; the Constitution of Venezuela says that freedom of press freedom are protected. Article 57 states that "Everyone has the right to express his or her thoughts, ideas or opinions orally, in writing or by any other form of expression, to use for such purpose any means of communication and diffusion, no censorship shall be established." It states that "Censorship restricting the ability of public officials to report on matters for which they are responsible is prohibited." According to Article 58, "Everyone has the right to timely and impartial information, without censorship..."Human Rights Watch said that during "the leadership of President Chávez and now President Maduro, the accumulation of power in the executive branch and the erosion of human rights guarantees have enabled the government to intimidate and prosecute its critics" and reported that broadcasters may be censored if they criticize the government.

Reporters Without Borders said that the media in Venezuela is "almost dominated by the government and its obligatory announcements, called cadenas". In 1998, independent television represented 88% of the 24 national television channels while the other 12% of channels were controlled by the Venezuelan government. By 2014, there were 105 national television channels with only 48 channels, or 46%, representing independent media while the Venezuelan government and the "communitarian channels" it funded accounted for 54% of channels, or the 57 remaining channels. Freedom House has stated that there is "systematic self-censorship" encouraged toward the remaining private media due to pressure by the Venezuelan government. According to the National Union of Press Workers of Venezuela, 115 media outlets have been shut down between 2013 and 2018 during Nicolás Maduro's government, including 41 printed means, 65 radio outlets and 9 television channels; the Press and Society Institute of Venezuela found at least 350 cases of violations of freedom of expression during the first seven months of 2019 Both President Chávez and President Maduro would pressure media organizations until they failed by preventing them from acquiring necessary resources.

The Venezuelan government would manipulate foreign exchange rates for media organizations so that they could no longer import their resources or fine them heavily. The government would use a front company to give the troubled organization a "generous" offer to purchase the company. Following the buyout, the front company would promise that the staff would not change but would release them and change their coverage to be in favor of the Venezuelan government. Soon after Nicolás Maduro became President of Venezuela, El Universal, Globovisión and Últimas Noticias, three of some of the largest Venezuelan media organizations, were sold to owners that were sympathetic to the Venezuelan government. Shortly after, employees of the affected media organizations began to resign, some due to censorship enforced by the new owners of the organizations. Following nearly 83 years of printing newspapers to the Venezuelan public, on 17 March 2016, the newspaper released its final edition of its physical newspaper, discontinuing the use of printed material.

On its final front-page editorial, El Carabobeño explained that the government agency that has the responsibility of distributing newsprint had not attempted to sell the necessary resources to the newspaper. Following the election of President Maduro, 55 newspapers in Venezuela stopped circulation due to difficulties and government censorship between 2013 and 2018. In 2001, there were 500 independent radio stations in only 1 state-sanctioned station. In August 2009, Diosdado Cabello director of the National Commission of Telecommunications, ordered the intervention of 32 radio and 2 television stations, decision that received the name of Radiocide. In 2017, the Maduro government removed 46 radio stations from the air according to the National Union of Workers of the Press. Since 22 January 2019, Conatel has advised against the promotion of violence and the disavowing of institutional authorities, according to the Law on Social Responsibility on Radio and Television imposed in 2004; some radio programs have been ordered off air, including Cesar Miguel Rondón's radio program, one of the most listened-to programs in the country.

Other programs have been temporarily canceled or received censorship warnings, including a threat to close private television and radio stations if they recognized Juan Guaidó as acting president or interim president of Venezuela. In 2008, Reporters Without Borders reported that following "years of'media war,' Hugo Chávez and his government took control of the entire broadcast sector". During the 2014 Venezuelan protests, Colombian news channel NTN24 was taken off the air by CONATEL for "promoting violence". President Maduro denounced the Agence France-Presse for manipulating information about the protests. After an opposition Twitter campaign asked participants of the Oscar ceremony to speak out in support of them, for the first time in decades, private television channel Venevisión did not show The Oscars, where Jared Leto showed solidarity with the opposition "dreamers" when he won his award; when a TV series portraying Hugo Chávez titled El Comandante was to be aired for the first time, the Bolivarian government censored the episode with Presiden

All I Want (Captain Hollywood Project song)

"All I Want" is a song recorded by the German musician known under the pseudonym of Captain Hollywood Project. It was released in May 1993 as the third single from his debut album, Love Is Not Sex; the song was a hit in several countries, but achieved a minor success in comparison with the two previous Captain Hollywood Project's singles. "All I Want" peaked at number 2 on the Canadian dance music chart. And on the Eurochart Hot 100, it reached number 22. Billboard wrote, "Act that scored big with "More & More" offers an sparkling gem from its noteworthy "Love Is Not Sex" set. Track travels down a slower, more R&B-flavored path, matching deep-voiced male rapping with sultry female belting at the chorus." Network 40 noted that "here's yet another Pop-influenced Trance/Ambient number from Captain Hollywood. The vocals are catchy and fit nicely over the hypnotic synth lines." Charles Aaron from Spin commented on the song, "Eddie "Flashin'" "Fowlke's "Club Dub" is state-of-the-art progressive house—almost subliminal organ, stringent percussion whacks, melody via synth hunt-and-peck, lyrics stripped to a simple mantra.

Room to breathe or sweat it out. The female vocals are either determined or resigned---I can't decide—which gives the groove its cryptic allure." CD-Maxi 1"All I Want" "All I Want" "All I Want" "All I Want" CD-Maxi 2"All I Want" "All I Want" "All I Want" Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

Kou Fumizuki

Kou Fumizuki is a Japanese manga artist. Fumizuki's most famous work to date is Ai Yori Aoshi, a 17-volume work, turned into an anime series; this series was followed by Umi no Misaki, serialized in Young Animal Magazine starting in the fifth issue of 2007 and concluding with its 127th and final chapter in the fifth issue of 2014. Both of these seinen manga series are harem-type romance comedies in which a naive young man finds himself surrounded by pretty girls vying for his attention. Since 2011 he has been serializing Itadaki!, a light comedy about a girls' mountain climbing club, which appears intermittently in the magazine Young Animal Island. Starting October 9, 2015 in Young Animal he launched a new series, Boku to Rune to Aoarashi, about an art school student who goes on a pilgrimage to meet a great landscape painter named Seiran, discovers an extraordinary girl in Seiran's household. In October 2016 it was announced that the final chapter of Boku to Rune to Aoarashi would appear in the 21st issue of 2016, out October 28.

Kou Fumizuki at Anime News Network's encyclopedia Kou Fumizuki at Media Arts Database

Blow Up Hollywood

Blow Up Hollywood is an underground American rock band. Their eclectic sound, built over a decade of recording, incorporates many different styles, diverse as progressive rock, post-rock, pop, classical and ambient soundscapes. Founded by Steve Messina and Nik Chinboukas in 2001, the group has evolved into more of a collective than a band, as some of their members have changed over the years, their debut, self-titled CD, is a concept album about the afterlife. The CD was recorded in a beach house in West Hampton, New York, over the course of three weeks in March 2001, was released the following year; the recording was intended to be just a "musical vacation" amongst friends who had performed and recorded together in various groups and projects throughout the years. But after hearing the results, enjoying the collaboration, they decided to release it, with Blow Up Hollywood as their moniker, their sophomore CD, was released in 2004, garnished critical acclaim. In September 2004, John Diliberto, the host of the radio show Echoes, ran a feature on the band and had them perform live on air, bringing them national attention.

That same year their live version of the song "beyond the stars" was included on the Echo's compilation CD, alongside artists Yo-Yo Ma, Kai King, Will Ackerman. Stars End - A one track ambient improvisation, was recorded live on November 14, 2004, at WXPN in Philadelphia; the CD is titled after Chuck Van Zyl's show Star's End which has aired every Saturday night since 1976. "We asked Chuck what we should play, he gave us free reign. So we improvised for an hour", one of the band members has stated. In 2006 the band released what would become their most popular CD, both nationally and internationally. With the debate over the war in Iraq raging, the band released another concept album, The Diaries of Private Henry Hill. Based on the journal entries of a young, deceased soldier from the Iraq war, Blow Up Hollywood takes us on Private Henry Hill's surreal journey as he joins the army out of necessity rather than patriotism; that same year the album was released, Amy Goodman, the host of the news show Democracy Now!

Championed the band and the video for the song WMD playing it on her show for weeks. Rachael Maddow, the host of The Rachael Maddow show on Air America Radio invited the band to perform live and discuss the CD, and many other songs from the Diaries record were featured on NPR's program All Things Considered. In 2008, the band was invited by Tomas Young and Eddie Vedder to have WMD included on the compilation soundtrack to the documentary film Body of War, alongside Bruce Springsteen, Neil Young, Tori Amos, Tom Waits, Roger Waters, Eddie Vedder and Pearl Jam. Body of War, directed by Ellen Spiro and Phil Donahue, is a 2007 documentary following Tomas Young, an Iraq War veteran paralyzed from a bullet to the spine, on a physical and emotional journey as he adapts to his new body and begins to question the decision to go to war in Iraq; as Tomas's journey unfolds, the film cuts back and forth to Congressional proceedings in Washington, D. C. Footage includes passionate speeches by Senator Robert Byrd as well as a running tally of how each U.

S. Senate member voted on the resolution to authorize President George W. Bush to war in Iraq; the National Board of Review named Body of War Best Documentary of 2007. Phil Donahue and Ellen Spiro appeared on Bill Moyers Journal for a one-hour special about Body of War. Body of War - The Soundtrack Body of War: Songs that Inspired an Iraq War Veteran, a double-CD compilation of songs curated by Iraq war veteran Tomas Young, was released by Sire Records on March 18, 2008 — two days before the fifth anniversary of the United States’ invasion of Iraq. Young selected each of the tracks that appear on Body of War: Songs that Inspired an Iraq War Veteran, including Eddie Vedder's unreleased, live version of "No More,", written for the Body of War documentary and performed with Ben Harper at Lollapalooza 2007 in Chicago's Grant Park; the double-CD set features incisive songs from John Lennon, Bruce Springsteen, Bright Eyes, Neil Young, Lupe Fiasco and Serj Tankian. The Body of War music site enables visitors to order the Body of War double CD set or buy the iTunes version of the album, view the video for “No More” by Ellen Spiro and special bonus footage with Tomas Young and Eddie Vedder, as well as link to sites and a forum where users can take action based on their feelings about the Iraq war.

All proceeds from Body of War: Songs That Inspired an Iraq War Veteran, which features original cover art designed and donated by acclaimed political artist Shepard Fairey, go to benefit the non-profit organization Iraq Veterans Against the War, as chosen by Young. Founded in 2004 by Iraq War Veterans, IVAW’s goal is to give voice to the large number of active-duty service people and veterans who are against the war, but are under various pressures to remain silent. In September, Sire Records donated $100,000 to IVAW in the name of Young, a spokesperson for the organization. "Blow Up Hollywood is an intriguing, intelligent progressive pop masterpiece, as good as any you will hear this year or any year." - Jedd Beaudoin Musician and Composer Steve Messina goes onlinewithandrea to share the music of his group Blow Up Hollywood. Hosted by Andrea R. Garrison. Dreaming of Tibet - 2008 Mustang - Journey of Transformation - 2009 ABC's 20/20 CBS' CSI- Miami Harley Davidson Commercial Rich Kern Spencer Gordon - www.spence

Olmec figurine

Olmec figurines are archetypical figurines produced by the Formative Period inhabitants of Mesoamerica. While not all of these figurines were produced in the Olmec heartland, they bear the hallmarks and motifs of Olmec culture. While the extent of Olmec control over the areas beyond their heartland is not yet known, Formative Period figurines with Olmec motifs were widespread in the centuries from 1000 to 500 BC, showing a consistency of style and subject throughout nearly all of Mesoamerica; these figurines are found in household refuse, ancient construction fill, outside the Olmec heartland, graves. However, many Olmec-style figurines those labelled as Las Bocas- or Xochipala-style, were recovered by looters and are therefore without provenance; the vast majority of figurines are simple in design nude or with a minimum of clothing, made of local terracotta. Most of these recoveries are mere fragments: a head, torso, or a leg, it is thought, based on wooden busts recovered from the water-logged El Manati site, that figurines were carved from wood, but, if so, none have survived.

More durable and better known by the general public are those figurines carved with a degree of skill, from jade, greenstone and other minerals and stones. The "baby-face" figurine is a unique marker of Olmec culture found in sites that show Olmec influence, although they seem to be confined to the early Olmec period and are absent, for example, in La Venta; these ceramic figurines are recognized by the chubby body, the baby-like jowly face, downturned mouth, the puffy slit-like eyes. The head is pear-shaped due to artificial cranial deformation, they wear a tight-fitting helmet not dissimilar to those worn by the Olmec colossal heads. Baby-face figurines are naked, but without genitalia, their bodies are rendered with the detail shown on their faces. Called "hollow babies", these figurines are from 25–35 cm high and feature a burnished white- or cream-slip, they are only found in archaeological context. Archaeologist Jeffrey Blomster divides baby-face figurines into two groups based on several features.

Among the many distinguishing factors, Group 1 figurines more mirror the characteristics of Gulf Coast Olmec artifacts. Group 2 figurines are slimmer than those of Group 1, lacking the jowly face or fleshy body, their bodies are larger in proportion to their heads. Given the sheer numbers of baby-face figurines unearthed, they undoubtedly fulfilled some special role in the Olmec culture. What they represented, however, is not known. Michael Coe, says "One of the great enigmas in Olmec iconography is the nature and meaning of the large, whiteware babies". Another common figurine style features standing figurines in a stiff artificial pose and characterized by their thin limbs, bald, flat-topped heads, almond-shaped eyes, downturned mouths; the figurines' legs are separated straight, sometimes bent. Toes and fingers, if shown at all, are represented by lines, it has been theorized that the elongated, flat-topped heads are reflective of the practice of artificial cranial deformation, as found in the Tlatilco burials of the same period or among the Maya of a era.

No direct evidence of this practice has been found in the Olmec heartland, however. The ears have small holes for ear flares or other ornaments; these figurines may have therefore once worn earrings and clothes made of perishable materials. It has been proposed that these figurines had multiple outfits for different ritual occasions – as Richard Diehl puts it, "a pre-Columbian version of Barbie's Ken"; these figurines are carved from jade and well under 1 ft in height. For another example, see this Commons photo. At the La Venta archaeological site, archaeologists found what they subsequently named "Offering 4"; these figurines had been ritually buried in a deep, narrow hole, covered over with three layers of colored clay. At some point after the original burial, someone dug a small hole down just to the level of their heads and refilled it. Offering 4 consists of sixteen male figurines positioned in a semicircle in front of six jade celts representing stelae or basalt columns. Two of the figurines were made from jade, thirteen from serpentine, one of reddish granite.

This granite figurine one was positioned with its back to the celts. All of the figurines had similar classic Olmec features including bald elongated heads, they had small holes for earrings, their legs were bent, they were undecorated – unusual if the figurines were gods or deities – but instead covered with cinnabar. Interpretations abound; this particular formation represents a council of some sort—the fifteen other figurines seem to be listening to the red granite one, with the celts forming a backdrop. One of the most striking offerings found at La Venta, the celts in Offering Number 4, depict a person with a ceremonial headdress “flying” and the maize deity. There appears to be a definite symbolic link here, but it is unclear whether it is tied to the Olmec rudimentary writing system. To the red granite figurine's right, there seems be a line of three figurines filing past him. Another researcher has suggested; as the name implies, Offering 4 is one of many ritual offerings uncovered at La Venta, including the four Massive Offerings and four mosaics.

Why such works would be buried continues to generate much speculation. The so-called were-jaguar motif runs through much of Olmec art, from the smallest jade to some of the largest basalt statues; the motif is found inscribed on celts, votive axes, mask


Semonkong is a community council located in the Maseru District of Lesotho. Semonkong, meaning "Place of Smoke", was established in the 1880s as a refuge for Basotho displaced by the Gun War, it is located close to several major natural features, including the Maletsunyane Falls and the 3096-metre peak of Thaba Putsoa. The population in 2006 was 7,781; the community of Semonkong includes the villages of Boitumelo, Ha Farelane, Ha Khonyeli, Ha Lentiti, Ha Lepae, Ha Lesala, Ha Lesia, Ha Leteketa, Ha Mateketa, Ha Moahloli, Ha Moahloli, Ha Moahloli, Ha Moqibi, Ha Motšoane, Ha Phallang, Ha Ramabanta, Ha Rasefale, Ha Seqhoasho, Ha Sethuoa-Majoe, Ha Sikeme, Ha Tlalinyana, Ha Tšitso, Letšeng, Mantorina, Moriting, Motse-Mocha, Pontšeng, Thaba-Chitja, Tsekana, Tšenekeng and Tšoeu-tšoana. Semonkong Airport Google map of community villages Semonkong travel guide from Wikivoyage