Centennial Parklands is the name given to a group of three urban parklands located in the eastern suburbs of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Comprising about 360 hectares, the lands encompass the Centennial Park, the Moore Park, the Parklands are listed on the New South Wales Heritage Register, with various components of national, state or local heritage significance. The parks are contained within the government areas of City of Randwick, Waverley Municipal Council. The parklands are managed by the Centennial Park and Moore Park Trust, trading as the Botanic Gardens, the Trust is administered by the NSW Office of Environment and Heritage, an agency of the Government of New South Wales. During the 1970s, it was recognised that the Showground facilities required significant investment, the final Royal Easter Show held at Moore Park concluded during 1997. During the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games and Sydney 2000 Paralympics, the parks hosted part of the cycling events, the football. The Parklands is home to over 15,000 trees,124 species of land and water birds.
The Centennial Park, with 189 hectares, is the largest of the three parks make up the Centennial Parklands. Centennial Park comprises 2.2 square kilometres of open space and it was originally swampland, known as Lachlan Swamps. Centennial Park was set aside by Governor Macquarie in 1811 and was developed as water reserve, the government began plans for a celebratory park in 1887 and passed an Act of Parliament in the following year. Some of the plans for the area, such as a museum. The Governor-General, Lord Hopetoun dedicated the park to the people of New South Wales forever, the land was originally set aside by Governor Lachlan Macquarie for grazing and watering stock. The ponds to the south, known as Lachlan Swamps, were named in his honour and were the water supply for Sydney from 1830 to 1880. Water was carried to Hyde Park along a tunnel called Busbys Bore, the tunnel served the needs of Sydney until the Nepean scheme made it redundant in the 1880s. In 1851, it was a scene of a duel between the first Premier of New South Wales, Stuart Donaldson, and the Surveyor-General, Thomas Mitchell, both men survived to fulfil their duties.
In more recent times, the park has had its share of bad news, on 7 February 1986, Sallie-Anne Huckstepp was found drowned in the Busby Pond. It was thought that she had been murdered by a well-known Sydney criminal, Neddy Smith, the Sydney Morning Herald described her as a 32-year-old gangsters moll, heroin addict and prostitute who mingled with Sydneys most notorious criminals and blew the whistle on crooked cops. The Federation Pavilion, designed by Alexander Tzannes, was erected around the Commonwealth Stone as a permanent monument to Federation, an inscription around the pavilion is from a poem by Bernard ODowd, and reads, Mammon or millennial Eden
Arts and Crafts movement
It stood for traditional craftsmanship using simple forms, and often used medieval, romantic, or folk styles of decoration. It advocated economic and social reform and was essentially anti-industrial and it had a strong influence on the arts in Europe until it was displaced by Modernism in the 1930s, and its influence continued among craft makers and town planners long afterwards. It was inspired by the ideas of architect Augustus Pugin, writer John Ruskin, the movement developed earliest and most fully in the British Isles, and spread across the British Empire and to the rest of Europe and North America. It was largely a reaction against the perceived impoverished state of the arts at the time. The Arts and Crafts style emerged from the attempt to reform design, but it was as much a movement of social reform as design reform and its leading practitioners did not separate the two. The art historian Nikolaus Pevsner has said that exhibits in the Great Exhibition showed ignorance of basic need in creating patterns.
Owen Jones, for example, declared that Ornament, fiona MacCarthy says that unlike zealots like Gandhi, William Morris had no practical objections to the use of machinery per se so long as the machines produced the quality he needed. Morriss followers had differing views or changed their minds over time. C. R. Ashbee, for example, a figure in the Arts and Crafts Movement. At the time of his Guild of Handicraft, initiated in 1888, he said, We do not reject the machine, but we would desire to see it mastered. Morris insisted that the artist should be a working by hand and advocated a society of free craftspeople. Because craftsmen took pleasure in their work, he wrote, the Middle Ages was a period of greatness in the art of the common people. The treasures in our museums now are only the common used in households of that age. Medieval art was the model for much Arts and Crafts design and medieval life, before capitalism, the founders of the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society did not insist that the designer should be the maker.
Peter Floud, writing in the 1950s, said that The founders of the Society, never executed their own designs, but invariably turned them over to commercial firms. The Arts and Crafts Movement was associated with socialist ideas in the persons of Morris, T. J. Cobden Sanderson, Walter Crane, Ashbee, in the early 1880s Morris was spending more of his time on socialist propaganda than on designing and making. Ashbee established a community of craftsmen, the Guild of Handicraft, in east London and those adherents who were not socialists, for example, Alfred Hoare Powell, advocated a more humane and personal relationship between employer and employee. Lewis Foreman Day, a successful and influential Arts and Crafts designer, was not a socialist either
Local government in Australia
Local government in Australia is the third tier of government in Australia administered by the states and territories, which in turn are beneath the federal tier. Local government is not mentioned in the Constitution of Australia and two referenda in the 1970s and 1980s to alter the Constitution relating to local government were unsuccessful, every state government recognises local government in their respective constitutions. Unlike Canada, or the United States there is one level of local government in each state. In August 2016 there were 547 local councils in Australia, despite the single level of local government in Australia, there are a number of extensive areas with relatively low populations which are not a part of any local government area. Despite this, they occupy a role in each state. State-based departments oversee local councils and may intervene in their affairs, the first official local government in Australia was the Perth Town Trust, established in 1838, only three years after British settlement.
The Adelaide Corporation followed, created by the province of South Australia in October 1840, the City of Melbourne and the Sydney Corporation followed, both in 1842. Council representatives attended conventions before Federation, however local government was regarded as outside the Constitutional realm. In the 1970s, the Whitlam Government expanded the level of funding to local governments in Australia beyond grants for road construction, general purpose grants become available for the first time. Significant reforms took place in the 1980s and 1990s in which state governments used metrics, each state conducted an inquiry into the benefits of council amalgamations during the 1990s. In the early 1990s, Victoria saw the number of local councils reduced from 210 to 78, South Australia and Queensland saw some reductions in the number of local governments while Western Australia and New South Wales rejected compulsory mergers. New South Wales eventually forced the merging of some councils, the main purpose of amalgamating councils was for greater efficiency and to improve operations, but forced amalgamation of councils is sometimes seen as a dilution of representative democracy.
An increase in the range of services offered by councils, the council mergers have resulted in widespread job losses and lingering resentment from some whose roles have experienced a larger workload. The growth of the Regional Organisations of Councils has been a factor in local government reform in Australia, in 1995, there were 50 such agreements across the country. A2002 study identified 55 ROCs with the largest involving 18 councils, Local governments are subdivisions of the states and the Northern Territory. Although they are all identical in function, Australian local governments have a variety of names. The term local government area is used to refer collectively to all local governments regardless of status, whilst the local governing body itself is generally known as a council. Today, the borough, district, region, town, community government, Aboriginal shire
Queens Park, New South Wales
Queens Park is a small suburb in the eastern suburbs of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, located approximately 6 kilometres east of the Sydney central business district. Located north of Queens Park, a park that forms part of the Centennial Parklands. The suburb is bounded by the suburbs of Centennial Park to the west and Charing Cross to the east, Bondi Junction to the north and Randwick to the south. The suburb surrounds the park with houses on three sides, however only houses on the northern and eastern sides form the suburb of Queens Park. The area previously formed part of the suburb of Bondi Junction but was proclaimed a suburb by the Geographical Names Board of New South Wales on 2 October 1992, houses on the eastern side date from the Victorian era. Those on the northern and southern sides are mainly Federation, Queens Park takes its name from the park of the same name on its southern border. Once part of Bondi Junction, the name was officially recognised in 1992 following a submission to Waverley Council by a local author Mark Roeder.
Notwithstanding the name change, many of the longer term residents of the suburb still refer to the area as Bondi Junction, Queens Park was originally part of the Sydney Common and the Lachlan Swamps Water Reserve. Today it is a urban park, part of the Centennial Parklands. It was dedicated with Centennial Park in 1888 as part of the celebrations of European settlement in Australia. Numerous playing fields are located on the southern and western sections of the park. It has been used for sports fields since 1938, moriah College, which is located on the parks western boundary, uses the park for their PDHPE lessons and other schools in Sydney use the park. The Centennial Park and Moore Park Trust undertook major renovations of Queens Park in 2009 to improve the quality of the fields which are used daily. The Trust completed a renovation of the popular childrens playground in 2009
Moore Park, New South Wales
Moore Park is a small suburb in its own right, as is Centennial Park. Moore Park is an area of parkland that is part of Centennial Parklands. Centennial Parklands is administered by the Centennial Park & Moore Park Trust, the only exception is the land on which the Sydney Cricket Ground and Sydney Football Stadium are sited, these stadiums are managed by the Sydney Cricket Ground Trust. Moore Park is the location of the Royal Agricultural Societys Sydney Showground. The old showgrounds have since been redeveloped as Fox Studios, a venture designed at supporting Australias film industry. The Entertainment Quarter is a retail and entertainment precinct beside the studios and it contains cinemas, live venues, cafes and retailers of fashion and homewares. The Farmers Market operates every Wednesday and Saturday in the old showground showing, the south-western corner of the suburb boasts a large shopping centre called the Moore Park Supa Centre, on South Dowling Street. It specialises in showrooms for home furnishings and home renovations and this was the site of the former Dowling Street Depot for trams.
The Eastern Distributor and Anzac Parade are major roads on the western border of the suburb. Sydney Buses operate frequent services to Moore Park from the Sydney CBD, South of Moore Park the line will spit into two branches - one continuing down Anzac Parade to the nine ways at Kensington, and the second heading to Randwick via Alison Road. Moore Park is the location of two of Sydneys largest sporting venues, the Sydney Cricket Ground and Sydney Football Stadium, the Moore Park Magpies are a local junior rugby league team. The Hordern Pavilion is an entertainment venue, while next door the Royal Hall of Industries hosts a range of exhibitions and commercial events. Moore Park houses Kippax Lake, the E. S, marks Athletics Field, the Moore Park Golf, the Parklands Sports Centre and a number of sports fields. Moore Park, served by the Department of Education, is the location of Sydney Boys High School, Sydney Girls High School, and St Marys Cathedral College
Sydney /ˈsɪdni/ is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australias east coast, the metropolis surrounds the worlds largest natural harbour, residents of Sydney are known as Sydneysiders. The Sydney area has been inhabited by indigenous Australians for at least 30,000 years, the first British settlers, led by Captain Arthur Phillip, arrived in 1788 to found Sydney as a penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Since convict transportation ended in the century, the city has transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural. As at June 2016 Sydneys estimated population was 5,005,358, in the 2011 census,34 percent of the population reported having been born overseas, representing many different nationalities and making Sydney one of the most multicultural cities in the world. There are more than 250 different languages spoken in Sydney and about one-third of residents speak a language other than English at home and it is classified as an Alpha+ World City by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world.
Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has a market economy with strengths in finance, manufacturing. Its gross regional product was $337 billion in 2013, the largest in Australia, there is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as one of Asia Pacifics leading financial hubs. Its natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, man-made attractions such as the Sydney Opera House, Sydney Tower and the Sydney Harbour Bridge are well known to international visitors. The first people to inhabit the now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago, the earliest British settlers called them Eora people. Eora is the term the indigenous used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is from this place, prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans.
Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan, the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells. Development has destroyed much of the citys history including that of the first inhabitants, there continues to be examples of rock art and engravings located in the protected Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park. The first meeting between the people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula. He noted in his journal that they were confused and somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors, Cook was on a mission of exploration and was not commissioned to start a settlement
Patrick Victor Martindale White was an Australian writer who is widely regarded as one of the most important English-language novelists of the 20th century. From 1935 to his death, he published 12 novels, three collections and eight plays. Whites fiction employs humour, florid prose, shifting narrative vantage points, in 1973, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, the first Australian to have been awarded the prize. White was the recipient of the Miles Franklin Award. White was born in Knightsbridge, London, to, Victor Martindale White and Ruth née Withycombe and his family returned to Sydney, when he was six months old. As a child he lived in a flat with his sister, a nanny, at the age of four, White developed asthma, a condition that had taken the life of his maternal grandfather. Whites health was fragile throughout his childhood, which precluded his participation in many childhood activities and he loved the theatre, which he first visited at an early age. This love was expressed at home when he performed rites in the garden.
At the age of five, he attended kindergarten at Sandtoft in Woollahra, at the age of ten, White was sent to Tudor House School, a boarding school in Moss Vale in the Southern Highlands of New South Wales, in an attempt to abate his asthma. It took him time to adjust to the presence of other children. At boarding school, he started to write plays, even at this early age, White wrote about palpably adult themes. In 1924, the school ran into financial trouble, and the headmaster suggested for White to be sent to a public school in England. White struggled to adjust to his new surroundings at Cheltenham College, Gloucestershire and he described it as a four-year prison sentence. White withdrew socially and had a circle of acquaintances. Occasionally, he would holiday with his parents at European locations, while at school in London, White made one close friend, Ronald Waterall, an older boy who shared similar interests. When Waterall left school, White withdrew again and he asked his parents if he could leave school to become an actor.
The parents compromised and allowed him to finish school early if he came home to Australia to try life on the land and his parents felt that he should work on the land rather than become a writer and hoped that his work as a jackaroo would temper his artistic ambitions. White spent two years working as a stockman at Bolaro, a 73-square-kilometre station near Adaminaby, on the edge of the Snowy Mountains, although he grew to respect the land and his health improved, it was clear that he was not cut out for this life
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states.
The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828.
Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia
Census in Australia
The census in Australia, or officially, the Census of Population and Housing, is a descriptive count of population of Australia on one night, and of their dwellings, generally held quinquennially. Participation in the census is compulsory, though answering some questions is optional, the count is taken every five years and is managed by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. The first Australian census was held in 1911, on the night of 2 April, in 1961 the five-year period was introduced. Censuses are held on the second Tuesday of August, the most recent was held on 9 August 2016. The cost of the 2011 census was $440 million, a separate census of Norfolk Island has been conducted by the Norfolk Island Government every five years since 1981, and occurs on the same day as the Australian census. The census examines data such as age, incomes, dwelling types and occupancy, transportation modes, languages spoken, the Census and Statistics Act 1905 led to the 1906 establishment of the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics.
The Bureau was renamed the Australian Bureau of Statistics in 1975, the census is collected and published against geographic areas defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The ASGC provides a set of classifications for the dissemination of all ABS statistics. In 2007 the ABS published a set of spatial units called mesh blocks. The primary aim of mesh blocks is to provide a block for constructing alternative. Only data on persons and total dwellings is released at the mesh block level. Mesh blocks will form the basis of a new statistical geography, the traditional concept of a Collection District is that it was the area that one census collector can cover in about a ten-day period. In the 2001 census, collectors may be allocated more than one urban district because of their size. In urban areas collection districts average about 220 dwellings, in rural areas the number of dwellings per collection district reduces as population densities decrease. For the 2001 census there were 37,209 collection districts and 1,353 Statistical Local Areas defined throughout Australia, the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and Privacy Act 1988 guarantee that no personally-identifiable information is released from the ABS to other government organisations, or the public.
However the ABS makes confidential census data available to researchers, who must make various legal commitments before being given access, in the 1970s there was public debate about privacy and the census. In 1979 the Law Reform Commission reported on Privacy and the Census, one of the key elements under question was the inclusion of names. It was found that excluding names reduced the accuracy of the data, individuals were likely to leave questions blank
Randwick, New South Wales
Randwick is a suburb in the Eastern Suburbs of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Randwick is located 6 kilometres south-east of the Sydney central business district and is the centre for the local government area of the City of Randwick. Randwick is part of the Eastern Suburbs region, Randwick was named after the village of Randwick, England, birthplace of Simeon Henry Pearce, who became Mayor of Randwick no less than six times. Simeon and his brother James, who migrated to Australia in 1842, were responsible for the development of Randwick as well as suburb Coogee. Simeon lived in a house called Blenheim, which can still be seen in Blenheim Street and it was neglected for some time but was eventually acquired by Randwick Council and restored. Proclaimed as a Municipality in February 1859, as a City in 1990 Randwick has a history and great natural beauty including a number of fine. Another Mayor of Randwick, George Kiss, built the house known as Ventnor in the 1870s, a two-storey sandstone house, Ventnor is situated on Avoca Street, overlooking Coogee.
It is now owned by the nearby Our Lady of the Sacred Heart Church, other buildings of note include the St Judes Church group, on Avoca Street. Originally designed by Edmund Blacket, the church was completed in 1865 and it was modified by H. M. Robinson in 1889. The rectory next door was built in 1870, the Vergers Residence, designed by Thomas Rowe and completed in 1862, was the original Randwick Burough Chambers. This distinctive building, with its Gothic touches, was followed by the present Randwick Town Hall, the church group and Ventnor are listed on the Register of the National Estate. Further down Avoca Street is the building originally known as the Star and Garter Inn. It was the home of Captain J. Watson, who was responsible for the memorial to Captain James Cook, one of the dominant features of the area is the Prince of Wales Hospital, which started life as a home for destitute children. It was financed by the legacy of Dr. Cuthill, who now has Cuthill Street named after him, in 1915 the home became a military hospital and continued to grow as a medical facility.
Other noteworthy buildings include private homes like Ilfracombe and Torquay, in Avoca Street, the latter was built 1884-84 on part of St Marks Glebe. The land had been leased in 1880 for 99 years to S. Holmes, the house features Tudor and Gothic elements and has stained glass windows. It has been described as a rare and distinctive example of late Victorian Gothic architecture retaining most of its detailing intact. It has a New South Wales heritage listing, another notable home was Sandgate, located in Belmore Road
Postcodes in Australia
Postcodes are used in Australia to more efficiently sort and route mail within the postal system. All postcodes in Australia have four digits and are placed at the end of the Australian address, Australian postcodes are managed by Australia Post. Postcodes are published in booklets available from post offices or online from the Australia Post website, Australian envelopes and postcards often have four square boxes printed in orange at the bottom right for the postcode. These are used when addressing mail by hand, use of the Australian postcode system commenced in 1967, implemented by the Postmaster-Generals Department, now called Australia Post. It replaced earlier postal sorting systems, such as Melbournes letter and number codes, if addressing a letter from outside Australia, the postcode is recorded before Australia. They are often linked with one area, due to post code rationalization, But are now sometimes they can be quite complex, especially in country areas. The south-western Victoria 3221 postcode of the Geelong Mail Centre includes twenty places around Geelong with very few people and this means that mail for these places is not fully sorted until it gets to Geelong.
Some postcodes cover large populations, while other postcodes have much smaller populations, Australian postcodes range from 0200 for the Australian National University to 9944 for Cannonvale, Queensland. Some towns and suburbs have two postcodes — one for deliveries and one for post office boxes. g. The Royal Brisbane and Womens Hospital has the postcode 4029, the Australian National University had the postcode 0200, more postcode ranges were made available for LVRs in the 1990s. Australia Post has been progressively discontinuing the LVR programme since 2006, Australian National Universitys postcode 0200 was the last LVR to be closed in September 2014. For example, postcode 2620 covers both a locality in NSW as well as a locality in the ACT, and postcode 0872 covers a number of localities across WA, SA, NT and QLD. Jervis Bay Territory, once an exclave of the ACT but now a territory, is geographically located on the coast of NSW. It is just south of the towns of Vincentia and Huskisson, Mail to the Jervis Bay Territory is still addressed to the ACT.
The numbers used to show the state on each radio callsign in Australia are the number as the first number for postcodes in that state, e. g. 2xx in New South Wales, 3xx in Victoria. Radio callsigns pre-date postcodes in Australia by more than forty years, australias external territories are included in Australia Posts postcode system. Capital city postcodes were the lowest postcodes in their state or territory range, before new ranges for LVRs, postcodes with the same second number are not always next to each other. As an example, postcodes in the range 2200–2299 are split between the suburbs of Sydney and the Central Coast of New South Wales